A study in  Digital Diagnosis Interactive White Boards as seen through the lens of McLuhan’s Tetrad and the Six Forces  of...
<ul><li>Educational Technology is essentially the product of a great historical stream consisting of trial and error, long...
Project Overview <ul><li>Application of Emerging Technology analysis tools to the Interactive White Board (IWB). </li></ul...
McLuhan’s Tetrad <ul><li>Guide to using  </li></ul><ul><li>McLuhan’s Tetrad  </li></ul><ul><li>as an analytic tool </li></...
Six Forces of Emerging Technology Abridged definitions of Emerging Technology concepts to be used during analysis of Media
Objects of within this Analysis Interactive White Board Chalk Board Dry Erase Board (Nextspace, 2007)
McLuhan’s Tetrad  Used to analyze  Chalk Boards and Interactive Whiteboards
History of the Chalk/Blackboard <ul><li>“ Perhaps no one method has so much influenced the quality of the instruction of t...
Progression from Chalkboard  to Interactive Whiteboards <ul><li>Following the intermediate step of the Dry Erase board whi...
McLuhan’s  Tetrad Based Observation <ul><li>The interactive whiteboard is the latest iteration of a classroom kinesthetic ...
Analysis using The 6 Forces that Drive Emerging Technology Room Presentation Aids Chalkboards and Interactive Whiteboards
Evaluation of the forces that set forth obsolescence and emergence <ul><li>Guiding Questions  </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing o...
Interviews with Educators  Looking for identification of the Six forces on the role of technology in the teaching professi...
Interview with Susan Stucker Administrator  – Window Rock Unified School District, Window Rock, Navajo  Reservation, Arizo...
Interview with Evelyn Begody English Educator  – Window Rock High School, Window Rock, Navajo  Reservation, Arizona This i...
Interview with Patricia Wayne Middle School Academic Coach  – Kayenta Middle School, Kayenta, Navajo  Reservation, Arizona...
Interview with Kim Pearce Director of Career Ladder Program (professional career development) Show Low Unified  School Dis...
Rhymes of History Obsolete Technology  Chalkboard 1. Emerged technology likely from Medieval hornbooks. Common student ite...
Science Fiction <ul><li>Obsolete Technology  </li></ul><ul><li>Chalkboard </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of Science Fiction as...
Disruptive Technology <ul><li>Obsolete Technology  </li></ul><ul><li>Chalkboard </li></ul><ul><li>First appeared in 1801 a...
Evolutionary Technology <ul><li>Emerged Technology   </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Whiteboard </li></ul><ul><li>Via the in...
Increasing Return <ul><li>Obsolete Technology  </li></ul><ul><li>Chalkboard </li></ul><ul><li>The literature on the histor...
Red Queen <ul><li>Obsolete Technology  </li></ul><ul><li>Chalkboard </li></ul><ul><li>This form of Technology Force does n...
Highlights of the 6 Forces Chalkboards & Interactive Whiteboard <ul><li>4.  Evolutionary Technology </li></ul><ul><li>IWBs...
Evolution of a Teacher Display Tool <ul><li>Provides a tool for kinesthetic learning to the lesson presentation </li></ul>...
References <ul><li>Andrews, G. (2008). TechVibe.com: One million smartboards equals majority market share. Retrieved from:...
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Multimedia project revolving around the analysis of Interactive Whiteboards as Emerging Technology. Analysis tools are McLuhan's Media Tetrad and Thornburg's Six Forces that Drive Emerging Technologies.

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  1. 1. A study in Digital Diagnosis Interactive White Boards as seen through the lens of McLuhan’s Tetrad and the Six Forces of Emerging Technology Kalman Mannis Walden University 8847 multimedia project Dr. David Thornburg May 10,2010
  2. 2. <ul><li>Educational Technology is essentially the product of a great historical stream consisting of trial and error, long practice and imitation, and sporadic manifestations of unusual individual creativity and persuasion. (Saettler, 2004, p. 4) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Project Overview <ul><li>Application of Emerging Technology analysis tools to the Interactive White Board (IWB). </li></ul><ul><li>IWBs subjected to analysis using Media Analysis tool developed by Marshall McLuhan – The Media Tetrad, and David Thornburg’s – Six Forces of Emergent Technology </li></ul>
  4. 4. McLuhan’s Tetrad <ul><li>Guide to using </li></ul><ul><li>McLuhan’s Tetrad </li></ul><ul><li>as an analytic tool </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement – something the new, that makes the media possible </li></ul><ul><li>Obsolescence – what the media makes obsolete </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval – what item or concept from the past the media retrieves. </li></ul><ul><li>Reversal – the setting created by the media for its own reversal or demise in the future </li></ul>
  5. 5. Six Forces of Emerging Technology Abridged definitions of Emerging Technology concepts to be used during analysis of Media
  6. 6. Objects of within this Analysis Interactive White Board Chalk Board Dry Erase Board (Nextspace, 2007)
  7. 7. McLuhan’s Tetrad Used to analyze Chalk Boards and Interactive Whiteboards
  8. 8. History of the Chalk/Blackboard <ul><li>“ Perhaps no one method has so much influenced the quality of the instruction of the cadets as the blackboard recitations. Major Thayer insisted on this form, although old records show that it was introduced at West Point by Mr. George Baron, a civilian teacher, who in the autumn of 1801 gave to Cadet Swift ‘a specimen of his mode of teaching at the blackboard.’ Today it is the prominent feature in Academic instruction.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Richarson, 1917, p. 25) </li></ul>“ James Pillans, Headmaster of the Old High School of Edinburgh, Scotland, is widely credited for inventing the blackboard and colored chalk which he used to teach geography. Schoolhouses across America that could afford the slate material adopted the medium because it saved teachers re-writing and allowed them to educate larger numbers of students easily. <by the mid 1850’s> Large-size slabs of slate boards were ordered and shipped across America via the ever-expanding railroad systems.” (Ergoindemand, 2010)
  9. 9. Progression from Chalkboard to Interactive Whiteboards <ul><li>Following the intermediate step of the Dry Erase board which provided educators with a tool that eliminated the dust of chalk which was detrimental to both human health and computer technology while allowing greater colors and erase-ability, came the Interactive Whiteboard (IWB). </li></ul><ul><li>The IWB comes with software that enhances the educator access to pictures, animations, templates that allow manipulation, and a way to save everything developed and presented for future use. </li></ul><ul><li>Recent versions of IWBs allow interaction with stylus and finger, while others can be controlled remotely with bluetooth enabled handheld devices. </li></ul><ul><li>The next foreseeable step in the development of this presentation aid is likely to be 3D projection and then interactive 3D projection. This may be the logical reversal in the IWB family and the embedded obsolescence of the current 2D IWB. </li></ul>
  10. 10. McLuhan’s Tetrad Based Observation <ul><li>The interactive whiteboard is the latest iteration of a classroom kinesthetic learning tool. The movement from handheld hornbooks and slates to classroom wall sized chalkboard in the early 1800’s was revolutionary (Richardson, 1917, p. 25). The enhancement it provided allowed educators to present problems and concepts to the whole room at one time. A situation not possible with the prior technology. </li></ul><ul><li>The ease of use freed the teacher from writing lessons on each student’s handheld, allowing the educator the ability to present their lessons in a more effective manner. This also allowed them time for greater depth per subject and more subjects per day. Thus tying the history of learning to the (then) modern classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>For 200 years the Blackboard was the main teacher aid in classroom presentations. Its main drawback was that it could not store information for later retrieval – thus setting the stage for its future obsolescence . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Analysis using The 6 Forces that Drive Emerging Technology Room Presentation Aids Chalkboards and Interactive Whiteboards
  12. 12. Evaluation of the forces that set forth obsolescence and emergence <ul><li>Guiding Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on each force determine if it is able to assist in the explanation as to why the obsolete technology originally emerged ? If not, why weren’t these forces useful in explaining why this technology originally emerged? Explain. </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on each force determine if it is able to assist in the explanation as to why the replacement technology emerged ? Explain. If not, why weren’t these forces useful in explaining why this replacement technology emerged? Explain. </li></ul>Obsolete Technology Chalkboard Emerged Technology Interactive Whiteboard
  13. 13. Interviews with Educators Looking for identification of the Six forces on the role of technology in the teaching profession. * interviewees were not provided background material on the Six Forces <ul><li>The education professional’s Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>All interviewees have a minimum of two decades of education experience in the classroom: </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Stucker is the District level Director for English Language Learning programs for the Window Rock Unified School District </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Begody continues to work in the classroom – at Window Rock High School </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Wayne is a middle school Academic Coach at Kayenta Middle School </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Pierce is the Director of Show Low Unified School District’s Career Ladder – an Arizona Program designed to provide high quality Professional Development and mentor (and track) educators in their implementation of best practices in their classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>What is your vision of the place of technology in education? </li></ul><ul><li>Please envision the ultimate classroom – what would be your top 5 technology must haves? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you see as the next major impact technology will have on education? </li></ul><ul><li>Please compare and contrast these three items: chalkboards, dry erase boards, and interactive whiteboards. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Interview with Susan Stucker Administrator – Window Rock Unified School District, Window Rock, Navajo Reservation, Arizona This is 6 minute, 36 second audio recording taken on May 5, 2010 in Holbrook, AZ at the Northern Arizona Mentoring Academy. Recording was done with a Flip Video camera.
  15. 15. Interview with Evelyn Begody English Educator – Window Rock High School, Window Rock, Navajo Reservation, Arizona This is 6 minute, 35 second audio recording taken on May 5, 2010 in Holbrook, AZ at the Northern Arizona Mentoring Academy. Recording was done with a Flip Video camera. Mrs. Begody requested that her image not be displayed. Logo for the Window Rock Unified School District #8 http://www.wrschool.net/
  16. 16. Interview with Patricia Wayne Middle School Academic Coach – Kayenta Middle School, Kayenta, Navajo Reservation, Arizona <ul><li>This is 3 minute, 12 second audio recording taken on May 5, 2010 in Holbrook, AZ at the Northern Arizona Mentoring Academy. </li></ul><ul><li>Recording was done with a Flip Video camera. </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Wayne requested that her image not be displayed. </li></ul>Kayenta Unified School District # 27 http://www.kayenta.k12.az.us/index.htm
  17. 17. Interview with Kim Pearce Director of Career Ladder Program (professional career development) Show Low Unified School District, Show Low, Arizona This is 3 minute, 31 second audio recording taken on May 5, 2010 in Holbrook, AZ at the Northern Arizona Mentoring Academy. Recording was done with a Flip Video camera.
  18. 18. Rhymes of History Obsolete Technology Chalkboard 1. Emerged technology likely from Medieval hornbooks. Common student item through the early 1800’s in U.S.A. and Europe 2. Slate based wall mounted board with a chalk stylus first identified in Edinburgh Scotland 1801. (Ergoindemand, 2010) 3. First appeared in United States at West Point Military Academy, 1801. (Richardon, 1917) 4. Evolved into common school aid by mid-1800 as an framed enameled board. Using colored chalk (calcium sulfate). 5. Becomes obsolete as mounted polypropylene covered boards are developed in the 1970’s– called Dry Erase. 6. Dry Erase boards rapidly take the place of chalkboards due to ease of use, and elimination of hazards of chalk to health and technology. <ul><li>Emerged Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Whiteboard </li></ul><ul><li>IWBs were made possible due to a blending of technologies including increased cpu capabilities, faster connections to computers for projectors, touch-screen innovations, and control software. </li></ul><ul><li>IWBs are based on Dry Erase board physical design. Transfer can be made without significant changes to classroom architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>IWB designs are currently evolving with choices that include various control devices – stylus, finger, and bluetooth enabled remotes. Each can work with different pieces of software, board design, and projector. Choices have preceded decreases in price points for IWB/projector systems. </li></ul><ul><li>The future of IWBs may be with 3D technology. As of 2010 the hardware and software are expensive but there is indication that the costs are dropping. (Jon Mindingal, CDWG, personal communication April 2010) </li></ul>Parthenon, 20101) Fresh emergence from a previous technology
  19. 19. Science Fiction <ul><li>Obsolete Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Chalkboard </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of Science Fiction as a literary genre was initially coined in 1851 by William Wilson‘ in his A Little Earnest Book upon a Great Old Subject (Franklin, nd). </li></ul><ul><li>2. This product was almost ubiquitous by the mid-1800’s (Richardson, 1917). </li></ul><ul><li>It is unlikely that the initial boards were the product of Science Fiction. Though they were often featured in early Science Fiction movies. </li></ul>Emerged Technology Interactive Whiteboard IWBs may be a tangential outgrowth of Science Fiction from interactive screens for controlled distance viewing and scientific data display. It is likely the Science Fiction genre had little direct impact on the development of IWBs. Inspired Innovation from the works of Science Fiction.
  20. 20. Disruptive Technology <ul><li>Obsolete Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Chalkboard </li></ul><ul><li>First appeared in 1801 at an Edinburgh Scotland High School. </li></ul><ul><li>The region is home to numerous slate mines. </li></ul><ul><li>The innovative juxtapositioning of regional slate and calcium carbonates (chalk) may have required an observant individual with a specific need. This has been described as James Pillans, Headmaster of the Old High School of Edinburgh Scotland (Ergoindemand, 2010). </li></ul>Emergence of a wildcard or unanticipated technology <ul><li>Emerged Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Whiteboard </li></ul><ul><li>By definition it is unlikely that IWBs are the result of Disruptive Technology. </li></ul><ul><li>2. IWBs are more likely the result of entrepreneurial innovation and the movement to blend technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>3. First IWBs were developed by SMART Technologies in 1991, and reached $100 million by the end of fiscal 2002 (Manning, 2002). </li></ul>Nancy Knowlton and David Martin of SMART Technologies stand proudly in front of one of their winning products (Manning, 2002).
  21. 21. Evolutionary Technology <ul><li>Emerged Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Whiteboard </li></ul><ul><li>Via the intermediate step of the polypropylene coated Dry Erase board, the Interactive Whiteboard (IWB) is the direct descendent of the classroom Chalk or Blackboard. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chalkboard served as the first documented data delivery device in the classroom for which all students could view posted material at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>Chalkboard data was originally presented using artificially colored calcium carbonate (which was replaced with the more stable calcium sulfate or gypsum). The resulting scribing was erasable – making the board reusable, unlike paper, bark, or dirt. </li></ul><ul><li>The dry erase whiteboard follows the development by Sanford Corporation (Oak Brook, IL) of the EXPO dry erase marker in 1976. Within ten years dry erase marker boards were found throughout Europe and the United States (Wojenski, nd). </li></ul><ul><li>The IWB takes the ease of the dry erase board and adds digital applications, the ability to project media, and the ability to prepare and to save presentations for future use. </li></ul><ul><li>The next step for the IWB is likely to be a change in the projection format from 2D to 3D. In time, with 3D interactivity, the IWB may become obsolete. </li></ul>New Technology is the direct outgrowth from a similar ancestor (Good Things, 2010) “ hornbook primer of a kind in use from the 15th to the 18th cent. On one side of a sheet of parchment or paper the matter to be learned was written or printed….” (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2008) From: A. W. Tuer, History of the Hornbook (2 vol., 1896, repr. 1968) <ul><li>Obsolete Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Chalkboard </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to the early 1800’s there is no identified wall mounted, eraseable education tool in the United States or European schools. </li></ul><ul><li>The closest precursor for the chalkboard was the hand held hornbook. This student level tool was in actively used between the 15 th to late 18 th century (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>It appears that the chalkboard obsolesced the horn-book. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Increasing Return <ul><li>Obsolete Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Chalkboard </li></ul><ul><li>The literature on the history of the Chalk/Blackboard does not indicate any particular competing challenger. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Over the generations the material of the board and the chalk changed, but the physical presentation and use were consistent (Ergoindemand, 2010). </li></ul>Emerged Technology Interactive Whiteboard Since the first IWB was developed in 1991 by SMART technologies, there have been competitors but as of 2008 SMART Technology controlled 53% of the world market in IWBs (Andrews, 2008). The process where one of several competing formats is chosen – even if it is not the most efficient or effective. Betamax
  23. 23. Red Queen <ul><li>Obsolete Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Chalkboard </li></ul><ul><li>This form of Technology Force does not appear to be a factor in the development or obsolescence of Chalkboards. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Chalkboards were the predominant teaching aid for 200 years. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The tool was made obsolete initially by Dry Erase boards which helped eliminate the damaging affects of chalk on health and technology, then progressively by IWBs starting in the early 1990s. </li></ul>Emerged Technology Interactive Whiteboard 1. IWBs can be considered to still to emerging. 2. As of 2010 there does not appear to be a set of competitors who are vying for predominance with innovation wars. 3. Companies producing IWBs are becoming more common, but without significant innovations. A competition between two competitors in one form of technology where all others are excluded. ( Animated, 2010)
  24. 24. Highlights of the 6 Forces Chalkboards & Interactive Whiteboard <ul><li>4. Evolutionary Technology </li></ul><ul><li>IWBs descend from Chalkboards via the intermediary – Dry Erase Marker Boards. </li></ul><ul><li>IWBs may be an intermediate step to 3D interactive projection. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Increasing Return </li></ul><ul><li>This step in classroom data presentation does not appear to be in the midst of format competition. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Red Queen </li></ul><ul><li>At this time in the development of interactive whiteboard technology there does not appear to be any corporate competition boosting change or adaptations to the format. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Rhymes of History </li></ul><ul><li>In the vein of revolutions – agricultural, industrial and digital, data presentation formats have evolved with educational needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Starting with horn-books to chalkboards to dry erase marker boards, the IWB is the latest in a line of devices to ease data delivery and knowledge transfer. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Science Fiction </li></ul><ul><li>No apparent direct association to the genre. </li></ul><ul><li>IWBs would not be possible though without the serendipitous appearance of various computer based technologies – some of which may have been envisioned in Science Fiction. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Disruptive Technology </li></ul><ul><li>By all accounts of corporate and product history there does not appear to be a disruptive technology component to the development of chalkboards or IWBs. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Evolution of a Teacher Display Tool <ul><li>Provides a tool for kinesthetic learning to the lesson presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps alive the idea of apprenticeship, where the teacher/master guides the student/apprentice in active learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Is at an intermediate step where the Interactive whiteboards is likely just the next tool in a line stretching forward from antiquity – from dirt floors and tree bark to horn-books, Chalk/Blackboards, and dry erase boards. Leading to 3D technology and perhaps interactive holographic displays. </li></ul>
  26. 26. References <ul><li>Andrews, G. (2008). TechVibe.com: One million smartboards equals majority market share. Retrieved from: http://www.techvibes.com/blog/one-million-smart-boards-equals-majority-market-share </li></ul><ul><li>Animated gif (2010). Various animated gifs. Retrieved from: http://www.feebleminds-gifs.com </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Science Corporation (2008). Digital Disruptions. Retrieved from: //assets1.csc.com/lef/downloads/LEF_2008DigitalDisruptions.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Ergoindemand (2010). History of the blackboard. Retrieved from: http://www.ergoindemand.com/about_chalkboards.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Franklin, H.B. (nd). The history of science fiction. Retrieved from: http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~hbf/sfhist.html </li></ul><ul><li>Good Things (2010). Clipart, Evolution. Retrieved from: http://www.good-thing.net/pictures/funny_pictures_of_evolution.php#_self </li></ul><ul><li>The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition ( 2008). Hornbook. Retrieved May 10, 2010 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-hornbook.html </li></ul><ul><li>Manning Innovation Awards (2002). 2002 Manning Innovation Award announcements. Retrieved from: http://www.manningawards.ca/media/newsletter/pdf/october2002.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Nextspace (2007). Smarttech interactive whiteboard/projector. Retrieved from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/nextspace/788104516/ </li></ul><ul><li>Parthenon Graphics (2010). American Education Timeline. Retrieved from: http://chaos1.hypermart.net/fullsize/ce4fs.gif </li></ul><ul><li>Popham, W.J. (2006). Assessment for educational leaders. Boston: Pearson. </li></ul><ul><li>Richardson, R.C. (1917). West Point: An intimate picture of the national military academy and the life of a cadet. New York: Putnam’s Sons. </li></ul><ul><li>Saettler, P. (2004). The evolution of american educational technology, 2 nd ed. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Thornburg, D. (2008) Red queens, butterflys, and strange attractors: Imperfect lenses into emergent technologies. Retrieved from: //sylvan.live.ecollege.com/ec/courses/14936/crs-wueduc8812-3730077/red_queens,_butterflys,_ and strange_attractors.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Wojenski, J. (nd). Erasing the Past, Typing the Future: Timeline of the Chalkboard, Retrieved from: http://www.isrl.illinois.edu/~chip/projects/timeline/1801wojenski.htm </li></ul>
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