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Ionic Bonding
 

Ionic Bonding

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ionic compounds, cations, anions, metallic bonding, octet rule

ionic compounds, cations, anions, metallic bonding, octet rule

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    Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonding Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 7 Ionic and Metallic Bonding
    • Ions
      • Elements within each group of the periodic table behave similarly because they have the same number of valence electrons.
      • Valence electrons are the electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an elements atoms.
        • Valence electrons determine the chemical properties of an element.
    • Valence Electrons
      • To find the number of valence electrons in an atom of a representative element, simply look at its group number.
      • In forming compounds, atoms tend to gain or lose electrons in order to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas!!!
      Octet Rule
    • Octet Rule = atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons so as to have 8 electrons
      • C would like to
      • N would like to
      • O would like to
      Gain 4 electrons Gain 3 electrons Gain 2 electrons
    • Key Concept
      • Atoms of metals lose their valence electrons.
      • Atoms of some nonmetals ten to gain electrons or to share with other nonmetallic elements to achieve a complete octet
    • Formation of Cations
      • When an atom loses an electron it produces a positively charged ion, or a cation.
      • The most common cations are those produced by the loss of valence electrons from metal atoms.
    • Electron–Dot Structures for Ions
      • Remove electrons for cations
      Sodium Atomic number 11 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 1 1 Valence electron Na Remove electron to form ion Sodium Ion Atomic number 11 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 0 Na + Now has full shell with similar electronic configuration to Neon --Stable noble gas configuration
    • Formation of Anions
      • The gain of negatively charged electrons by a neutral atom produces an anion.
    • Electron–Dot Structures for Ions
      • Add electrons for anions
      Chlorine atomic number 17 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 5 7 Valence electrons Add electron to form ion Chloride ion atomic number 17 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 8 Valence electrons - Now has full shell with similar electronic configuration to Argon --Stable noble gas configuration Cl Cl
    • Lewis Dot Structures Mg example 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 [Ne] 3 s 2 The valence shell is the outermost shell of electrons of an atom. 2 electrons in the valence Shell Mg Use dots to represent Valence Electrons
    • Electron-Dot Structures
      • Valence electrons represented by dots
      • Electron-dot symbols
        • – Examples: Na •, •Mg•, …
    • Ionic Bonds
      • Compounds composed of cations and anions are called ionic compounds.
      • Although they are composed of ions, ionic compounds are electrically neutral.
      The electrostatic forces that hold ions Together in ionic compounds are Called Ionic bonds.
    • Ionic Bonds: One Big Greedy Thief Dog!
    • Formula Units
      • A chemical formula shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance.
      • Because an ionic compound exists as a collection of positively and negatively charged ions arranged in repeating patterns, its chemical formula refers to a ratio known as a formula unit.
      • A formula unit is the lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound.
      • For NaCl the ratio of the ions is 1:1 (one Na + to one Cl - )
      • What is the formula unit for Magnesium Chloride?
    • Practice, Practice, Practice
      • Use electron dot structures to determine formulas of the ionic compounds formed when
      • 1. potassium reacts with iodine.
      • 2. Aluminum reacts with oxygen.
    • Properties of Ionic Compounds
      • Most are crystalline solids at room temperature.
      • High melting points.
      • Conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water.
    • Practice, Practice
      • Write the formulas for each compound .
      • Barium chloride
      • Lithium oxide
      • Magnesium oxide
      • Calcium flouride
    • 7.3 Bonding in Metals
      • The valence electrons of metal atoms can be modeled as a sea of electrons.
      • That is, the valence electrons are mobile and can drift freely from one part of the metal to another.
      • Metallic Bonding Animation
    • Metallic Bonds: Mellow dogs with plenty of bones to go around.
    • Alloys
      • Mixtures composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal.
      • Their properties are often superior to those of their component elements.
    • Learning Check
      • Give the ionic charge for each of the following:
      • A. 12 p + and 10 e -
      • 1) 0 2) 2+ 3) 2-
      • B. 50p + and 46 e-
      • 1) 2+ 2) 4+ 3) 4-
      • C. 15 p + and 18e-
      • 2) 3+ 2) 3- 3) 5-
    • Learning Check
      • A. Number of valence electrons in aluminum
      • 1) 1 e - 2) 2 e - 3) 3 e -
      • B. Change in electrons for octet
      • 1) lose 3e - 2) gain 3 e - 3) gain 5 e -
      • C. Ionic charge of aluminum
      • 1) 3- 2) 5- 3) 3 +
    • Solution
      • A. Number of valence electrons in aluminum
      • 3) 3 e -
      • B. Change in electrons for octet
      • 1) lose 3e -
      • C. Ionic charge of aluminum
      • 3) 3 +
    • Review..
      • What is a chemical bond?
        • Force that holds two atoms together
      • What is an ionic bond?
        • An electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particles together in an ionic compound
        • Forms when….?
      • What are atoms and compounds always trying to achieve?
        • Stability
        • Complete set of valence electrons…