Finding information sources Formal ways University libraries Special libraries and government departments Inter-library loan Informal ways Authors Personal libraries of experts Your friends 4
Boolean OperatorsBoolean operators allow you to join terms together, widen a searchor exclude terms from your search results. This means you can bemore precise in locating your information. AND OR NOT 11
Phrase SearchingIt narrows your search down by searching for an exact phrase or sentence. It is particularly useful when searching for a title or a quotation. Usually quotation marks are used to connect the words together.For example“Towards a healthier Scotland” 13
Truncation / WildcardThese search techniques retrieve information on similar words by replacing part of the word with a symbol usually a * or ?. However, different databases use different symbols, so check what is used. In truncation the end of the word is replaced. For example physiother* will retrieve physiotherapy, physiotherapeutic, physiotherapist and so on. In wildcard searching, letters from inside the word are replaced. For example wom*n will retrieve the terms woman and women. 14
Proximity SearchingIt looks for documents where two or more separately matching term occurrences are within a specified distance, where distance is the number of intermediate words or characters For example Term A NEAR Term B Term A ADJ Term B 15
Focusing / Limiting a SearchThere are many ways to focus your search and all search tools offer different ways of doing this. Some of the ways of limiting your search are as follows: Date Language Place Publication type Age groups Type of material e.g. you could just need to find case studies 16
General Search Engines Google Yahoo AltaVista FAST Search MSN Search Lycos Excite 17
Subject DirectoriesAlso called Information Gateways and Virtual Libraries Yahoo Directory Librarians’ Internet Index About.com Infomine The WWW Virtual Library Specialized Subject Directories Abi Logic Solid Crawler Academic Info SOSIG - Social Science Information Gateway 22
Electronic Theses and Dissertations - ETDs Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations Catalog of theses and doctoral dissertations contributed by some 176 universities and 27 institutions worldwide British Library EThOS 250,000+ theses of British universities Many are free Proquest Dissertations & Theses Database World’s most comprehensive collection of dissertations and theses with over 2.7 million titles 24
Networked Digital Library ofTheses and Dissertations 25
Online Databases Bibliographic databases ERIC, Agricola, Medline, EconLit, PsychINFO Numeric databases Stat-USA, UN Common Database Full text databases ScienceDirect, Emerald, JSTOR 26
Free e-books Libgen.info 800,000+ books The Online Books Page 1,000,000+ books Project Gutenberg 40,000+ books Internet Public Library 20,000+ books 29
HEC – Online Resources National Digital Library Over 30 databases with over 23,000 journals Accessible by 250 institutions in Pakistan 50,000 e-books Links to open access resources Pakistan Research Repository Full text of over 6,500 Pakistani doctoral theses 30
Library Web OPACs Libdex Worldwide index of library catalogs WorldCat 2 billion items from 72,000 libraries worldwide Library of Congress The British Library National Library of Pakistan 33
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