WHO INVENTED THE COMPUTER? Many inventors contributed to the history of computers A computer is a complex piece of machinery made up of many parts Each of which can be considered a separate invention.
First Programmable Computer The Z3 By:KONRAD ZUSE Uses binary math And Boolean logic In 1941 Fully functional
The Harvard Mark 1 was 1/2 the length of a football field contained 500 miles of wiring operated at 5 instructions/second
ENIAC Created in 1945 Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer Required enough energy to dim the lights of Philadelphia when it was run. operated at 5000 instructions per second weighed 30 tons
I think there is a world market for maybe five computers. -- Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943 Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons. -- Popular Mechanics, 1949
Vacuum Tubes Early computers used vacuum tubes.
Replacing a bad tube meant checking ENIAC’s 19,000 possibilities
The First Transistors Or electronic switches Developed by: Bell Telephone Laboratories They replaced a computer’s vacuum tube in1956. In 1945
The IBM Stretch -1956 transistors replaced vacuum tubes cost: $3.5 million operated at 50,000 instructions per second
The IBM Stretch The first to: Provide multiprogramming – do more than one task at a time. Memory interleaving, breaking up memory into chunks for much higher bandwidth. line up instructions in a queue, so that the computer doesn’t have to wait between operations Provide security which prevents unauthorized memory access Establish the eight-bit byte
Programming Language-1957 COBOL, FORTRAN Used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine Computers operating at 100,000 instructions /second
The First Integrated Circuits - 1958 Modern Integrated circuits Allows a computer to get smaller, faster, cheaper
RAM -1970 The first memory chip contained more than 1,000 bits of information
Floppy Disks - 1971 The first 8" floppy diskette Held 79.7 kb of memory
Commercially Available Minicomputers – 1970’s & 1980’s
Apple I - 1976 First single circuit board computer 8k of RAM Only 200 Apple I ‘s were built and sold
Apple II - 1977 First built in Operating System Process 1 million Instructions/ second (1 MHz) Could store 4,000 characters (4 KB of RAM)
Video Games -1970 Video games drove the demand for better and more affordable computers.
IMB - 1981 First computer to come with a keyboard, monitor & printer.
Commodore 64 -1982 64 kilobytes of memory (64,000 characters) 16 colors two bitmap graphics modes Directly plugged into a television
Apple - 1984 Could store 128,000 characters (128kb of RAM) Process 16 million instructions/second (16.67 MHz)
There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home. --Ken Olson, CEO, Digital Equipment Corp., 1977
1990’s Personal computers are operating at 1-2 GHz That’s 1 billion to 2 billion instructions /second. RAM was anywhere from 64 to 128 MB Memory for 128 million characters.
If automobiles improved with the same rate as computers then our car would… cost: $4,000 fuel efficiency: 20,000 mpg top speed: 60,000 mph reliability: break every 70 years seating: 10,000 people
Moore's Law Computer speed roughly doubles every 18 months