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Policy module


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  • -Greenhouse gas emissions anywhere in the world affect everyone in the world equally-The vast, vast majority of emissions to date have been from developed countries-Most of the worst impacts of developed countries’ emissions will take place in developing countries-Developing countries need more and more cheap energy as they pull their citizens out of poverty-It is not possible to solve the climate crisis without global coordination
  • GDRs3 Canonical PPT-box should say developing countries and developed countries
  • -Which means that many developing countries see themselves as facing a terrible dilemma:Stop using cheap energy that is helping pull their people out of poverty OR continue contributing to the climate change that is ultimately going to kill their own citizens
  • -Developed countries must: -Cut emissions rapidly and drastically -Help developing countries with the technology they need to slow their emissions without sacrificing economic growth, possibly through technology transfer and capacity building -Help pay for the costs of developing countries to “adapt” to climate change
  • Info from UNEP’s Manual on Compliance with and Enforcement of Multilateral Environmental Agreements refers to those communities and ecosystems that are being impacted by climate change and the actions taken to help them cope with changing climate conditions.
  • From “E3G_Post-Copenhagen_Climate_Stocktake.pdf.” should remake from scratch-have title that explains it and then presenter explains slide. Farther to the right is more in line w/ where we need to be-map maybe?
  • -While many countries are working towards reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, each country has decided what targets would work best for them. In 2009, President Obama announced that the U.S. will work towards a reduction of 17% of 2005 levels (almost 380 ppm) by 2020, a 30% reduction by 2025, a 42% reduction by 2030, and an 83% reduction by 2050.-China has set targets of 40-45% below 2005 intensity levels by 2020. Emissions intensity is defined as the amount of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP). China expects its GDP to at least double by 2020, which could potentially result in a doubling of carbon dioxide emissions, but the new target would hold the increase in carbon dioxide emissions to 20% or less under a doubling of GDP. (U.S. Department of Energy, EERE News, -Even if global emissions are dramatically cut today, climate change impacts will continue to increase until at least 2030. In order and stabilize and preserve our natural and socioeconomic environments, the target of 350 ppm must be set and reached as soon as possible around the world. While there is no set date to reach targets, climate change impacts will inevitably increase in severity and frequency until greenhouse gas emissions are reduced below the 350 level. -A report done by Oxfam International also states that by 2030, average prices of staple foods such as maize will increase by between 120 and 180 per cent. Up to half of this increase will be driven by climate change.
  • (image of the Maldives)
  • Numbers: The Global Environmental Facility, of June 2010, of the $50 billion a year required for climate change adaptation estimated by Oxfam International, only $224 million had been pledged, and only $169 million had been delivered this far to the Least Developed Countries Fund.
  •  Oxfam International, an analysis done by Oxfam International shows that the total emissions cuts pledged by all countries are not sufficient to prevent global temperatures rising above the 2 degrees target agreed by governments. Global temperature increases of more than 1.5 degrees will have catastrophic consequences for societies across the globe.-According to Al Gore, “We need bolder action to cut emissions and stop climate change driving generations of children into hunger. All countries must step up and deliver their fair share of the emissions reductions needed. Countries must also ensure the most vulnerable get the support they need to adapt. Rocketing food prices signal climate change red alert”.
  • Maybe don’t need this slide at all?
  • UNFCCC website, Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions .These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012. -The major distinction between the Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialised countries to stabilize GHG emissions, the Protocol commits them to do so. -However, The US, the biggest historical emitter in the world, never ratified it; there is no agreement on what will happen to it after the first commitment period expires in 2012; even if the US had participated, the emissions reductions it codifies are nowhere near sufficient to avoid 2 degrees of warming
  • Instead of a treaty, we got the “Copenhagen Accord”:-a Political “Letter of Intent” cobbled together in final hours by around 30 countries after other processes had stalled that reiterates “2 degree” goal without showing how we get there and without any commitment to turn it into a legally binding agreement
  • In countries all over the world, not just developed countries, need to take a stand against climate change. Citizens need to create movements towards a reduced carbon future and show their leaders that change is needed. It can only be done by raising our voices and unite for a common cause.
  • Transcript

    • 1. [Politics]
      Why aren’t we doing enough to stop the biggest problem facing humanity?”
    • 2. Overview
      Who is most responsible?
      What is a fair response to climate change?
      What are we already doing?
      How can we work together to solve the crisis?
    • 3. Review
      Greenhouse gases affect everyone
      Most emissions come from rich countries
      Impacts will most affect poor countries
      Poor countries’ energy demand is growing quickly – and they are prone to follow the same dirty development path as rich countries
      Need global coordination
    • 4. 1 Who is most responsible for climate change?
      Answer: Rich countries, especially the U.S.
    • 5. Rich countries emit far more CO2 total, and per capita than poor countries
    • 6. Injustice: So far, rich countries have emitted by far the most, while experiencing the least impacts from climate change.
    • 7. However, developing countries’ emissions are growing rapidly and are projected to keep growing
    • 8. There are two options for poor countries:
      Follow the dirty development path of rich countries, and put their citizens at risk of dangerous climate change
      Invest in a clean energy economy, creating jobs in new industries and averting the worst impacts of climate change
    • 9. 2Given rich countries’ historic responsibility for climate change, and poor countries’ need to lift their people out of poverty, how can we solve the climate crisis?”
      What is a fair response to climate change?
    • 10. A fair response to climate change must…
      Bind rich countries to ambitious and deep cuts in their emissions
      Provide financial support for the poor to adapt to climate change and reduce emissions
      Safeguard the right to (just & sustainable) development
    • 11. How much should countries be aiming to reduce emissions by?
      Technically, in a world above 350ppm, we must reduce emissions to zero as quickly as possible to avert the worst impacts
      AOSIS, the Alliance of Small Island States currently calls for the most ambitious targets for rich countries:
      45% by 2020
      95% by 2050
    • 12. Financial support for poor countries for:
      Adaptation: reducing the vulnerability of human and natural systems to climate change
      Mitigation: reducing emissions to curb climate change
      Technology: sharing clean technology with the world
    • 13. 3What are individual countries already doing?
    • 14. Developed countries are far from having committed to necessary reductions
    • 15. What have the biggest emitters committed to?
      17% below 2005 levels by 2020
      83% below 2005 levels by 2050
      40-45% below 2005 intensity levels by 2020
      Emissions parallel China’s GDP
    • 16. Many developing countries understand the potential impacts, and so they’re taking more ambitious steps than developed countries (even though they didn’t cause the problem)
    • 17. Countries committed to carbon neutrality:
      • Bhutan
      • Costa Rica
      • Ethiopia
      • Maldives
      • Niue
      • Papua New Guinea
      • Samoa
      These countries are showing incredible leadership – but they aren’t the biggest emitters.
    • 18. “After all, it is not carbon we want but development, it is not coal we want but electricity, it is not oil we want but transport.”- President Nasheed of the Maldives
    • 19. We’ve seen what we need to do. We’ve seen what we’re actually doing.
    • 20.
    • 21. Developed countries are also far short of raising adaptation and tech transfer funding
    • 22. “In the end, cutting emissions isn’t about who does the most, but whether the total efforts are enough to avoid devastating levels of global warming – we will either sink or swim together. The pledges currently on the table mean we are sinking.”
      -Al Gore
    • 23. 4 How can we work together to solve the problem?
    • 24. UNFCCC, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was created at the Rio Earth Summit
      Get rid of Copenhagen here
    • 25. International negotiations have historically taken place in the UNFCCC
      Climate negotiations founding text:
      “The Parties should protect the climate system for the benefit of present and future generations of humankind, on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.”
    • 26. Climate negotiations timeline
      Visual Timeline with the following events:
      1992: Rio Earth Summit established UNFCCC
      1995: First annual UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP)
      1997: Kyoto Protocol signed at COP-3
      2005: Kyoto Protocol takes effect after Russia’s ratification
      2007: COP-13 produces the Bali Roadmap for what should happen at the end of the Kyoto Protocol’s first commitment period
      2009: COP-15 fails to fulfill the Bali Roadmap; results in Copenhagen Accord
      2010-2011: Negotiations continue without major shifts or progress
      2012: First commitment period of Kyoto Protocol to end
    • 27. Ratified Treaty
      Didn’t Ratify
      Signed, Ratification Pending
      No Position
    • 28. COP 12 Montreal, Canada 2005
      Each year there is a two-week Conference of the Parties (COP) to discuss the Kyoto Protocol and negotiate the next treaty
    • 29. 2009’s COP in Copenhagen was an important conference in which governments were supposed to agree to new terms for a treaty as the Kyoto Protocol’s first term ends in 2012.
      DECEMBER 2009
    • 30. 117 of the most vulnerable island and African nations were supporting 350ppm treaty, saying it is 'necessary for their survival’,
    • 31. …yet they were not the 117 that have the power. The biggest, most powerful emitters were not ready to really take action.
    • 32. The single biggest problem country is the US, which is the largest cumulative emitter in the world
    • 33. Other key “blocking” countries include:- Russia- Canada- Saudi Arabia & other OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)
    • 34. Instead of a treaty, we got the “Copenhagen Accord” – a political document with no binding goals
    • 35. Why can’t we agree?
      - Fossil fuel companies have too much power
      • U.S. does not have the political will to make real emissions cuts
      • 36. Major developing economies like China and India are reluctant to commit to binding targets
    • 5 What are some possible solutions?
    • 37. We must:
      • Fight for action within each of our countries, especially the USA
      • 38. Ensure that politicians see climate action as being in their interest.
      • 39. Continue to fight for a binding global treaty
    • 40. More Information
      Oxfam International
      Environmental Protection Agency
      U.S. Department of Energy
      United Nations Environment Programme
      Global Environmental Facility