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The History Of Computers

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A recap of the history of a computer.

A recap of the history of a computer.

Published in: Technology, Business

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  • 1. The History of Computers
    By Karen Edoff
  • 2. WHO INVENTED THE COMPUTER?
    Many inventors contributed
    to the history of computers
    A computer is a complex
    piece of machinery
    made up of many parts
    Each of which can be considered
    a separate invention.
  • 3. Lets explore those inventions
  • 4. PREHISTORIC
  • 5. The Abacus
    Simple counting aid
    Invented in the
    4th century B.C.
  • 6. The Modern Abacus
    Used for :
    multiplication
    division
    addition
    subtraction
    square root
    and cube root
    Still used in
    Asia and Africa
  • 7. MECHANICAL
  • 8. Pascal’s Calculator
    The first calculator
    Invented in 1694
    Very simple gears
    Added up to 6 digits
  • 9. Problem..
    not accurate
    couldn’t subtract or divide
  • 10. Arithmometer -1820
    Finally a machine that could
    Add
    Subtract
    Multiply and
    Divide
    RELIABLY
  • 11. Still Problems…
    All mechanical calculators had moving parts that were slow and could break down.
  • 12. ELECTRONICAL
  • 13. First Programmable Computer
    The Z3
    By:KONRAD ZUSE
    Uses binary math
    And Boolean logic
    In 1941
    Fully functional
  • 14. The Harvard Mark 1
    was 1/2 the length of a football field
    contained 500 miles of wiring
    operated at 5 instructions/second
  • 15. ENIAC
    Created in 1945
    Electronic
    Numerical
    Integrator
    Analyzer and
    Computer
    Required enough energy to dim the lights of Philadelphia when it was run.
    operated at 5000 instructions per second
    weighed 30 tons
  • 16. I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.   -- Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943
    Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons.   -- Popular Mechanics, 1949
  • 17. Vacuum Tubes
    Early computers used
    vacuum tubes.
  • 18. Replacing a bad tube meant checking ENIAC’s 19,000 possibilities
  • 19. The First Transistors
    Or electronic switches
    Developed by:
    Bell Telephone Laboratories
    They replaced a computer’s vacuum tube in1956.
    In 1945
  • 20. The IBM Stretch -1956
    transistors replaced vacuum tubes
    cost: $3.5 million
    operated at 50,000 instructions per second
  • 21. The IBM Stretch
    The first to:
    Provide multiprogramming –
    do more than one task at a time.
    Memory interleaving, breaking up memory into chunks for much higher bandwidth.
    line up instructions in a queue, so that the computer doesn’t have to wait between operations
    Provide security which prevents unauthorized memory access
    Establish the eight-bit byte
  • 22. Programming Language-1957
    COBOL, FORTRAN
    Used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine
    Computers operating at 100,000 instructions /second
  • 23. The First Integrated Circuits - 1958
    Modern
    Integrated circuits
    Allows a computer to get smaller, faster, cheaper
  • 24. RAM -1970
    The first
    memory chip
    contained more than 1,000 bits of information
  • 25. Floppy Disks - 1971
    The first 8" floppy diskette
    Held 79.7 kb
    of memory
  • 26. Commercially Available Minicomputers –
    1970’s & 1980’s
  • 27. Apple I - 1976
    First single circuit board computer
    8k of RAM
    Only 200
    Apple I ‘s
    were built and sold
  • 28. Apple II - 1977
    First built in Operating System
    Process 1 million
    Instructions/ second
    (1 MHz)
    Could store
    4,000 characters
    (4 KB of RAM)
  • 29. Video Games -1970
    Video games drove the demand for better and more affordable computers.
  • 30. IMB - 1981
    First computer to come with a keyboard, monitor & printer.
  • 31. Commodore 64 -1982
    64 kilobytes of memory
    (64,000 characters)
    16 colors
    two bitmap graphics modes
    Directly plugged into a television
  • 32. Apple - 1984
    Could store 128,000 characters
    (128kb of RAM)
    Process 16 million
    instructions/second
    (16.67 MHz)
  • 33. There is no reason anyone would
    want a computer in their home.
       --Ken Olson, CEO, Digital Equipment Corp., 1977
  • 34. 1990’s
    Personal computers are operating at 1-2 GHz
    That’s 1 billion to 2 billion instructions /second.
    RAM was anywhere from 64 to 128 MB
    Memory for 128 million characters.
  • 35. If automobiles improved with the same rate as computers then our car would…
    cost: $4,000
    fuel efficiency: 20,000 mpg
    top speed: 60,000 mph
    reliability: break every 70 years
    seating: 10,000 people
  • 36. Moore's Law
    Computer speed roughly doubles every 18 months
  • 37. Moore’s Law
    Clock Frequency (MHz)
    Time (yr)
  • 38. 2000’s
    More computers are sold than televisions
  • 39. Early 2000’s
    Approximately 1 billion
    computers have been
    sold since 1970
    USB 2.0
    Windows XP
    Ipods
    Dot com craze
    Store information
    On CD’s and DVD’s
    X-box
    AOL has over 28 million members
  • 40. Early 2000’s
    Which is 2 billion to 4 billion instructions/second
    Operating at 2-4 GHz
    Average RAM is 350 Gb
    Or 350 billion
    characters
    Most computers now have
    Duo or quad processors
  • 41. Late 2000’s
    Skype
    My Space has
    106 million accounts
    Flash Drives
    Facebook has over
    300 million accounts
    Blue Ray
    Windows Vista
    HD
    I-phone
    I- Mac
    You Tube
    Google
  • 42. Late 2000’s
    Quad processors
    with 8 Mb of RAM
    750 Gb -1 Tb
    hard drive
    DVD±RW/CD-RW
    Bluetooth
    Wireless
    Webcam
    3D graphics
    LCD monitors
  • 43. That’s not all
  • 44. Late 2000’s
    All in one
    TOUCH SCREEN
    computer by HP
    Mac touch netbook
  • 45. Media Tablets –Archos 7
    128 MB RAM
    Weight:23oz 
    Touch screen
    16 million colors  
    320 GB
    Only 7 in
    WiFi
    Battery life: 39 hours (music)
  • 46. Late
    2000’s
    I-phone
    MP3 Players
    Mac Air
    Netbooks
  • 47. The Future?
    Imagine the possibilities…
  • 48. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    http://www97.intel.com/en/TheJourneyInside/ExploreTheCurriculum/EC_IntroductionToComputers/ICLesson1/
    http://inventors.about.com/library/blcoindex.htm
    http://www.pbs.org/nerds/timeline/elec.html
    http://www.xnumber.com/xnumber/mechlist.htm
    http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/farid/teaching/cs4/summer.08/notes/historyofcomputing/
    http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/25079.wss
    http://www.computerhope.com/history/196080.htm
    http://www.computerhope.com/history/2000.htm