China 1793: The Qing emperor agreed to meet an English ambassador He brought the west’s most advanced technology Clocks Globes Musical instruments Hot air balloon Qing was not impressed, he felt China had everything it needed
<ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>China had a strong agricultural economy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquired a quick growing strain of rice that was grown throughout southern China. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Spanish and Portuguese traders brought maize, sweet potatoes and peanuts. This led to increased productivity. </li></ul></ul>
China also had a large mining and manufacturing industry. 1) Salt, tin, silver and iron mines 2) China also created silks, high- quality cottons and porcelain. These industries created jobs for hundreds of thousands. Economy Does China need any assistance from the outside world?
Opening Up Trade The Chinese did little trading with the west. Guangzhou (gwahng-joh) only port Chinese allowed foreigners to use. Balance of trade in China’s favor. What does this mean? Europeans needed to find a product that China would buy. What do you think that product was?
Opium: a habit forming narcotic made from the poppy plant. Opening Up Trade
Opium had been used in China for years by doctors. Now the Europeans were smuggling it in for non-medical use. By 1835 12 million Chinese people had been addicted to the drug. China asked Britain to stop but there was no response. This led to open conflict. Opening Up Trade
1839 : Opium War. The Battles took place at sea. 1842 China signed a treaty, The Treaty of Nanjing Britain received Hong Kong (Returned 1997) War
1844 U.S. and other foreign powers gained rights. Exemption from Chinese law at four Chinese ports. How do you think the Chinese felt? Did the Opium trade stop after the Opium War? War
Internal Problems 1850: population 430 million 30% gain in 60 years Feeding the population began to become difficult Dikes holding back Yellow River began to crumble Granaries were empty Opium addiction was on the rise
1853: Taiping Rebellion Led by Hong Xiuquan Influenced by Christian missionaries Internal Problems Hong had mystical visions and wanted to save the world “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace” 1 million Chinese had joined the rebellion and they controlled most of southeastern China. By 1864 the rebellion was crushed by Qing Emperor
1861-1908 Empress Cixi (tsoo-shee) rules China. Believed in traditional Chinese ways but backed a self strengthening movement. Updated: Educational system Diplomatic service Military REFORM
By 1875 China had one of the largest arsenals in the world Munitions - Steam powered gunboats - Rifles Unfortunately, the quality was not good and the European powers knew this. REFORM
Sphere of Influence: a region where the foreign nation controlled trade and investment China’s weak military was not a secret to the world. Many foreign nations took advantage of this in the late 19th century. Foreign powers attacked China and secured treaties giving them control over large sections of China. Spheres of Influence
America feared being shut out. To prevent this in 1899 the U.S. declared the Open Door Policy. Open Door Policy Open Door Policy : proposed that China’s “doors” be open to merchants of all nations. Britain and other European nations agreed. It helped keep China from being colonized but she was still at the mercy of foreign powers.
The Chinese people became very frustrated with their situation. Chinese Nationalism <ul><li>Resented all of the privileges </li></ul><ul><li>granted to foreigners </li></ul><ul><li>Resented Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Christians, protected by </li></ul><ul><li>foreign missionaries </li></ul>
Chinese Nationalism Poor peasants and workers created a secret society known as the… “ Society of Harmonious Fists” Foreigners called them the: Boxers
Spring 1900, the Boxers rise-up throughout China Boxer Rebellion Beijing : Boxers surround the European sector, Foreigners under siege but manage to hold off the Boxers. There is much loss of life. Country Side : Kill missionaries and Chinese converts Major Cities : Move to cities to kill all foreigners
August 1900: Multinational force sent in to rescue besieged westerners in Beijing Boxer Rebellion Known as the: Eight Power Allied Forces 20,000 soldiers: Britain France Germany Austria Italy Russia Japan United States
The Boxer Rebellion was crushed. However, a strong sense of nationalism was created. Reform Reform is slow and inconclusive 1905 - Delegates are sent to view other governments 1906 - Recommendations made 1908 - The Qing court announces that it will establish a full constitutional government by 1917. Unfortunately, turmoil and unrest continue for next 40 years China struggled to remain isolated from the west. However, Japan responds very differently.