1.ANAT introduction
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  • Median. L. medianus , in the middle., Lateral. L. lateralis ( latus ), pertaining to a side.
  • Flexor. L. flexus , bent Extension. L. extendo , extend
  • Flexor. L. flexus , bent Extension. L. extendo , extend

Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. ANATOMY
    • Study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to each other
    • Anatomy : Greek meaning to cut apart
  • 3.
    • Gross (macroscopic) anatomy :
    • The study of structures large enough to be seen with the naked eye
  • 4.
    • Regional anatomy : All the body structures (muscles, bones, blood vessels, nerves, etc.) in a given body region , such as the abdomen or leg, are examined at the same time
  • 5.
    • Systemic anatomy : body is studied system by system
    • Example: when studying the cardiovascular system, you would examine the heart and the blood vessels of the entire body
  • 6.
    • Surface anatomy : internal body structures as they relate to the overlying skin
  • 7.
    • Microscopic anatomy : the study of structures that are too small to be seen with the naked eye
      • Cytology: study of individual cells
      • Histology: study of tissues
  • 8.
    • Embryology: concerns developmental changes that occur before birth
  • 9.
    • Specialized Branches of Anatomy
      • Pathological anatomy : study of structural changes associated with disease
      • Radiographic anatomy : study of internal structures using specialized visualization techniques (X-rays or special scanning devices)
  • 10. LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY ANATOMICAL POSITION AND DIRECTIONAL TERMS
    • To describe body parts and position accurately , we need an initial reference point and must indicate direction
    • ANATOMICAL POSITION :
    • Person is standing erect or upright
    • Eyes look straight to front
    • Upper limbs by the side with palms of hand facing
    • forwards
    • Feet slightly separated
    • with toes pointing forwards
    The anatomical reference point Anatomical Position
  • 11. NOTE
    • In anatomical position, right and left refer to the right and left sides of the person viewed—NOT those of the observer
    • In anatomy, anatomical position is always assumed, regardless of the actual position of the body
  • 12. Body Planes and Sections
    • For anatomical studies, the body is often sectioned (cut) along a flat surface called a plane
      • Body planes are flat surfaces that lie at right angles to each other
  • 13. Planes of the body
    • Coronal Plane (Frontal Plane) - A vertical plane running from side to side ; divides the body or any of its parts into anterior and posterior portions.
    • Sagittal Plane - A vertical plane running from front to back; divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sides.
    • Transverse Plane - A horizontal plane; divides the body or any of its parts into upper and lower parts.
  • 14. DIRECTIONAL TERMS
    • Directional terms are used to explain exactly where one body part is in relation to another
      • Example:
        • The ears are located on each side of the head to the right and left of the nose
    Using anatomical terminology, this condenses to,: The ears are lateral to the nose
  • 15. ANATOMICAL TERMS
    • Superior (cranial or cephalad)
    • Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
    • Inferior (caudal)
    • Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
  • 16.
    • Anterior (ventral)
    • Toward or at the front of the body; in front of
    • Posterior (dorsal)
    • Toward or at the backside of the body; behind
  • 17.
    • Medial
    • Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
    • Lateral
    • Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
  • 18.
    • Proximal: Nearer the trunk
    • Distal: Away from the trunk
  • 19.
    • Proximal
    • Close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
    • Distal
    • Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
  • 20.
    • Superficial (external)
    • Toward or at the body surface
    • Deep (internal)
    • Away from the body surface; more internal
  • 21.
    • PALMAR or VOLAR :
    • On Or towards palm of the hand
    PLANTAR On or towards the sole of foot
  • 22.
    • Dorsum :
    • Uppermost surface of foot
    • Back of hand
  • 23. ANATOMIC MOVEMENTS
    • Flexion & Extension
    • Flexion: approximation of flexor surface of the adjoining parts and thus reduces the angle of the joint.
    • Extension: approximation of extensor surface of the adjoining parts and thus increases the angle of the joint.
  • 24. ANATOMIC MOVEMENTS
    • Abduction & Adduction
    • Abduction: Moving the part away from the body
    • Adduction: Moving the part towards the body
  • 25.
    • Circumduction: Combination in sequence of the movements of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction
  • 26.
    • Medial & Lateral Rotation
    • Medial Rotation: Inwards rotation
    • Lateral Rotation: Outwards rotation
  • 27.
    • Pronation & Supination of Forearm
    • Pronation: Rotation of the forearm so that the palm is turned backwards
    • Supination: Rotation of the forearm so that the palm is turned forwards
  • 28. ANATOMIC MOVEMENTS CONT.
    • Inversion and Eversion of foot
    • Inversion : movement of the sole of foot in which sole faces inwards or medially
    • Eversion: movement of the sole of foot in which sole faces outwards or laterally
  • 29. ANATOMIC MOVEMENTS CONT.
    • Dorsiflexion & Plantarflexion of Foot
    • Dorsiflexion: Upward flexion of the foot
    • Plantarflexion: Downward flexion of the foot