In this presentation, I will:Discuss what classroom response systems are and their benefitsHighlight a web-based tool called Poll Everywhere and demo how easy it is to useDiscuss the types of questions that can be asked in any classroom setting, providing examplesOffer some best practices for implementing classroom response systems into your own classroom settings
If this image looks familiar in some of your classes,
Or if students seem to be less engaged, it may be a good opportunity to add something new to your teaching toolkit
In order to foster more active, reflective classroom environments, try integrating classroom response systems into your toolkit.
Why classroom response systems?
Classroom response systems allow students to answer multiple choice or free response questions
Classroom response systems enable students to respond anonymously
Classroom response systems invite students to think individually – their answers are not influenced by the input of other students
Classroom response systems test students’ retention of concepts
Classroom response systems display polling results immediately
Options for using the devices that students already have or may have: their hands, actual clicker devices (like the ones created by TurningPoint), and mobile devicesPerks and pitfalls of each:Hands: Perk – Inexpensive, easy, and quickPitfall – Aura of anonymity is removed; cannot easily collect responses for later assessmentClickers:Perk – dynamic; interactive; can collect responses for later assessmentPitfall – Expense of purchasing device (borne by student and/or university); can be lost/grow legs; requires software downloaded on computer workstation; some older versions can only accommodate multiple choice polls; some learning curve for students/instructorsMobile devices:Perk – Many students already own a device and know how to use it, reducing technology fees; can often collect responses for later assessment; dynamic; versatile; interactive; fun factorPitfall – Some students may not own a device or, if they do, may have forgotten to bring it to class; any related texting or data service fees; web/tech snafus; tempting distraction
Poll Everywhere - http://www.polleverywhere.com/
Poll Everywhere:Is web-basedIs free for instructors and students to use (at least the first 40 responses are free; no limit on the number of polls can create)Utilizes technology that students already haveCreates multiple choice and free-text pollsIntegrates with other instructional tools, such as MS PowerPoint and Apple’s KeynoteEnables students to have a more reflective voice in the classroom, especially with the use of the free-text polls
Three easy steps to poll students in real-time:Ask audience a question with the Poll Everywhere appAudience answers in real time using mobile phones, Twitter, or web browserSee your response live on the web or in a PowerPoint or Keynote presentationDemonstration of how to create and edit various polls, plus how to make them available to students
Demonstration of how to create and edit various polls, plus how to make them available to students
On the Poll Everywhere website, there is a chart available, comparing Poll Everywhere with other, similar web-based classroom response systems. Some of the categories used to compare include pricing, reliability, experience, ways to respond, poll functionality (multiple, free-text, visuals), support, etc.
There are limitations to Poll Everywhere, of course:Students may not have device with or own oneCosts associated with textingUnpredictability aspect – students can and will type just about everythingWeb/Techunpredictability
Types of QuestionsHavingand using classroom response systems is great, but it is the kinds of questions you ask which are more important to creating effective learning environmentsAsking good questions can be tricky
In his book, Teaching with Classroom Response Systems, Derek Bruff categorizes types of questions to employ with classroom response systems into two main categories: Content Questions Process Questions Content questions directly assess student learning and can be used during and following instruction Process questions gather information from students on how they interact with each other and interpret course material. Think of them as meta-cognitive, “in the moment” questions.
There are five (5) types of Content questions: Recall Questions Conceptual Understanding Questions Application Questions Critical Thinking Questions Free Response Questions
Recallquestions: asks students to remember facts, concepts proceduresDoes not assess students’ understanding, merely their memory Does not often generate productive class discussions
Examples:Where in the library do you go to check out books?How long can you check out a DVD?What is the url for the library catalog?
Conceptual understanding questions: Asks students to recall facts and associate concepts Useful for uncovering student misconceptions
Examples:What is the journal title in this citation?Buchman, Dana. “A Special Education.” Good Housekeeping Mar. 2006: 143-48. Print. A Special Education Good Housekeeping PrintWhich of the following statements best explains an abstract? An abstract is a summary of an article An abstract is bibliographic information (author, title, journal title, etc.) An abstract is a quote from an article
Application questions: Asks students to recall rules/theories and then apply them to concrete scenarios Allows students to make connections between course content and personal lives Common types of application questions include procedural and prediction questions
Examples:How much advance time did you give yourself to research for your last paper? two weeks one week 2-3 days I started the night before the paper was due followed byPredict how much time you think your classmates gave themselves.
Critical thinking questions: Requires students to analyze relationships among multiple concepts or make evaluations based on specific criteria Students’ reasoning is valued more than actual answer Lends itself more to free-response questions rather than multiple choice multiple choice questions worded as “one-best answer questions” can work well too
Examples:Which do you think is the best combination of keywords to search for information about the effects of the media on teenagers’ perceptions of body image? body image and media teenagers and body image and television teenagers and body image and media (teens or teenagers) and body image and media
Free response questions: Assesses students’ abilities to create, generate, or produce something responses can be trickier to aggregate and may require additional time to make sense of
Examples:When it comes to public opinion polls, what makes you trust the numeric data?Give a situation when you would choose to quote a source versus paraphrase a source.
Content questions progress on a spectrum, gradually becoming more engaging and critical as students recall content, apply to their own lives, put into practice, and create something new
PROCESS QUESTIONSProcess questions are used to gather info form students on how they interact with one another in class and with course content. They DO NOT assess student learning. They are largely for instructor – gauge how things are going in the moment. They help instructor get to know students more – experience levels, background, etc. Can serve as backchannel.STUDENT PERSPECTIVE QUESTIONSHelp instructors get to know their students (also useful for students to get to know one another, too)Helps instructors tailor learning experiences to the unique makeup of students in the momentUseful at the beginning of a class, similar to an ice-breakerMight be questions related to student demographics, opinions, or personal/past experiencesCONFIDENCE LEVEL QUESTIONSGets students to assess their own learning (What do I know, not know?)Can piggyback off of a content question (e.g. “How confident are you in your answer to the previous questions?”)MONITORING QUESTIONSCan serve to monitor aspects of student learning experience beyond comprehension and confidence levels. Can serve as backchannel during lecture/lesson (e.g. “How am I doing?” “How are you doing?”)CLASSROOM EXPERIMENT QUESTIONSOften used to facilitate classroom experiments (like in the social sciences)
Best PracticesExplain to students why you’re using classroom response systemsAlign question to learning outcomes – don’t use technology for the sake of technologyConsider number and types of questions used3-4 questions per 50minute session, spaced 10-20 minutes apart is a good rule of thumb
Best Practices, contd.Keep wording of questions simpleBuild in time for discussion and debriefing during and following each question (try using think-pair-share and/or re-polling techniques)Collect and analyze data for future revisions
Questions? Thank you!Slidedeck available at: slideshare.net/kmdevoe
Phoning It In: Using Classroom Response Systems
Image by ramyo. Available at https://flic.kr/p/5Bj6fT
PHONING IT IN:
Kristina De Voe, English & Communications Librarian
Hashtags: #TempleTTS #CRS
Image by Rob Swatski. Available at https://flic.kr/p/cK7qFw
CLASSROOM RESPONSE SYSTEMS
TYPES OF QUESTIONS
IMPLEMENTATION BEST PRACTICES
Image by Tadeeej. Available at https://flic.kr/p/5Vj5Nf
Image by allegraxoheart. Available at https://flic.kr/p/9fZJky
HOW ABOUT THIS?
Image by Earthworm. Available at https://flic.kr/p/fjVHCX
WHY CLASSROOM RESPONSE SYSTEMS ?
Image by Scott McLeod. Available at https://flic.kr/p/bTQwfx
ALLOW STUDENTS TO ANSWER MULTIPLE CHOICE OR
FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS
Image by Oliver Tacke Available at https://flic.kr/p/jBXjsF Image available at http://bit.ly/JG5f3W
ENABLE STUDENTS TO RESPOND ANONYMOUSLY
Image by Adam Bronkhorst. Available at http://bit.ly/1lWd1o0
INIVITE STUDENTS TO THINK INDIVIDUALLY
Image by Jorund Myhre. Available at https://flic.kr/p/6iy46e
TEST STUDENTS’ RETENTION OF CONCEPTS
Image by cohdra. Available at http://mrg.bz/966s7I
DISPLAY RESULTS IMMEDIATELY
Image by Klas-Goran Photo. Available at https://flic.kr/p/gouj3k
FREE FOR INSTRUCTORS &
(first 40 responses)
CHOICE & FREE-
ENABLES STUDENTS TO
HAVE A MORE
REFLECTIVE VOICE IN
RE LI ABILITY
E XPE RI ENCE
WAY S TO RE SPON D
POLL FUN CTI ON ALITY
FRE E -TE XT
Image by @Doug88888. Available at https://flic.kr/p/5uZ6s8
TYPES OF QUESTIONS
Image by missyredboots. Available at http://mrg.bz/L5i2uh
D I R E C T L Y A S S E S S
S T U D E N T L E A R N I N G
G A T H E R I N F O F R O M S T U D E N T S
O N H O W T H E Y I N T E R A C T WI T H
E A C H O T H E R A N D
C O U R S E M A T E R I A L
WHAT IS THE JOURNAL TITLE IN THIS CITATION?
Buchman, Dana. “A Special Education.”
Good Housekeeping Mar. 2006: 143-48. Print.
• A Special Education
• Good Housekeeping
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS BEST
EXPLAINS AN ABSTRACT?
• An abstract is a summary of an article
• An abstract is bibliographic information
(author, title, journal title, etc.)
• An abstract is a quote from an article
Image by nesquivel. Available at http://mrg.bz/ZuuvhN
HOW MUCH ADVANCE TIME DID YOU GIVE
YOURSELF TO RESEARCH FOR YOUR LAST
• TWO WEEKS
• ONE WEEK
• 2-3 DAYS
• I STARTED THE NIGHT BEFORE THE PAPER WAS DUE
PREDICT HOW MUCH TIME YOU THINK YOUR
CLASSMATES GAVE THEMSELVES.
Image available at http://www.leftcoastrebel.com/
WHICH DO YOU THINK IS THE BEST
COMBINATION OF KEYWORDS TO SEARCH
FOR INFORMATION ABOUT THE EFFECTS OF
THE MEDIA ON TEENAGERS’ PERCEPTIONS
OF BODY IMAGE?
• body image and media
• teenagers and body image and television
• teenagers and body image and media
• (teens or teenagers) and body image and
Image by John. Available at https://flic.kr/p/e4nryS
WHEN IT COMES TO PUBLIC OPINION
POLLS, WHAT MAKES YOU TRUST NUMERIC
GIVE A SITUATION WHEN YOU WOULD
CHOOSE TO QUOTE A SOURCE VERSUS
PARAPHRASE A SOURCE.
Image by R. E. ~. Available at http://bit.ly/1oBF1ik
EXPLAIN TO STUDENTS WHY YOU’RE USING CRS
ALIGN QUESTION TO LEARNING OUTCOMES –
DON’T USE TECH FOR THE SAKE OF TECH
CONSIDER NUMBER AND TYPES OF QUESTIONS
3-4 questions per 50min session, spaced 10-20mins
KEEP WORDING OF QUESTIONS SIMPLE
BUILD IN TIME FOR DISCUSSION AND
DEBRIEFING DURING AND FOLLOWING
COLLECT AND ANALYZE DATA FOR FUTURE
Image by Rob Swatski. Available at https://flic.kr/p/cvsHxy
Image by ramyo. Available at https://flic.kr/p/5Bj6fT
Slidedeck available at:
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.