Working to provide an exemplary individualized and engaging educational experience for all students.ENG403A Semester ReviewDr. McLauchlanENG403ABritish & World Literaturehttp://www.voki.com/pickup.php?scid=7254539&height=267&width=200
Standards• ELACC11-12RL4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, and beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)• ELACC11-12W7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem;• narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject• under investigation.• ELACC11-12RL7: Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry),• evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare as well as one play by an American• dramatist.)• ELACC11-12SL3: Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.• ELACC11-12L1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.• ELACC11-12L2: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
Essential Questions:• How does literature reflect the thinking, values, and human development of a specific historical time period?• How does language evolve?• How can connections between real-life and fictional experiences enhance narrative writing?
One of the earliest pieces of literature; an Old English epic poem revealing the warrior culture of the Anglo-Saxons that survived through oral tradition. No one knows who “wrote” BeowulfLike all early oral poetry, it had as many authors as singers who performed it.It is from this poem that we derive many of the details for our reconstructionsof Anglo- Saxon social life.
Key ideas…• Beowulf is ancient England’s hero, but he is also an archetype…. Or perfect example, of an epic hero.• The hero archetype in Beowulf is the dragon slayer, representing a besieged community facing evil forces that lurk in the cold darkness.• Grendel, the monster lurking in the depths of the lagoon, may represent those threatening forces.
Characteristics of the Epic Hero• Heroes embody the values important to a particular culture.• Heroic Qualities – Nobility, Strength, and/or Wisdom – Represents/Defends his or her race, culture, or nation – Mysterious or unusual birth (hero may not initially know)• Cultural Influences – The culture often values traits in the hero that reinforce the culture’s power structure. • Intellectual wisdom and/or physical prowess
Characteristics of the Epic Hero• Significant Battle, Challenge, or Obstacle – hero must overcome a difficulty, challenge, or obstacle, or engage in a significant battle, which proves his or her heroism. • i.e. literal battle with a powerful foe; struggle with internal or mental obstacle – Cultural Influence • The hero’s challenges often reflect the culture’s challenges.• Supernatural Help – The hero’s ability to overcome their challenge is supported by superhuman intervention. – They often have to prove themselves worthy and appeal to the god, gods, or goddesses.
Beowulf’s Character• Beowulf, like all epic heroes, possesses superior physical strength and supremely high ethical standards.• He embodies the highest ideals of Anglo Saxon culture• In his quest, he must defeat monsters that symbolize dark destructive powers• At the end of the quest, he is glorified by the people he has saved.
CharactersBeowulf• Characteristics/Qualities – good and proud: “that prince of goodness, proudly asserted” (676) – confident and bold: “When it comes to fighting, I count myself/as dangerous any day as Grendel” (677-678) – brave: “Then down the brave man lay” (688) – strong and intelligent: “Mighty and canny” (736) – loyal: “Hygelac’s trusty retainer” (757) – represents his people: “The Great captain/boldy fulfilled his boast to the Danes” (827-828)
A Hero’s Confidence & Strength• As the excerpt begins, Hrothgar departs the mead-hall, leaving Beowulf to guard it against Grendel, a fierce and so far fatal enemy. Yet Beowulf immediately begins to take off his armor.• One feature of epics is a scene often called "the arming of the hero." In such a scene, the narrator describes the heros armor and weaponry, giving details about its make and history.What does this unusual course of action revealabout Beowulf?
Beowulf Characteristics cont.• Cultural Influences – He is called on to play his role in part because of his sense of honor. – He feels the need to repay the favor to Hrothgar because his own father once received a favor from the Danish king. – He faces the undefeated Grendel with courage and brute strength. – He wins the safety of the Danes and honor for the Geats, all the while depending on a god who knows the outcome of all things and provides strength to those who are good.
Beowulf Characteristics cont.• Obstacle – encounters a strong and evil monster: “The bane of the race of men” (712) and “the captain of evil” (749) – knows he is at high risk of being killed: “they knew…how often the Danes had fallen prey to death” (694-695) – fights a difficult battle: “the two contenders crashed through the building” (769) – proves himself stronger than the greatest evil know to the Danes: “Beowulf was granted/the glory of winning” (817-818) – earns the praise of the people: “Beowulf’s doings/were praised over and over” (855-856)
Beowulf Characteristics cont.• Supernatural Help – Beowulf trusts in God: “may the Divine Lord/in His wisdom grant the glory of victory” (685-686) – Beowulf is God blessed: “the Lord was/weaving a victory” (696- 697) – God rules over all: “Almighty God rules over mankind/and always has” (701-702)
The Canterbury TalesA group of strangers happens to meetat an inn. As they talk, they discoverthat each of them is on the samejourney - a journey motivated by theteachings of their church.Gladly, they decide to travel togethertoward their goal, enjoying each otherscompany as they seek a holy site. Fromthis fictional chance encounter springthe famous stories of The CanterburyTales.
Chaucers Pilgrims and TheThree Estates• As you read excerpts from The Canterbury Tales, you met representatives of each of the three estates.• In medieval England society was roughly divided into three estates – or social classes. 1. the clergy 2. the nobility and military 3. peasants and merchants• Ideally, the three estates were supposed to work together to fulfill different roles within society.
A Full Picture• Chaucer chooses notto label or depict allfirst-estate characters ina strictly positive ornegative light. Instead, he develops the characters as individuals,focusing on the innate qualities that reveal their humanity.• The Parson and the Pardoner, two representatives of the church, act according to their personal values rather than under the direct supervision of the church. The Parson carries out the churchs mission for the good of others, while the Pardoner abuses his office for his own personal gain.
Literary Device: Frame Narrative• The Canterbury Tales is a framed narrative, which means that there is an introductory story that sets up a series of stories within that main story.• Frankenstein is an example of a Frame Narrative.
The Wife of Bath • You first meet the colorful character of the Wife of Bath briefly in "The Prologue" to The Canterbury Tales. In the prologue to her tale, Alison (the Wife of Bath) establishes herself as an expert on love and marriage. • The Pardoner beseeches her to "instruct us younger men in your technique." Alison is more than ready to grant the Pardoners request, and she embarks on her tale about finding happiness in marriage.
The Wife of Bath: TheNarrators Description• Like all the characters in The Canterbury Tales, the Wife of Bath is introduced in "The Prologue." A cloth merchant who wears the finest clothing and draws respect from everyone around her, the Wife is partly deaf, has had five husbands, and has traveled on pilgrimages throughout Europe and in the Middle East. According to the narrator, she "knew the remedies for loves mischances, / An art in which she knew the oldest dances."• As you read her tale, you will see how truly the narrator speaks. The Wife of Bath loves to talk about marriage and considers herself an unparalleled expert on the subject.
The Wife of Bath: In Her Own Words• Storytelling is like this sometimes: curling back on itself, following tempting side paths, and finally returning to its main plot.• As the Wife of Bath tells her tales, readers learn about her and the things that are important to her.• In this Tale we determine that the Wife of Bath values doing good deeds when she reveals to the knight that true gentility is performing acts of kindness towards others.
Connections Among the Tales• The tales are also loosely linked by – theme (such as fidelity and authority in marriage) – important moral and social questions (What is just behavior? What is the proper way to comport oneself?) – issues of the day (such as the growing power of the legal profession and the rivalry among occupations)• These links guided Chaucer as he planned his work. If you do the math, youll see that 30 pilgrims will each tell two tales going to Canterbury and two tales coming home. Thats 120 tales! Chaucer never completed all of these tales, but the links among tales hold those that he composed together and create a sense of community among the travelers.
Parts of a Poem1. Stanza: a division or section of a poem 1. They are named for the quantity of lines it contains. couplet = two lines quatrain = four lines2. Line: basic unit of poetic form3. Foot: A basic unit of rhythm within a line, with one stressed and one unstressed syllable in it4. Meter: the rhythm or repeating pattern in poetry 1. window (win stressed dow unstressed) casino (ca unstressed si stressed no unstressed
Terms that will help….. couplet : two consecutive lines of poetry octave : a stanza of eight lines in a poem quatrain : a stanza of four lines in a poem sestet : a stanza of six lines in a poem volta: turn in the poem (climax)
The Sonnet• A sonnet is a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter with a carefully patterned rhyme scheme. Other strict, short poetic forms occur in English poetry (the sestina, the villanelle, and the haiku, for example), but none has been used so successfully by so many different poets.
Iambic Pentameter• A line of Iambic Pentameter is a line with ten beats.• An “Iamb” is two beats, or one “foot.”• “Penta” is five (line has five “feet”).• “Meter” is the rhythm of the poem.• A “foot” is made of an unstressed syllable and a stressed syllable (in that order).
Let’s compare the two styles of sonnet… Petrarchan Sonnet Shakespearean SonnetThe Italian form of the sonnet consists The English sonnet also has 14 lines,of 14 lines divided into an octave (eight but they are divided into three quatrainslines) followed by a sestet (six lines). (four lines each) and a rhyming couplet (two lines).The turn, or volta, occurs at the The turn, or volta, comes at thebeginning of the sestet, in line 9. beginning of line 13 – that is, the beginning of the couplet.The octave’s rhyme scheme is almost Each quatrain consists of two pairs ofalways the same. abbaabba Sometimes alternating rhyming lines, and theyou may see the octave rhyme schemeabbacddc or even (rarely) abababab sonnet ends with a rhyming couplet.The sestet’s rhyme scheme can vary The rhyme scheme is almost always :but the A and B rhymes of the octave abab cdcd efef gg.cannot be used again., Hint: the last 2 lines rhymeWhen written in English, Petrarchan Shakespearean sonnets are written insonnets are written in iambic iambic pentameter, which means thatpentameter. When they are written in each line contains 10 syllables andItalian, they do not follow this meter every second syllable is stressed.
Petrarchan or Italian Sonnet“Farewell Love and all thy laws for ever” Farewell Love and all thy laws for ever, a Thy baited hooks shall tangle me no more; b Senec and Plato call me from thy lore b To perfect wealth my wit for to endeavour. a In blind error when I did persever, a Thy sharp repulse, that pricketh aye so sore, b Hath taught me to set in trifles no store b And scape forth, since liberty is lever. a Therefore farewell; go trouble younger hearts c And in me claim no more authority; d With idle youth go use thy property d And thereon spend thy many brittle darts. c For hitherto though I have lost all my time, e Me lusteth no longer rotten boughs to climb. e - Wyatt Devonshire (1557)
“Sonnet 138” or “When My Love Swears that She is Made of Truth” (Shakespearean/English Sonnet)When my love swears that she is made of truth aI do believe her, though I know she lies, bThat she might think me some untutord youth, aUnlearned in the worlds false subtleties. bThus vainly thinking that she thinks me young, cAlthough she knows my days are past the best, dSimply I credit her false speaking tongue: cOn both sides thus is simple truth suppressd. dBut wherefore says she not she is unjust? eAnd wherefore say not I that I am old? fO, loves best habit is in seeming trust, eAnd age in love loves not to have years told: fTherefore I lie with her and she with me, gAnd in our faults by lies we flatterd be. g William Shakespeare
The Tragedy of Hamlet,Prince of Denmark William Shakespeare
The Tragedy of Hamlet: RecapThere’s something rotten in the state of Denmark . . .
The Tragedy of Hamlet: Recap Prince Hamlet returns home from university to discover that his father is dead and his mother has married his uncle Claudius.And now Claudiushas declaredhimself king.
The Tragedy of Hamlet: RecapAs if that’s not badenough, the ghost ofhis father appears toHamlet . . .He tells Hamlet that he’sbeen murdered by Claudiusand demands that Hamletget revenge.
The Tragedy of Hamlet: Recap Instead of jumping into any action, Hamlet broods over his options— and overthinks every action…. A problem throughout the play. Hamlet then starts acting very strange…..but he is actually sane…..
The Tragedy of Hamlet: RecapHe starts talking inriddles.He acts cruelly toOphelia, a girl wholoves him.He’s suspicious ofeveryone.He tells Horatio and Marcellus that hemay put on an act. (antic disposition)
Symbols0 Symbols are objects, characters, figures, or colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts.
Use of Words0 The sinister uses of words are represented by images of ears and hearing, from Claudiuss murder of the king by pouring poison into his ear to Hamlets claim to Horatio that "I have words to speak in thine ear will make thee dumb".0 The poison poured in the kings ear by Claudius is used by the ghost to symbolize the corrosive effect of Claudiuss dishonesty on the health of Denmark. Declaring that the story that he was killed by a snake is a lie, he says that "the whole ear of Denmark" is "Rankly abused….".
Yorick’s Skull 0 Hamlet is not a particularly symbolic play, at least in the sense that physical objects are rarely used to represent thematic ideas. 0 One important exception is Yoricks skull, which Hamlet discovers in the graveyard in the first scene of Act V. 0 It symbolizes Hamlet’s obsession with death and decay…….
0 As Hamlet speaks to and about the skull of the kings former jester, it becomes a symbol of several different aspects of death, including its inevitability and its disintegration of the body.0 Hamlet urges the skull to "get you to my ladys chamber, and tell her, let her paint an inch thick, to this favor she must come"—no one can avoid death.0 He also traces the skulls mouth and says, "Here hung those lips that I have kissed I know not how oft," indicating his fascination with the physical consequences of death. Different Aspects of Death
Decay of the Human Body0 This latter idea is an important motif throughout the play, as Hamlet frequently makes comments referring to every human bodys eventual decay, noting that Polonius will be eaten by worms, that even kings are eaten by worms, and that dust from the decayed body of Alexander the Great might be used to stop a hole in a barrel.
Great video summary of Hamlet0 Video Sparknotes0 http://viewpure.com/t0CqUTmwKiM0 http://www.sparknotes.com/sparknotes/video/haml et