Survey Construction

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For PR Campaigns, J454, at the University of Oregon School of Journalism and Communication.

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  • Power of words... from author Frank Lutz. Luntz has 10 rules for great communication, which he details in his recent book, Words That Work. He summarizes his rules with 10 words: &amp;quot;simplicity, brevity, credibility, consistency, novelty, sound, aspiration, visualization, questioning, and context.&amp;quot; Your site is dealing with a highly impatient customer. You need to get your words exactly right, because otherwise lots of those impatient customers will hit that Back button. The right choice of words is vital to effective communication. We joke about this, particularly in PR. Can you guess...? http://www.clemenskogler.net/film/grandcontent.htm
  • Survey Construction

    1. 1. <ul><li>WAS: Used car </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IS NOW: Pre-owned vehicle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>WAS: Secretary </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IS NOW: Administrative assistant </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>WAS: Housewife </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IS NOW: Stay-at-home-mom </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>WAS: Stewardess </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IS NOW: Flight attendant </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>WAS: Waiter/Waitress </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IS NOW: Server </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>WAS: Caretaker </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IS NOW: Estate manager </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>WAS: Garbage removal </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IS NOW: Sanitation services </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>WAS: Gay marriage </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IS NOW: Same-sex marriage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>WAS: Impotence </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IS NOW: E.D./Erectile dysfunction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Power of Words
    2. 2. <ul><li>it is all in the questions </li></ul>Survey Construction
    3. 3. General Guidelines <ul><li>Make Questions Clear </li></ul><ul><li>Anchor Your Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Questions Short </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the Purpose of the Research </li></ul><ul><li>Do Not Ask Double-Barreled Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Biased Words </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Leading Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Do Not Ask Questions Requiring Detailed Responses </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Potentially Embarrassing Questions </li></ul>
    4. 4. Be Clear... <ul><li>Make Questions Clear </li></ul><ul><li>Put yourself in the respondents’ place. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid difficult or specialized words </li></ul><ul><li>Be fair to all respondents </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1: “Why have you been listening to WXXX more lately?” </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2: “If you didn’t have a premium channel, would you consider PPV?” </li></ul><ul><li>Example 3: “How many television shows to you think are a little too violent - most, some, few or none?” </li></ul>
    5. 5. Anchor Your Questions <ul><li>Avoid “loose bundling” of questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify a specific behavior in the question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchor the concepts in ways that can be measured or observed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example 1: I care about diversity </li></ul>
    6. 6. Short Questions <ul><li>Be Precise and Unambiguous </li></ul><ul><li>A good question should not contain more than two sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: What is the frequency of the overall interpersonal, informal and formal communication between the focal group and the targeted semi-autonomous functionally specialized groups? </li></ul><ul><li>Good: What is the frequency of the formal communication between the focal group and your group? </li></ul>
    7. 7. Remember your Purpose <ul><li>Only include items that directly relate to what you are studying. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t add just because it will “be interesting to find out.” </li></ul>
    8. 8. No Double-Barrels <ul><li>A double-barreled question asks two or more questions in the same sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The ABC Network has programs that are funny and sexually explicit. Do you agree or disagree? </li></ul><ul><li>Look for the word “and.” Check the question construction. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Avoid Bias <ul><li>Example: In your free time, would you rather read a book or just watch television? What’s the problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid words that insert bias: just, names of individuals, only, etc. </li></ul>
    10. 10. No Leading Questions <ul><li>Leading questions suggest a response. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Like most Americans, do you read a newspaper everyday? </li></ul><ul><li>Double-blind question </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Do you still use marijuana? Hidden premise in implied regardless of answer. </li></ul>
    11. 11. K.I.S.S. <ul><li>Don’t ask questions that require highly detailed information. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: In the past 30 days, how many hours of television have you viewed with your family? </li></ul><ul><li>problem? better question? what if the 30-day timeframe is what you need to know? </li></ul>
    12. 12. Do Not Embarrass <ul><li>Avoid overly personal questions unless absolutely necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Income - potential to embarrass Example breakdown: ___ more than $50,000 ___ $25,000 to $50,000 ___ $20,000 to $24,999 ___ $15,000 to $19,999 ___ $10,000 to $14,999 ___ under $10,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Other potentially embarrassing categories? </li></ul>
    13. 13. Types of Questions <ul><li>Dichotomous </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-choice </li></ul><ul><li>Rating Scales </li></ul><ul><li>Rank Ordering </li></ul><ul><li>Checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Fill-in-the-Blank </li></ul>
    14. 14. Example: Multiple Choice In general, television commercials tell the truth: ___ all of the time ___ most of the time ___ some of the time ___ rarely ___ never What is your favorite television network? ___ ABC ___ CBS ___ NBC
    15. 15. Example: Rating Scales There are too many commercials on TV. ___ strongly agree ___ agree ___ neutral ___ disagree ___ strongly disagree Please rate your level of agreement on the following statements, with 1 being strongly disagree and 5 being strongly agree: * There are too many commercials on TV * Local news media is fair and balanced in its coverage
    16. 16. Example: Rank-Ordering Here are several common occupations. Please rank them in terms of their prestige. Put a 1 next to the profession with the most prestige, a 2 next to the one with the second most, and so on. ___ newspaper reporter ___ banker ___ dentist ___ lawyer ___ police officer ___ politician ___ teacher ___ television news reporter

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