ANATOMY <ul><li>Study of the  structure  of body parts and their relationships to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy : G...
<ul><li>Gross (macroscopic) anatomy : </li></ul><ul><li>The study of structures large enough to be seen with the naked eye...
<ul><li>Regional anatomy : All the body structures (muscles, bones, blood vessels, nerves, etc.) in a given body region , ...
<ul><li>Systemic anatomy : body is studied system by system </li></ul><ul><li>Example: when studying the cardiovascular sy...
<ul><li>Surface anatomy : internal body structures as they relate to the overlying skin </li></ul>
<ul><li>Microscopic anatomy : the study of structures that are too small to be seen with the naked eye </li></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Embryology: concerns  developmental changes that occur before birth </li></ul>
<ul><li>Specialized Branches of Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathological anatomy : study of structural changes associate...
LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY  ANATOMICAL POSITION AND DIRECTIONAL TERMS <ul><li>To describe body parts and position accurately , we...
NOTE  <ul><li>In anatomical position, right and left  refer to the right and left sides of the person  viewed—NOT those of...
Body Planes and Sections <ul><li>For anatomical studies, the body is often sectioned (cut) along a  flat surface called a ...
Planes of the body <ul><li>Coronal Plane (Frontal Plane)  - A vertical plane  running from side to side ; divides the body...
DIRECTIONAL TERMS <ul><li>Directional terms are used to explain exactly where one body part is in relation to another </li...
ANATOMICAL TERMS <ul><li>Superior (cranial or cephalad) </li></ul><ul><li>Toward the head end or upper part of a structure...
<ul><li>Anterior (ventral) </li></ul><ul><li>Toward or at the front of the body; in front of </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior (...
<ul><li>Medial  </li></ul><ul><li>Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of  </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral </...
<ul><li>Proximal:  Nearer the trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Distal:  Away from the trunk </li></ul>
<ul><li>Proximal  </li></ul><ul><li>Close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body ...
<ul><li>Superficial (external)  </li></ul><ul><li>Toward or at the body surface  </li></ul><ul><li>Deep (internal)  </li><...
<ul><li>PALMAR or VOLAR : </li></ul><ul><li>On Or towards palm of the hand </li></ul>PLANTAR  On or towards the sole of foot
<ul><li>Dorsum : </li></ul><ul><li>Uppermost surface of foot </li></ul><ul><li>Back of hand </li></ul>
ANATOMIC MOVEMENTS <ul><li>Flexion & Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion:  approximation of flexor surface of the adjoinin...
ANATOMIC MOVEMENTS <ul><li>Abduction & Adduction </li></ul><ul><li>Abduction:  Moving the part away from the body </li></u...
<ul><li>Circumduction:   Combination in sequence of the movements of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction </li></ul>
<ul><li>Medial & Lateral Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Medial Rotation:  Inwards rotation  </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral Rotation...
<ul><li>Pronation & Supination of Forearm </li></ul><ul><li>Pronation:  Rotation of the forearm so that the palm is turned...
ANATOMIC MOVEMENTS CONT. <ul><li>Inversion and Eversion of foot  </li></ul><ul><li>Inversion :  movement of the sole of fo...
ANATOMIC MOVEMENTS CONT. <ul><li>Dorsiflexion & Plantarflexion of Foot </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsiflexion:  Upward flexion of ...
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1.ANAT introduction

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  • Median. L. medianus , in the middle., Lateral. L. lateralis ( latus ), pertaining to a side.
  • Flexor. L. flexus , bent Extension. L. extendo , extend
  • Flexor. L. flexus , bent Extension. L. extendo , extend
  • 1.ANAT introduction

    1. 2. ANATOMY <ul><li>Study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy : Greek meaning to cut apart </li></ul>
    2. 3. <ul><li>Gross (macroscopic) anatomy : </li></ul><ul><li>The study of structures large enough to be seen with the naked eye </li></ul>
    3. 4. <ul><li>Regional anatomy : All the body structures (muscles, bones, blood vessels, nerves, etc.) in a given body region , such as the abdomen or leg, are examined at the same time </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>Systemic anatomy : body is studied system by system </li></ul><ul><li>Example: when studying the cardiovascular system, you would examine the heart and the blood vessels of the entire body </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>Surface anatomy : internal body structures as they relate to the overlying skin </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Microscopic anatomy : the study of structures that are too small to be seen with the naked eye </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytology: study of individual cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Histology: study of tissues </li></ul></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>Embryology: concerns developmental changes that occur before birth </li></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>Specialized Branches of Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathological anatomy : study of structural changes associated with disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiographic anatomy : study of internal structures using specialized visualization techniques (X-rays or special scanning devices) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY ANATOMICAL POSITION AND DIRECTIONAL TERMS <ul><li>To describe body parts and position accurately , we need an initial reference point and must indicate direction </li></ul><ul><li>ANATOMICAL POSITION : </li></ul><ul><li>Person is standing erect or upright </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes look straight to front </li></ul><ul><li>Upper limbs by the side with palms of hand facing </li></ul><ul><li>forwards </li></ul><ul><li>Feet slightly separated </li></ul><ul><li>with toes pointing forwards </li></ul>The anatomical reference point Anatomical Position
    10. 11. NOTE <ul><li>In anatomical position, right and left refer to the right and left sides of the person viewed—NOT those of the observer </li></ul><ul><li>In anatomy, anatomical position is always assumed, regardless of the actual position of the body </li></ul>
    11. 12. Body Planes and Sections <ul><li>For anatomical studies, the body is often sectioned (cut) along a flat surface called a plane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body planes are flat surfaces that lie at right angles to each other </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Planes of the body <ul><li>Coronal Plane (Frontal Plane) - A vertical plane running from side to side ; divides the body or any of its parts into anterior and posterior portions. </li></ul><ul><li>Sagittal Plane - A vertical plane running from front to back; divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sides. </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse Plane - A horizontal plane; divides the body or any of its parts into upper and lower parts. </li></ul>
    13. 14. DIRECTIONAL TERMS <ul><li>Directional terms are used to explain exactly where one body part is in relation to another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ears are located on each side of the head to the right and left of the nose </li></ul></ul></ul>Using anatomical terminology, this condenses to,: The ears are lateral to the nose
    14. 15. ANATOMICAL TERMS <ul><li>Superior (cranial or cephalad) </li></ul><ul><li>Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior (caudal) </li></ul><ul><li>Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below </li></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>Anterior (ventral) </li></ul><ul><li>Toward or at the front of the body; in front of </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior (dorsal) </li></ul><ul><li>Toward or at the backside of the body; behind </li></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>Medial </li></ul><ul><li>Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral </li></ul><ul><li>Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of </li></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>Proximal: Nearer the trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Distal: Away from the trunk </li></ul>
    18. 19. <ul><li>Proximal </li></ul><ul><li>Close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Distal </li></ul><ul><li>Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk </li></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>Superficial (external) </li></ul><ul><li>Toward or at the body surface </li></ul><ul><li>Deep (internal) </li></ul><ul><li>Away from the body surface; more internal </li></ul>
    20. 21. <ul><li>PALMAR or VOLAR : </li></ul><ul><li>On Or towards palm of the hand </li></ul>PLANTAR On or towards the sole of foot
    21. 22. <ul><li>Dorsum : </li></ul><ul><li>Uppermost surface of foot </li></ul><ul><li>Back of hand </li></ul>
    22. 23. ANATOMIC MOVEMENTS <ul><li>Flexion & Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion: approximation of flexor surface of the adjoining parts and thus reduces the angle of the joint. </li></ul><ul><li>Extension: approximation of extensor surface of the adjoining parts and thus increases the angle of the joint. </li></ul>
    23. 24. ANATOMIC MOVEMENTS <ul><li>Abduction & Adduction </li></ul><ul><li>Abduction: Moving the part away from the body </li></ul><ul><li>Adduction: Moving the part towards the body </li></ul>
    24. 25. <ul><li>Circumduction: Combination in sequence of the movements of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction </li></ul>
    25. 26. <ul><li>Medial & Lateral Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Medial Rotation: Inwards rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral Rotation: Outwards rotation </li></ul>
    26. 27. <ul><li>Pronation & Supination of Forearm </li></ul><ul><li>Pronation: Rotation of the forearm so that the palm is turned backwards </li></ul><ul><li>Supination: Rotation of the forearm so that the palm is turned forwards </li></ul>
    27. 28. ANATOMIC MOVEMENTS CONT. <ul><li>Inversion and Eversion of foot </li></ul><ul><li>Inversion : movement of the sole of foot in which sole faces inwards or medially </li></ul><ul><li>Eversion: movement of the sole of foot in which sole faces outwards or laterally </li></ul>
    28. 29. ANATOMIC MOVEMENTS CONT. <ul><li>Dorsiflexion & Plantarflexion of Foot </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsiflexion: Upward flexion of the foot </li></ul><ul><li>Plantarflexion: Downward flexion of the foot </li></ul>
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