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Mixed methods research

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  • 1. MixedMethodsResearchProfessor Dr. Khalid MahmoodUniversity of the PunjabLahore – PAKISTAN1
  • 2. Acknowledgement This presentation has been prepared with thehelp of many books and presentations on thetopic. The presenter pays his sincere gratitude to allauthors, professors and experts for their effortsand contributions. Particular thanks to Professor John W. Creswellof University of Nebraska-Lincoln for his un-matched contribution on the topic.2
  • 3. 3Agenda Three types of research designs Qualitative vs. quantitative research Pragmatism – Philosophy behind MMR Reasons for “mixing” How methods can be mixed Planning mixed methods procedures Notations to describe MM designs 6 mixed methods designs Further readings
  • 4. Three types of research designs Qualitative research – exploring andunderstanding the meaning individuals orgroups ascribe to a social or human problem. Quantitative research – testing objectivetheories by examining the relationship amongvariables. Mixed methods research – an approach toinquiry that combines or associates bothqualitative and quantitative forms.4
  • 5. Qualitative vs. quantitative researchCriteria Qualitative Research Quantitative ResearchPurpose To understand & interpretsocial interactions.To test hypotheses, look atcause & effect, & makepredictions.Group Studied Smaller & not randomlyselected.Larger & randomly selected.Variables Study of the whole, notvariables.Specific variables studiedType of DataCollectedWords, images, or objects. Numbers and statistics.Form of DataCollectedQualitative data such asopen-ended responses,interviews, participantobservations, field notes, &reflections.Quantitative data based onprecise measurements usingstructured & validated data-collection instruments.5
  • 6. 6Criteria Qualitative Research Quantitative ResearchType of DataAnalysisIdentify patterns, features,themes.Identify statistical relationships.Objectivity andSubjectivitySubjectivity is expected. Objectivity is critical.Role ofResearcherResearcher & their biases may beknown to participants in the study,& participant characteristics maybe known to the researcher.Researcher & their biases are notknown to participants in the study, &participant characteristics aredeliberately hidden from theresearcher (double blind studies).Results Particular or specialized findingsthat is less generalizable.Generalizable findings that can beapplied to other populations.ScientificMethodExploratory or bottom–up: theresearcher generates a newhypothesis and theory from thedata collected.Confirmatory or top-down: theresearcher tests the hypothesis andtheory with the data.Qualitative vs. quantitative research
  • 7. 7Criteria Qualitative Research Quantitative ResearchView of HumanBehaviorDynamic, situational, social, &personal.Regular & predictable.Most CommonResearchObjectivesExplore, discover, & construct. Describe, explain, & predict.Focus Wide-angle lens; examines thebreadth & depth of phenomena.Narrow-angle lens; tests aspecific hypotheses.Nature ofObservationStudy behavior in a naturalenvironment.Study behavior under controlledconditions; isolate causal effects.Nature of Reality Multiple realities; subjective. Single reality; objective.Final Report Narrative report with contextualdescription & direct quotationsfrom research participants.Statistical report withcorrelations, comparisons ofmeans, & statistical significanceof findings.Qualitative vs. quantitative research
  • 8. Pragmatism – Philosophy behind MMR Arises out of actions, situations, andconsequences rather than antecedentconditions. There is a concern with applications—whatworks—and solutions to problems. Instead of focusing on methods, researchersemphasize the research problem and use allapproaches available to understand theproblem.8
  • 9. Reasons for “mixing” The insufficient argument – either quantitative orqualitative may be insufficient by itself Multiple angles argument – quantitative and qualitativeapproaches provide different “pictures” The more-evidence-the-better argument – combinedquantitative and qualitative provides more evidence Community of practice argument – mixed methods maybe the preferred approach within a scholarly community Eager-to-learn argument – it is the latest methodology “Its intuitive” argument – it mirrors “real life”9
  • 10. How methods can be mixedTypes of mixing CommentsTwo types of research question. One fitting a quantitative approach andthe other qualitative.The manner in which the researchquestions are developed.Preplanned (quantitative) versusparticipatory/emergent (qualitative).Two types of sampling procedure. Probability versus purposive.Two types of data collectionprocedures.Surveys (quantitative) versus focusgroups (qualitative).Two types of data analysis. Numerical versus textual (or visual).Two types of data analysis. Statistical versus thematic.Two types of conclusions. Objective versus subjectiveinterpretations. 10
  • 11. Planning mixed methods proceduresTiming Weighting Mixing TheorizingNoSequenceConcurrentEqual Integrating ExplicitSequential -QualitativefirstQualitative Connecting ImplicitSequential -QuantitativefirstQuantitative Embedding11
  • 12. Notations to describe MM designs12
  • 13. Mixed methods designs Sequential Explanatory Design Sequential Exploratory Design Sequential Transformative Design Concurrent Triangulation Design Concurrent Embedded Design Concurrent Transformative Design13
  • 14. Sequential explanatory design14QUANData &ResultsQUANData &ResultsInterpretationInterpretationqualData &ResultsqualData &ResultsFollowing up
  • 15. 15Sequential explanatory design:Characteristics Viewing the study as a two-phase project Collecting quantitative data first followed bycollecting qualitative data second Typically, a greater emphasis is placed on thequantitative data in the study Example: You first conduct a survey and thenfollow up with a few individuals who answeredpositively to the questions through interviews
  • 16. 16Sequential explanatory design:When do you use it? When you want to explain the quantitativeresults in more depth with qualitative data(e.g., statistical differences among groups,individuals who scored at extreme levels) When you want to identify appropriateparticipants to study in more depthqualitatively
  • 17. 17The purpose of this two-phase, explanatory mixed methodsstudy will be to obtain statistical, quantitative results from asample and then follow-up with a few individuals to probe orexplore those results in more depth. In the first phase,quantitative research questions or hypotheses will address therelationship or comparison of __________ (independent) and________ (dependent) variables with ___________(participants) at ___________(the research site). In thesecond phase, qualitative interviews or observations will beused to problem significant _______(quantitative results) byexploring aspects of the ________ (central phenomenon) with_______ (a few participants) at ____________ (researchsite).Sequential explanatory design:Sample script
  • 18. Sequential exploratory design18QUALData &ResultsQUALData &ResultsquanData &ResultsquanData &Results InterpretationInterpretationBuilding to
  • 19. 19Sequential exploratory design:Characteristics Viewing the study as a two-phase project Qualitative data collection precedes quantitativedata collection Typically, greater emphasis is placed on thequalitative data in the study Example: You collect qualitative diary entries,analyze the data for themes, and then developan instrument based on the themes to measureattitudes on a quantitative survey administeredto a large sample.
  • 20. 20Sequential exploratory design:When do you use it? To develop an instrument when one is notavailable (first explore, then developinstrument) To develop a classification or typology fortesting To identify the most important variables tostudy quantitatively when these variable arenot known
  • 21. 21The purpose of this two-phase, exploratory mixed methodsstudy will be to explore participant views with the intent ofusing this information to develop and test an instrument witha sample from a population. The first phase will be aqualitative exploration of a _______(central phenomenon) bycollecting ___________(data) from ____________(participants) at _______ (research site). Themes from thisqualitative data will then be developed into an instrument (orsurvey) so that the __________ (theory and researchquestions/hypotheses) can be tested that ________ (relate,compare) ____________ (independent variable) with__________ (dependent variable) for _________(sample of apopulation) at _________ (research site).Sequential exploratory design:Sample script
  • 22. Sequential transformative design22QUAL quanSocial science theory, qualitative theory, advocacy worldviewQUAN qualSocial science theory, qualitative theory, advocacy worldview
  • 23. Sequential transformative design:Characteristics23 Has two distinct data collection phases A theoretical perspective is used to guide thestudy Purpose is to use methods that will bestserve the theoretical perspective of theresearcher
  • 24. Concurrent triangulation design24QUANData and Results+ QUALData and ResultsInterpretation
  • 25. 25Concurrent triangulation design:Characteristics Collecting both quantitative and qualitative data Collecting these data at the same time in theresearch procedure Analyzing the quantitative and qualitative dataseparately Comparing or combining the results of thequantitative and qualitative analysis Example: collect survey data (quantitative) andcollect individual interviews (qualitative) and thencompare the results
  • 26. 26Concurrent triangulation design:When is it used? When you want to combine the advantages ofquantitative (trends, large numbers,generalization) with qualitative (detail, smallnumbers, in-depth) When you want to validate your quantitativefindings with qualitative data When you want to expand your quantitativefindings with some open-ended qualitative data(e.g., survey with closed- and open-ended data)
  • 27. Concurrent embedded design27QUANqualQUALquanQUANPre-testData &ResultsQUANPre-testData &ResultsQUANPost-testData &ResultsQUANPost-testData &ResultsInterventionqualProcessqualProcessInterpretationInterpretation
  • 28. Concurrent embedded design:Characteristics One data collection phase during which bothquantitative and qualitative data are collected(one is determined to be the primary method). The primary method guides the project and thesecondary provides a supporting role in theprocedures. The secondary method is “embedded” or“nested” within the predominant method andaddresses a different question.28
  • 29. 29The purpose of this concurrent mixed methods studyis to better understand a research problem byconverging both quantitative (numeric) and qualitative(text or image) data. In this approach, ___________(quantitative instruments) will be used to measure therelationship between the ________ (independentvariables) and __________ (dependent variables). Atthe same time in the study, the __________ (centralphenomenon) will be explored using _____________(qualitative interviews, documents, observations,visual materials) with _________ (participants) at____________ (the research site).Sample script for a concurrent design(Triangulation or nested)
  • 30. Concurrent transformative design30QUAN + QUALSocial science theory, qualitative theory,advocacy worldviewQUALSocial science theory, qualitative theory,advocacy worldviewquan
  • 31. Concurrent transformative design:Characteristics Guided by a theoretical perspective. Concurrent collection of both quantitative andqualitative data. The design may have one method embedded inthe other so that diverse participants are given achoice in the change process of an organization.31
  • 32. Further readings32

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