8 avoiding plagiarism-khalid


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8 avoiding plagiarism-khalid

  1. 1. Avoiding Plagiarism in Research Prof. Dr. Khalid MahmoodDepartment of Library and Information Science University of the Punjab Lahore, PAKISTAN 1
  2. 2. Plagiarism – Definition Taking and using the thoughts, writings, and inventions of another person as ones own Using someone’s ideas without citing or quoting; thereby, receiving credit for someone else’s intellectual effort 2
  3. 3. How serious is the problem?“A study of almost 4,500 students at 25 schools, suggests cheating is . . . a significant problem in high school - 74% of the respondents admitted to one or more instances of serious test cheating and 72% admitted to serious cheating on written assignments. Over half of the students admitted they have engaged in some level of plagiarism on written assignments using the Internet.”Based on the research of Donald L. McCabe, Rutgers UniversitySource: “CIA Research.” Center for Academic Integrity, Duke University, 2003. 3
  4. 4. Why is this a problem? For the student  failure to achieve academic learning outcomes  treated as academic misconduct For the teacher  a waste of time For the institution  threat to reputation and value of degrees  Quality assurance, regulations, and legislative context 4
  5. 5. Forms of plagiarism Copying from a single source Copying from several sources Paraphrasing Collusion 5
  6. 6. How to avoid plagiarism Use quotes for  Information that comes directly from any source  Words, spoken or written, that you use directly from another person Make sure you document the source 6
  7. 7. How to avoid plagiarism Paraphrase  Write the information in your own words, but do not change its meaning or intention  Because you are using someone else’s idea, always mention the source even if you use your own words 7
  8. 8. Common knowledge Any information, fact, or statement that is widespread and known by a variety of people is considered common knowledge  John Adams was the second president of USA  The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 There is no need to give credit to information that is of common knowledge 8
  9. 9. When should I cite? Is it your idea? Yes NOIs it common knowledge? Do not cite No Cite it!! 9
  10. 10. Accidental plagiarismUsing words from another source without indicating where they came from. Ways to avoid accidental plagiarism:  Careful note taking  A clear understanding of the rules for quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing sources 10
  11. 11. When in doubt, cite. 11
  12. 12. Plagiarism detection software 12
  13. 13. Penalties for teachers, researchers and staff Dismissal from service Demotion to the next lower grade Warning Freezing of research grants Promotions/annual increments of the offender may be stopped University may debar the offender from sponsorship of research funding, travel grant, supervision of Ph.D. students, scholarship, fellowship or any other funded program Offender may be “Black Listed” and may NOT be eligible for employment in any academic / research organization Notification of “Black Listing” of the author may be published in the print media or may be publicized on different websites 13
  14. 14. Penalties for students Expelled/ rusticated from the University and from joining any institution of Higher Education in Pakistan Relegated to a lower class Given a failure grade in the subject Fined an amount Given a written warning if the offence is minor and is committed for the first time Degree may be withdrawn Notification of plagiarism by the author may be published in the print media or may be publicized on different websites University may debar the offender from sponsorship of research funding, travel grant, scholarship, fellowship or any other funded program 14
  15. 15. Good luck 15