Bone Health
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Bone Health

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powerpoint on bone health, vitamins and minerals

powerpoint on bone health, vitamins and minerals

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Bone Health Bone Health Presentation Transcript

  • Bone Health Lydia DiSipio Christine Jackson Janet Salgado Kait McComeskey Dean Scornaienchi Andrew Press Calcium Vitamin D Vitamin K Phosphorous, Magnesium Fluoride
  • What is Bone Health?
    • Bone health is receiving the right amount of vitamins and minerals required in order to uphold strong and healthy bones
  • How they work together:
    • These vitamins and minerals are all needed in order to prevent bone loss
    • Phosphorous, magnesium, fluoride, and Vitamins D and K help to form and stabilize the structure of bones
    • The crystal hydroxyapatite forms from calcium and phosphorous when teeth and bones become mineralized
  • Calcium
    • Main functions:
      • To form and strengthen bones
      • To contract and relax muscles
      • Needed for blood clots and the immune system
    • Food sources:
      • Milk
      • Cheese
      • Fish
    • Excess amount of calcium:
      • Constipation, kidney stones, interferes with other minerals
    • Deficiency of calcium:
      • Osteoporosis, weak bones, and bone loss
  • Vitamin D
    • Main functions:
      • To maintain blood concentrations of calcium and phosphorous
        • Stimulates absorption from the GI tract
        • Mobilizes calcium and phosphorous from bones into the blood
        • Stimulates their retention by the kidneys
    • Food sources:
      • Few animal foods, eggs, and liver
      • Fatty fish
      • Butter and fortified milk
    • Excess amount of Vitamin D:
      • Enhances calcium absorption, produces high blood calcium, and promotes return of bone calcium into blood
    • Deficiency of Vitamin D:
      • In adults: osteomalacia
      • In children: rickets
      • High blood pressure, inflamed bowel disease
  • Vitamin K
    • Main functions:
      • Synthesizes several blood clotting proteins and bone proteins
        • Without Vitamin K, the bones produce an abnormal protein that cannot bind to the minerals that normally form bones, so the bone density is low
    • Food sources:
      • Green leafy vegetables
      • Cabbage
      • Liver
    • Excess amount of Vitamin K:
      • Vitamin K toxicity is very rare and has not established any known effects
    • Deficiency of Vitamin K:
      • Deficiency of Vitamin K is also rare but may occur under two circumstances:
        • From conditions of fat malabsorption
        • Some antibiotics interfere with Vitamin K’s synthesis in the body
      • Short term Vitamin K deficiency increases the rate of bone turnover
  • Phosphorous
    • Main functions:
      • Second most abundant mineral in the body
      • Many key roles in the transfer of energy that occurs during cellular metabolism
      • A part of DNA and RNA in every cell, necessary for growth
    • Food sources:
      • Animal protein, because of it’s so abundant in the cells of animals (tissues)
    • Excess amount of Phosphorous:
      • May cause calcium excretion
    • Deficiency of Phosphorous:
      • Unknown
  • Magnesium
    • Main functions:
      • Magnesium is critical to the operation of enzymes
        • It acts in all cells of the soft tissues where it forms part of the protein-making machinery and is necessary for the release of energy
        • Helps muscles relax after contraction
    • Food sources:
      • Dark green, leafy vegetables
      • Whole grain breads and cereals
      • Seafood
    • Excess amount of Magnesium:
      • Can cause lack of coordination, confusion, coma, and even death
    • Deficiency of Magnesium:
      • Causes tetany (an extreme and prolonged contraction of the muscles), weakness and confusion, hallucinations, and difficulty swallowing
      • Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and colon cancer may also be related to magnesium deficiency
  • Fluoride
    • Main functions:
      • Magnesium is critical to the operation of enzymes
        • It acts in all cells of the soft tissues where it forms part of the protein-making machinery and is necessary for the release of energy
        • Helps muscles relax after contraction
    • Food sources:
      • Soft drinks made with fluorinated water
      • Toothpastes, gels, and oral rinses
      • Fish and tea supply fluoride as well
    • Excess amount of Fluoride:
      • Discoloration of teeth, nausea, diarrhea, chest pain, itching, and vomiting
    • Deficiency of Fluoride:
      • Susceptibility to tooth decay
      • Dental decay, which if not treated could lead to more serious health problems affecting the entire body
  • Multiple Choice
    • 1. What happens when there is a calcium deficiency?
    • a. bone loss b. kidney stones c. loss of appetite d. all of the above
    • 2. What is Vitamin D deficiency in children?
    • a. osteoporosis b. rickets c. anemia d. weakened immune response
    • 3. Where in the body is Vitamin K produced?
    • a. liver b. heart c. GI tract d. pancreas