Conflict Diamonds in the African Nations• Angola• Botswana*• Central African Republic• Democratic Republic of Congo• Ivory Coast• Liberia• Namibia*• Sierra Leone• South Africa*• Tanzania* * Diamonds have never been used to fund conflict.
The Diamond Pipeline: From the Mine to the Customer• In 1998 the diamond industry produced 115 million carats of rough diamonds.• This was converted into 67.1 million pieces of jewelry.
The Significance of Conflict Diamonds• Conflict diamonds have fueled an 11 year war in Sierra Leone.• During the war, about 20% of diamonds sold were from conflict.
RUF and the War in Sierra Leone 1991-1999• Revolutionary United Front (RUF) launched war in 1991 to overthrow the government.• In 1992, RUF was successful in their mission.• However, the attacks continued.
Hope for the Sierra Leonean People• April 1996- Presidential and Parliamentary elections were held in hopes that a civilian government would reconcile issues with RUF.• Ahmad TejanKabbah was elected President.• Conflict continued through elections as RUF refused to acknowledge the new powers. – The Armed Forces Revolutionary Council overthrew Kabbah on May 25,1997.
The Conflict Continues...• Kabbah returns to power in March 1998 with the help of Nigerian forces.• RUF was then offered a peace agreement from Kabbah.• RUF accepted but refused to comply.• In 1999, a “re-charged” RUF emerged.
Revolutionary United Front RUF -12 year old SaiduKargbo was captured by the rebels when he was 6. “No more slaves, nomore masters. Power and wealth to the people.”
RUF Emerges• 3 founders• Unique political views: RUF did not associate itself with any one in particular.• Promised a “bright future”• Goals: end economic hardship and create a multiparty government• RUF became ruthless and cruel in order to keep the power of Sierra Leone.
RUF Atrocities• Child soldiers• Mutilation and amputation• Massacres• Murder• Rape"Diamonds might have beenour blessing, but they haveturned out to be our worstcurse,"-Desmond Luke
“The Future is in your Hands.” -1996 Elections But without hands, you have no future.
Human Impacts• From 1991-2001, approximately 70,000 people had been killed.• 55% of the population live in conflict areas.• Over 1,800 amputees• 470,000 refugees • Fled to Guinea and Liberia
Hope for Sierra Leone 1999-2005• The UN intervened in •In 2004, war crime 1999 and a ceasefire trials began and the is granted to first local elections in Freetown. over three years were• Rebels again overtake held. Freetown in 2000. •December 2005, the• In 2001, rebels begin very last UN troops to disarm leave.• January 2002, war is declared over.
Solutions• The key is for the diamond trade and governments to communicate.• The Kimberley Process• The Clean Diamond Trade Act
The Kimberley Process• Set up and ratified by the members of the UN• Created the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme• As of 2009, there were 75 countries involved.• Internal certification of all diamonds• Import/ Export certification• Governments must certify the origin of rough diamonds.
The Role of the United States• The U.S. purchases 65% of the world diamond supply.• The U.S. must take the lead in to end the trade of conflict diamonds. “We must protect the American purchases of love from the subsidies of terror,” Rory E. Anderson
BibliographyOnline Articles:“Background Note: Sierra Leone.” Bureau of African Affairs. U.S. Department of State. 1 Aug 2011. Web. 15 Sept 2011. “In Sierra Leone: Darkness, Not Diamonds’ Dazzle.” Freetown Journal. New York Times. 9 Oct 1995. Web. 14 Sept 2011.“Timeline: Sierra Leone.” BBC News. BBC News, 7 May 2011. Web. 14 Sept 2011.Speech:Anderson, Rory E. “Conflict Diamonds: Funding Conflict, Fueling Change.” U.S. Department of State. 10 Oct 2001. World Vision. Web. 15 Sept 2011.Documentary:Reid, Dominic Cunningham, narr. Diamonds of War: Africa’s Blood Diamonds. National Geographic, 2003. DVD.Internet : “Background.” UNAMSIL: United Nations mission in Sierra Leone. 2005.http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unamsil/background.html , Web. 15 Sept 2011.“Diamond Producing Countries in Africa: Fact Sheet.” World Diamond Council.Diamondfacts.org, Web. 15 Sept 2011.“The Kimberley Process.” SimpleFolio. http://blooddiamonds.org/the-kimberley-process. Web. 15 Sept 2011.