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History of Psychology McGourty
 

History of Psychology McGourty

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Mrs. McGourty's AP Psychology Assignment. Complete the fill-in handout as you view this powerpoint. Due Wednesday, September 7th.

Mrs. McGourty's AP Psychology Assignment. Complete the fill-in handout as you view this powerpoint. Due Wednesday, September 7th.

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    History of Psychology McGourty History of Psychology McGourty Presentation Transcript

    • The History of Psychology Mrs. McGourty
    • When did we recognize that mental health was important?
      • 387 BC Plato states “know Thyself”
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    • Plato and Aristotle
      • Plato suggested that the brain is the mechanism of all mental processes
      • Aristotle suggested that the heart is the mechanism of all mental processes
    • The Middle Ages
      • People with mental illnesses were thought to have been possessed by evil spirits.
      • People were not treated for their illness, but in order to expel the demons.
      • Trephining: Dates back to Pre-Historic (Drilling hole in skull to release demons)
      • Many ended up dying in a gruesome way.
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    • The Scientific Revolution
      • Search for scientific meaning in all aspects of life
      • Mesmer: Hypnosis
      • Pinel: DEMANDED humane treatment of the mentally challenged
    • Phillipe Pinel 1774 AD
      • Phillipe Pinel, a French Doctor, released the first mental patients from confinement.
      • At that time, most mentally ill patients were chained to a wall or room (no kidding!)
      • Pinel began the first massive movement for more humane treatment of the mentally ill.
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    • Wilhelm Wundt-1879
      • Known as the father of modern day psychology.
      • Opened the first psychology lab at the University of Leipzig, marking the beginning of the formal study of human behaviors, emotions and cognition.
      • Structuralism: Studied the basic elements of consciousness
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    • William James 1890’s
      • Along with John Dewey
      • Published “Principles of Psychology”
      • Dewey: Functionalism
      • Functionalism: Mental processes help/cause human beings to adapt to their everyday environment
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    • Phineas Gage
      • Gage suffered brain damage when an iron pole pierced his brain and stuck in his head.
      • His personality changed completely but his intellect remained intact suggesting that there is a part of the brain which controlls personality.
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    • Sigmund Freud: 1886
      • Freud began performing TALK THERAPY in Vienna, marking the beginning of PERSONALITY THEORY
      • In 1900 he published The Interpretation of Dreams , marking the beginning of psychoanalytical thought
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    • Turn of the Century Strides: Behavioral Psychology
      • 1906: Pavlov- Classical Conditioning
      • Thorndike: Operant Conditioning
      • 1913: John Watson began to expand the field of behavioral psychology
      • Carl Jung departed from Freud and created Analytical Psychology
    • Mid Century Strides in Psychology
      • Piaget: Pioneers the field of Child Development and Cognitive Development
      • Carl Rogers: Counseling Psychology and Therapy
      • Karen Horney: Feminist view of Freud’s Personality Theories. She and many others expanded the field towards women and claimed that Freud was sexist in his views.
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    • Mid-Century Strides (Continued)
      • Erikson: Moral Development and Child Development (Also: Personality)
      • BF Skinner: Added to Behavior Movement
      • Maslow: Humanist/Existential Psychology
      • Festinger: Social Psychology (Sociology)
        • Later Cultural and socio-cultural influences
    • Slow Progress???
      • In 1938 Psychologists started using electric shock therapy
      • Lobotomies were commonly used to control aggressive people with mental handicaps
      • Many mentally ill people were sent to asylums to be hidden from society
      • Even people with low IQ’s and mental retardation were sent to asylums
      • Often the conditions were terrible.
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    • Journal of Clinical Psychology 1945
      • The field begins to grow, and with the publishing of the journal, psychology finally becomes a respected science.
    • 1953: Ethics
      • The Code of Ethics for Psychologists was developed by the American Psychological Association
      • Still, at this time, mentally challenged people were being voluntarily sterilized (by parents permission) in many institutions all over the USA.
      • It still happens in some parts of the world (Indonesia).
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    • Recent Advances
      • 1952: Medications such as Thorazine for schizophrenia
      • DSM Published by the APA
      • Today: DSM IV
      • 2103 : DSM V
      • 1967: Beck’s studies on depression
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    • 1970’s to the Present
      • Medication Studies: Ex. Zoloft
      • Group Therapy
      • Push for mandatory mental health care coverage
      • E-THERAPY??????????
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