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# Topic 3 mass haul diagram

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### Topic 3 mass haul diagram

1. 1. Topic 3MASS HAUL DIAGRAM
2. 2. Objective:• Explain the basic concepts of the Mass Haul Diagram.• Define the use of Mass Haul Diagram.• Explain the methods used in the haulage of large volumes of earthwork calculation .• Explain the method used in calculating the haulage of large volumes of earthwork for construction
3. 3. INTRODUCTION Mass-haul diagrams (MHD) are used to compare the economicsof the various methods of earthwork distribution on road or railwayconstruction schemes. With the combined use of the MHD plotteddirectly below the longitudinal section of the survey centre-line, onecan find : The distances over which ‘cut and fill’ will balance. Quantities of materials to be moved and the direction of movement. Areas where earth may have to be borrowed or wasted and the amounts involved. The best policy to adopt to obtain the most economic use of plan.
4. 4. Mass Haul Diagrams• Diagrammatic representation of earthwork volumes along a linear profile• Horizontal stationing is plotted along the X-axis• Net earthwork values are plotted along the Y-axis
5. 5. Mass Haul Diagrams• An Earthwork Profile is a plot of the net earthwork along a roadway or airstrip• Net cut values are plotted above the X- axis (positive Y value)• Net fill values are plotted below the X- axis (negative Y value)• Presents a picture of the earthwork requirements
6. 6. Mass Haul Diagrams• Upward sloping curves indicate (rising left to right) indicate a cut• Downward sloping (falling left to right) curves occur in a fill section• Peaks indicate a change from cut to fill and valleys occur when the earthwork changes from fill to cut
7. 7. Mass Haul Diagrams• The cumulated volume of earthwork at the horizontal axis (Y=0) is 0• When a horizontal line intersects two or more points along the curve, the accumulated volumes at those points are equal• A negative value at the end of the curve indicates that borrow is required to complete the fill• A positive value at the end of the curve indicates that a waste operation will be the net result
8. 8. SAMPLE 1CUMULATIVE VOLUME , m3 (+) CUT (+) WASTE CHAINAGE, m (-) FILL SAMPLE 2CUMULATIVE VOLUME , m3 (+) CUT CHAINAGE, m (-) FILL (-) BORROW
9. 9. CUMULATIVE VOLUME , m3 MAXIMUM – END POINT OF CUT VOLUME (+) CUT CHAINAGE, m (-) FILL MINIMUM – END POINT OF FILL VOLUME
10. 10. Mass Haul DiagramsTo construct the Mass Haul Diagram manually:• Compute the net earthwork values for each station, applying the appropriate shrink factor• Net cuts have a positive value, net fills have a negative value• The value at the first station (origin) = 0• Plot the value of each succeeding station which equals the cumulative value to that point, i.e., the value at i = net cut/filla+b+c+…i
11. 11. Distance Volume (Cubic Metres) Cumulative volume(Metres) CUT + FILL - (Cubic Metres) 0 0 + 490 100 + 490 Table 8.1 Example of + 927 Volumes 200 + 1 417 Table + 982 300 + 2 399 + 279 380 + 2 678 - 31 400 + 2 647 - 226 500 + 2 421 - 654 600 + 1 767 - 1 160 700 + 607 - 933 800 - 326 - 92 831 - 418 + 220 900 - 198 + 428 1 000 + 230
12. 12. Characteristics of Mass Curve:1- Rising sections of the mass curve indicates areas where excavatingexceeds fill, whereas falling sections indicate where fill exceedsexcavation.2- Steep slopes reflect heavy cuts & Fills, while flat slopes indicate areasfro small amount of earthwork.3- The difference in ordinates between any two points indicate net excessof excavation over embankment or vise versa.4- Any horizontal line dawn to intersect two points within the same curveindicates a balance of excavation (cut) and embankment (fill) quantitiesbetween the two points.5- Points of zero slope represent points where roadway goes from cut tofill or from fill to cut.6- The highest or the lowest points of the mass haul diagram representsthe crossing points between the grade line (roadway level) and naturalground level.
13. 13. Mass Haul Diagram
14. 14. Mass Haul DiagramsTo construct & analyze the Mass Haul Diagram manually:• Identify the the resulting balanced sections, which are bounded by points that intersect the X-axis• Draw a horizontal line midway between the peak or valley and the X-axis. The scale length of that line is the average length of haul within that balanced section• Determine earthwork volumes within each balanced section• Determine whether there is an overall balance, waste or if borrow is required
15. 15. DEFINITION AND IMPORTANT PHRASES Bulking An increase in volume of earthwork after excavation Shrinkage A decrease in volume earthwork after deposition and compaction. Haul distance The distance from the working face of the excavation to the tipping (d) point. Average haul The distance from the centre of gravity of the cutting to that of the distance (D) filling. Freehaul The distance, given in the Bill of Quantities, included in the price of Distance excavation per cubic metre. Overhaul The extra distance of transport of earthwork volumes beyond the Distance freehaul distance. The sum of the product of each load by its haul distance. This must Haul equal the total volume of excavation multiplied by the average haul distance, i.e. ∑ vd = VD The product of volumes by their respective overhaul distance. Excess Overhaul payment will depend upon overhaul. Station Metre A unit of overhaul, viz. 1 m3 x 100 m. Borrow The volume of material brought into a section due to a deficiency. Waste The volume of material taken from a section due to excess
16. 16. CASE with1Calculate the cumulative volume Shrinkage Factor 10% Chainage Volume of cutting Volume of fill (m3) (m) (m3) 0 100 22275 200 13902 300 2268 400 17744 500 14256 600 900 SolutionChainage Volume of Volume of fill Shrinkage Skrinkage Corrected Cumulative (m) cutting (m3) (m3) volume (10%) volume volume volume (m3) corrected (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)= (3)+(4) + for cut - for fill 0 0 + 0 100 22275 +22275 + 22275 200 13902 +13902 36177 + 300 2268 226.8 2494.8 -2494.8 33682.2 400 17744 1774.4 19518.4 -19518.4 14163.8 500 14256 1425.6 15684.6 -15684.6 -1517.8 600 900 90 990 -990 -2057.8
17. 17. CASE 1 - MASS HAUL DIAGRAMME (CUMULATIVE VOLUME VS CHAINAGE) 40000 35000 30000CUMULATIVE VOLUME ,m3 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 -5000 CHAINAGE, m
18. 18. CASE 2volume Calculate the cumulativeChainage Volume of cutting Volume of fill (m3) (m) (m3) 0 100 22275 200 13902 300 2268 400 17744 500 14256 600 900 SolutionChainage Volume of Volume of fill Corrected Cumulative (m) cutting (m3) (m3) volume volume (m3) (1) (2) (3) + for cut - for fill + 0 0 0 100 22275 +22275 + 22275 200 13902 +13902+ 36177 300 2268 -2268 33909 400 17744 -17744 16165 500 14256 -14256 1909 600 900 -900 1009
19. 19. CASE 2 - MASS HAUL DIAGRAMME (CUMULATIVE VOLUME VS CHAINAGE) 40000 35000 30000CUMULATIVE VOLUME ,m3 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 CHAINAGE, m
20. 20. SIMPLE QUESTION Plot mass haul diagram with data below Chainage (m) CumulativeVolume (m3) 0 0 100 22275 200 36177 300 33909 400 16165 500 1909 600 1009The mass haul diagram same with before this
21. 21. Analyze Cumulative volume m3 Isipadu Kumulatif (m 3)the MHD C1 C E G F E1 H I J K A1 A D B Chainage Rantaian (m) ,mFrom the graph, Line Description 7.2 : Lengkung Gambarajah Urungan Padu Gambarajah EF Freehaul distance CG Freehaul volume CD Haul volume HI Average haul distance – centre line of CD GD Overhaul volume JK Average overhaul distance - centre line of GD
22. 22. Calculation MHDHaul = Haul volume x average haul distance stn.m 100Freehaul = Freehaul volume x freehaul distance stn.m 100Overhaul = Overhaul volume (average overhaul distance – freehaul distance) stn.m 100
23. 23. Cost of earthwork TOTAL COST OF EARTHWORKFreehaul prices in = freehaul volume x freehaul distance x freehaulfreehaul distance pricesOverhaul prices = overhaul volume x freehaul distance x freehaulin freehaul pricesdistanceOverhaul prices = overhaul volume x (average overhaul distance –in overhaul freehaul distance) x overhaul pricesdistanceBorrow prices = borrow volume x borrow pricesWaste prices = waste volume x waste prices
24. 24. End of topic • Exercise