The Tragedy of Hamlet,Prince of Denmark William Shakespeare
Note0 This is a condensed version of the original version shown in the class connect.0 Please refer to the recording for the full effect!!
0 Click on the websites to check your understanding of Act 1 or just have some fun and learn some trivia!0 Test-Yourself Reading Quiz on Hamlet (Acts I & II)0 http://public.wsu.edu/~campbelld/amlit/quiz/hamquizc .htm0 Hamlet Act 1 and 2 test:0 http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php? title=hamlet-act-1-act-2-test
Key Ideas and Details Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflictingmotivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme. Craft and Structure Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text,including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact ofspecific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).
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The Tragedy of Hamlet: Background •The period in which Shakespeare wrote is called the Elizabethan period. Queen Elizabeth was the head of the royal family (1558–1603). •The queen saw many of Shakespeare’s plays in special court performances.
The Tragedy of Hamlet: Background Shakespeare may have used the Hamlet story—and other plays that featured murdered kings—to reflect the concerns of his own time. To the Elizabethans, social order was very important, yet there had been political and religious conflicts before and during Elizabeth’s rule. Hamlet depicts a conflict over what to do when an orderly state is actually corrupt inside and there seems to be no civilized answer.
The Tragedy of Hamlet: Background The audience expected to combine their imagination with the stage effects before them to see the play’s action. Shakespeare’s plays often contain clues in the dialogue to indicate time of day or place. However, the plays often used dramatic effects, such as flying actors on a wire above the stage, as well.
HOW DO PLAYS OF THEN COMPARE TO TODAY’S PLAYS AND THEATERS?
THE TRAGEDY OF HAMLET: BACKGROUNDThe theater had twotrapdoors. One, above thestage, allowed the actors todescend from the heavens.The other door was on thestage and often indicated adoorway to hell.The ghost in Hamlet enteredthe play through the trapdooron the stage.
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of DenmarkWilliam Shakespeare
The Tragedy of Hamlet: IntroductionThere’s something rotten in the state of Denmark . . .
The Tragedy of Hamlet: Introduction Prince Hamlet returns home from university to discover that his father is dead and his mother has married his uncle Claudius.And now Claudiushas declaredhimself king.
The Tragedy of Hamlet: IntroductionAs if that’s not badenough, the ghost ofhis father appears toHamlet . . .He tells Hamlet that he’sbeen murdered by Claudiusand demands that Hamletget revenge.
The Tragedy of Hamlet: Introduction What should Hamlet do? Instead of jumping into any action, Hamlet broods over his options— and then starts acting very strange.
The Tragedy of Hamlet: IntroductionHe starts talking inriddles.He acts cruelly toOphelia, a girl wholoves him.He’s suspicious ofeveryone.
The Tragedy of Hamlet: Introduction ASK YOURSELF! Should he kill his Is he insane? Or uncle? faking insanity?Why is Hamlet acting Will he make up his like this? mind to take action?
The Tragedy of Hamlet: Background The language of the play is unrhymed. This iscalled blank verse or now it is called free rhyme.However, it is based on a pattern called iambic pentameter.
Iambic pentameter0 A commonly used metrical line in traditional verse and verse drama.0 The term describes the particular rhythm that the words establish in that line.0 That rhythm is measured in small groups of syllables; these small groups of syllables are called "feet".0 The word "iambic" describes the type of foot that is used (in English, an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable).0 The word "pentameter" indicates that a line has five of these "feet."
The Tragedy of Hamlet: Background Like dance or rock music, iambic pentameter is based on a beat that is pleasing to the ear.• It includes an unstressed syllable followed by an stressed syllable: “To BE or NOT to BE . . .”• It matches the sound of a beating heart: daDUM daDUM
The Tragedy of Hamlet: Background Hamlet is filled with imagery of:• decay and death• corruption anddishonesty• reality versus unreality
Act 1 Scene 10 Outside Elsinore Castle in Denmark, Bernardo comes to relieves Francisco. Bernardo hears a footstep near him and cries, “Who’s there?” ….. But it is nothing….Bernardo and prepares to go home and go to bed.0 what literary elements are these?0 Bernardo is joined by Marcellus, and Horatio. They discuss the apparition Bernardo and Marcellus have seen for the past two nights: the ghost of the recently deceased King Hamlet0 http://viewpure.com/U-NLnsq3P7Y
Act 1 Scene 10 Horatio is skeptical, but then the ghost suddenly appears before the men and just as suddenly vanishes.0 Terrified, Horatio acknowledges that the ghost looks like the dead King of Denmark.0 . Horatio declares that the ghost must bring warning of impending misfortune for Denmark, perhaps in the form of a military attack.0 He talks about the story of King Hamlet’s conquest of certain lands once belonging to Norway, saying that Fortinbras, the young Prince of Norway, now seeks to reconquer those forfeited lands.
Act 1 Scene 10 The ghost materializes for a second time, and Horatio tries to speak to it. The ghost remains silent, however, and disappears again just as the rooster crows at the first hint of dawn.0 Horatio suggests that they tell Prince Hamlet, the dead king’s son, about the apparition. He believes that though the ghost did not speak to him, if it is really the ghost of King Hamlet, it will not refuse to speak to his beloved son.
Act 1 Scene 20 The morning after Marcellus, Bernardo, and Horatio see the ghost, King Claudius gives a speech to his courtiers.0 He explains the he recently married Gertrude, his brother’s widow and the mother of Prince Hamlet. Claudius tells them that he mourns his brother but has chosen to balance Denmark’s sadness with the happiness of his marriage.0 He mentions that young Fortinbras has written to him, boldly demanding that Denmark give up the lands King Hamlet won from Fortinbras’s father0 Calaudius sends Cornelius and Voltimand with a message for the King of Norway, Fortinbras’s elderly uncle.
Act 1 Scene 20 Attention is turned to Laertes, Polonius’s son,. Laertes wants to return to France, where he was staying before his return to Denmark for Claudius’s coronation. Polonius gives his son permission, and Claudius grants Laertes his consent as well.0 Claudius turns his attention to Hamlet and asks why “the clouds still hang” upon him, because Hamlet is still wearing black mourning clothes (I.ii.66).0 Gertrude (Hamlet’s mom) urges him to take off his “nightly colour,” but he replies bitterly that his inner sorrow is so great that his dour appearance is merely a poor mirror of it (I.ii.68).
Act 1 Scene 20 Taking a fatherly tone, Claudius states that all fathers die, and all sons must lose their fathers. When a son loses a father, he is duty-bound to mourn, but to mourn for too long is unmanly and inappropriate. Claudius urges Hamlet to think of him as a father, reminding the prince that he stands in line to succeed to the throne upon Claudius’s death.0 With this in mind, Claudius says that he does not wish for Hamlet to return to school at Wittenberg (where he had been studying before his father’s death), as Hamlet has asked to do. Gertrude echoes her husband, professing a desire for Hamlet to remain close to her. Hamlet stiffly agrees to obey her.
First SoliloquyPg 14-15O that this too too solid flesh would melt, Let me not think ont, — Frailty, thy name isThaw, and resolve itself into a dew! woman!Or that the Everlasting had not fixd A little month; or ere those shoes were oldHis canon gainst self-slaughter! O God! O God! With which she followed my poor fathers bodyHow weary, stale, flat, and unprofitable Like Niobe, all tears; — why she, even she,Seem to me all the uses of this world! O God! a beast that wants discourse of reason,Fie ont! O fie! tis an unweeded garden, Would have mournd longer, — married withThat grows to seed; things rank and gross in mine uncle,nature My fathers brother; but no more like myPossess it merely. That it should come to this! fatherBut two months dead! — nay, not so much, not Than I to Hercules: within a month;two: Ere yet the salt of most unrighteous tearsSo excellent a king; that was, to this, Had left the flushing in her galled eyes,Hyperion to a satyr; so loving to my mother, She married: — O, most wicked speed, to postThat he might not beteem the winds of heaven With such dexterity to incestuous sheets!Visit her face too roughly. Heaven and earth! It is not, nor it cannot come to good;Must I remember? Why, she would hang on But break my heart, — for I must hold myhimAs if increase of appetite had grown tongue!By what it fed on: and yet, within a month,
First Soliloquy0 This quotation, Hamlet’s first important soliloquy, occurs in Act I, scene ii (129–158).0 Hamlet speaks these lines after enduring the unpleasant scene at Claudius and Gertrude’s court,0 They then being ask him not to return to university at Wittenberg but to remain in Denmark, presumably against his wishes.0 Here, Hamlet thinks for the first time about suicide (desiring his flesh to “melt,” and wishing that God had not made “self- slaughter” a sin), saying that the world is “weary, stale, flat, and unprofitable.”
0 What he means is suicide seems like a better option to life in this pain filled world. Hamlet feels that the suicide not an option for him because it is not allowed in his religion.0 Hamlet then goes on to describe what is causing his pain 0 his intense disgust at his mother’s marriage to Claudius.0 He describes how fast they got married, noting that the shoes his mother wore to his father’s funeral were not worn out before her marriage to Claudius.0 He compares Claudius to his father (his father was “so excellent a king” while Claudius is a bestial “satyr”).
0 As he runs through his description of their marriage, he touches upon the important motifs of misogyny, by crying,0 “Frailty, thy name is woman”; incest, commenting that his mother moved “[w]ith such dexterity to incestuous sheets”; and the ominous omen the marriage represents for Denmark, that “[i]t is not nor it cannot come to good.”0 Each of these motifs recurs throughout the play.0 Motifs are recurring structures, contrasts, or literary devices that can help to develop and inform the texts major themes.
Motif of Misogyny0 Shattered by his mothers repugnant decision to marry Claudius so soon after her husbands death, Hamlet becomes extremely cynical, even neurotic, about women in general, showing a particular obsession with what he perceives to be a connection between female sexuality and moral corruption.
“Frailty, thy name is woman”0 This motif of misogyny, or hatred of women, occurs only sporadically throughout the play, but it is an important inhibiting factor in Hamlets relationships with Ophelia and Gertrude. He urges Ophelia to go to a nunnery rather than experience the corruptions of sexuality and exclaims of Gertrude, "Frailty, thy name is woman"
Act 1 Scene 20 Alone, Hamlet states that he wants to die, and wishes that he could evaporate and cease to exist. He wishes that God had not made suicide a sin.0 Beyond upset, he weeps about his father’s death and his mother’s quick marriage to his uncle. He remembers how deeply in love his parents seemed, and he curses the thought that now.0 Horatio, a friend of Hamlets, comes into the room with Marcellus and Bernardo. He then tells Hamlet that he, Marcellus, and Bernardo have seen what appears to be his father’s ghost. Stunned, Hamlet agrees to keep watch with them that night, in the hope that he will be able to speak to the apparition.
Act 1 Scene 3 & 40 In Polonius’s house, Laertes prepares to leave for France.0 While saying good-bye to his sister, Ophelia, he warns her about falling in love with Hamlet. He says Hamlet is too far above her by birth to be able to love her honorably.0 Since Hamlet has to be responsible for his own feelings and but for his position in the state, it may be impossible for him to marry her. Ophelia agrees to think about Laertes’ advice but urges him not to give her advice that he does not practice himself. Laertes reassures her that he will take care of himself.
Act 1 Scene 3 & 40 Polonius says good-bye to his son and gives him advice 0 behave with integrity and be practical 0 to keep his thoughts to himself 0 restrain himself from being impulsive 0 to be friendly to people and not rude. 0 to hold on to his old friends but be slow to embrace new friends 0 to be slow to quarrel but to fight boldly if the need arises 0 to listen more than he talks 0 to dress richly but not gaudily 0 to refrain from borrowing or lending money 0 and, finally, to be true to himself above all things.
Act 1 Scene 3 & 40 Laertes leaves, and Polonius is alone with Ophelia.0 Polonius asks Ophelia what Laertes told her before he left.0 Ophelia says that it was “something touching the Lord Hamlet” (I.ii.89).0 Polonius asks her about her relationship with Hamlet. She tells him that Hamlet claims to love her. Polonius agrees with Laertes’ advice, and forbids Ophelia to associate with Hamlet anymore.0 He tells her that Hamlet has deceived her in swearing his love, and that she should see through his false vows and rebuff his affections.0 Ophelia pledges to obey.
Act 1 Scene 50 It is now nighttime0 Hamlet is watching outside the castle with Horatio and Marcellus, waiting for the ghost to appear.0 Shortly after midnight, they hear trumpets and gunfire sound from the castle0 Hamlet explains that the new king is spending the night carousing, as is the Danish custom.0 Then the ghost appears, and Hamlet calls out to it. The ghost beckons Hamlet to follow it out into the night. His companions urge him not to follow, begging him to consider that the ghost might lead him toward harm.
Act 1 Scene 50 Hamlet himself is not sure if his father’s apparition is really the king’s spirit or an evil demon, but he declares does not care for his life and that, if his soul is immortal, the ghost can do nothing to harm his soul.0 He follows after the ghost and disappears into the darkness.0 Horatio and Marcellus, stunned, declare this is going to have a bad outcome for the nation.0 Horatio states that heaven will oversee the outcome of Hamlet’s encounter with the ghost, but Marcellus says that they should follow and try to protect him themselves.0 After a moment, Horatio and Marcellus follow after Hamlet and the ghost.0 End of act 1
The Tragedy of Hamlet: Discussion Starters Discuss (1) Hamlet is troubled by the marriage of his uncle to his mother and by his uncle becoming king. • Who would you expect to be king after Hamlet’s father dies? • If Hamlet were your friend, what advice would you give to him? • How does power shift in Hamlet’s family after his father’s death?Breakout Room – Split both discussions into groups of three – give white tools and monitor rooms
The Tragedy of Hamlet: Discussion StartersDiscuss (2)Hamlet believes that his father’s ghost is asking him to get revenge for his murder.• How would you react in this situation? Why?• Do you think revenge is a good response to criminal acts? Why or why not?
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ResourcesVideo Sparknoteshttp://viewpure.com/t0CqUTmwKiMNo Fear Shakespearehttp://nfs.sparknotes.com/hamlet/Hamlet act 1 scene 1http://viewpure.com/U-NLnsq3P7Y
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