Open Pedagogy and Edu Design
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Open Pedagogy and Edu Design

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This presentation identifies motivations for and myths about open educational resources. The presentation was shared for a workshop "Open Education for Collaboration, Flexibility, and Global ...

This presentation identifies motivations for and myths about open educational resources. The presentation was shared for a workshop "Open Education for Collaboration, Flexibility, and Global Visibility", which I gave at University of Nairobi on August 27, 2013. All of the materials for the workshop are available at http://openmi.ch/uon-aug2013.

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  • The goal of these processes is to allow multiple points of view and perspective to be shared in the group process with minimal restriction or censoring. This allows everyone to participate in the conversation and direction of the solution.
  • :: learning is more about how than what
  • Notes from: “Empowering the Medical School Educator to Teach More Effectively”, CC BY Chris Chapman, University of Michigan, http://open.umich.edu/education/med/resources/teach-effectively/2012/. To help your learners retain what they are taught in a lecture: Start and finish with the most important content Prime-time-1 & Prime-time-2. Present new information at the beginning (Prime-time-1) Put the least important content in the middle Down-time =Allow for practice, review, business, etc. in the middle (Down-time) At end Allow students to mentally reprocess (closure) the material at the end (Prime-time-2)
  • “ Implications of the Theory Humans have two separate channels to process auditory and visual information At the first transfer to working memory, the learner selects fragments of auditory and visual content to process Each channel has a finite capacity and can be overloaded The mind creates separate models for each modality and integrates them with past knowledge in the final step of learning ” Notes from: “Instructional Design Tips for Computer-Based E-Learning”, CC BY Cary Engleberg, University of Michigan, http://open.umich.edu/education/med/oernetwork/guides/instructional-design-tips/2010.
  • The theme running through these stories…

Open Pedagogy and Edu Design Open Pedagogy and Edu Design Presentation Transcript

  • Kathleen Ludewig Omollo University of Michigan - Open.Michigan Initiative Audience: University of Nairobi School of Public Health Download slides: http://openmi.ch/uon-aug2013 Except where otherwise noted, this work is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Copyright 2013 The Regents of the University of Michigan. 1 Open Education - Designing the Learning Experience Open Education for Collaboration, Flexibility, and Global Visibility
  • Objective 2 • Examine approaches to designing learning experiences that promote social-cognitive learning
  • Illustration is All Rights Reserved Susan E. Haviland, 2008. From the article: Minds on Fire, by John Seely Brown and Richard P. Adler, 2008, at http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/minds-fire-open-education-long-tail-and-learning-20. The text of this article is shared under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license. 3
  • Open Education Ecosystem Validating learning through OE Validating learning through OE Certifi- cates Certifi- cates CreditsCredits BadgesBadges http://www.oer-europe.net/ http://www.fgv.br/fgvonline https://p2pu.org/en/       Slide from: “Opening Up – Enabling Innovation and New Ways of Learning through Open Education in Africa”, CC BY, Igor Lesko, Open Courseware Consortium, elearning Africa 2013, http://www.slideshare.net/OCWConsortium/opening-up-enabling-innovation-and-new-ways-of-learning-through-open-education-in-africa. 4
  • Small Group Learning • What conditions are necessary in order for small group discussions to be successful learning experiences? 5
  • Small group learning should support cooperation & collaboration 6 Cooperation Collaboration Task based work Roles change Separate roles Undefined goals Structured tasks Solutions negotiated by participants through communication Specific end or goal Open-ended questions/problems Close-ended questions/problems Can involve arguing, tension, etc. in the process (Egbert, 2009) Slide adapted from: “Empowering the Medical School Educator to Teach More Effectively”, CC BY Chris Chapman, University of Michigan, http://open.umich.edu/education/med/resources/teach-effectively/2012/.
  • Small group learning should encourage multiple perspectives. 7 Slide adapted from: “Empowering the Medical School Educator to Teach More Effectively”, CC BY Chris Chapman, University of Michigan, http://open.umich.edu/education/med/resources/teach-effectively/2012/.
  • Small group decision making should be transparent. 8 Slide adapted from: “Empowering the Medical School Educator to Teach More Effectively”, CC BY Chris Chapman, University of Michigan, http://open.umich.edu/education/med/resources/teach-effectively/2012/. Type Description Command Group leader or other trusted individual makes final decision. Consult An external authority or expert in the field of interest evaluates the information generated by the group and makes the decision. Vote Use when there are several good options to choose from. Do not use if some group members will not support the final vote. Consensus Use with high stakes/complex issues or when everyone must support the final decision. (Patterson, Grenny, McMillian, & Switzler, 2002) Jonan Donaldson Oregon State University Ecampus
  • Digital literacies are built through digital portfolios. Slide from: Building Digital Literacies through Digital Portfolios, Jonan Donaldson Oregon State University Ecampus, CC BY
  • Learning is an increase in knowledge. “a change in what the learner knows, caused by a learning experience” “a change in what the learner knows, caused by a learning experience” 10 Source: Mayer, R. E. (2011). Applying the science of learning. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, p. 14.
  • Illustration is All Rights Reserved Susan E. Haviland, 2008. From the article: Minds on Fire, by John Seely Brown and Richard P. Adler, 2008, at http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/minds-fire-open-education-long-tail-and-learning-20. The text of this article is shared under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license. 11
  • Illustration is All Rights Reserved Susan E. Haviland, 2008. From the article: Minds on Fire, by John Seely Brown and Richard P. Adler, 2008, at http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/minds-fire-open-education-long-tail-and-learning-20. The text of this article is shared under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license. 12
  • Learning As Social Activity • Learning is not possession of a collection of facts, it’s the expression of a capacity • Learning is recognized by a community of experts in a network 13 We recognize our understandings… …by the way we use them in our social network Learning analytics Slide adapted from: “OERS, MOOCs, and the Future”, CC BY NC SA, Stephen Downes, May 25, 2013, http://www.slideshare.net/Downes/2013-05-25-couros-course2013.
  • 14 Illustration is All Rights Reserved Susan E. Haviland, 2008. From the article: Minds on Fire, by John Seely Brown and Richard P. Adler, 2008, at http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/minds-fire-open-education-long-tail-and-learning-20. The text of this article is shared under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license.
  • Instruction is intentional. • “Manipulating what the learner experiences with the intention to cause a change in the learner’s knowledge” • “Manipulating what the learner experiences with the intention to cause a change in the learner’s knowledge” 15 Source: Mayer, R. E. (2011). Applying the science of learning. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, p. 52.
  • Learning vs Instruction 16 Source: Mayer, R. E. (2011). Applying the science of learning. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, p. 52. Slide from: “Empowering the Medical School Educator to Teach More Effectively”, CC BY, Chris Chapman, http://open.umich.edu/education/med/resources/teach-effectively/2012.
  • Memory retention is best at start and end of lecture. 17 Sousa, D. A. (2006). How the brain learns (3rd Edition). Thousand Oaks, Ca: Corwin Press. Figure 3.4
  • Working Memory is the cognitive system that holds and processes new information. 18 Babbage Baddeley’s model of working memory. Wikipedia Slide from: “PowerPoint Supported by the Science of Learning”, CC BY Barbara Eckstein, University of Michigan, http://www.slideshare.net/ummedicalschool/powerpoint-supported-by-the-science-of-learning-using-the-assertionevidence-model-to-make-your-po
  • Working Memory is the cognitive system that holds and processes new information. 19 Controls Focus of Attention Slide from: “PowerPoint Supported by the Science of Learning”, CC BY Barbara Eckstein, University of Michigan, http://www.slideshare.net/ummedicalschool/powerpoint-supported-by-the-science-of-learning-using-the-assertionevidence-model-to-make-your-po Babbage Baddeley’s model of working memory. Wikipedia
  • Working Memory is the cognitive system that holds and processes new information. 20 Processes Language – Visual and Audio Slide from: “PowerPoint Supported by the Science of Learning”, CC BY Barbara Eckstein, University of Michigan, http://www.slideshare.net/ummedicalschool/powerpoint-supported-by-the-science-of-learning-using-the-assertionevidence-model-to-make-your-po Babbage Baddeley’s model of working memory. Wikipedia
  • Working Memory is the cognitive system that holds and processes new information. 21 Processes Images and Orients Person in Space Slide from: “PowerPoint Supported by the Science of Learning”, CC BY Barbara Eckstein, University of Michigan, http://www.slideshare.net/ummedicalschool/powerpoint-supported-by-the-science-of-learning-using-the-assertionevidence-model-to-make-your-po Babbage Baddeley’s model of working memory. Wikipedia
  • Working Memory is the cognitive system that holds and processes new information. 22 Moves Information to Long Term Memory Slide from: “PowerPoint Supported by the Science of Learning”, CC BY Barbara Eckstein, University of Michigan, http://www.slideshare.net/ummedicalschool/powerpoint-supported-by-the-science-of-learning-using-the-assertionevidence-model-to-make-your-po Babbage Baddeley’s model of working memory. Wikipedia
  • Proven Instructional Principles for Multimedia • Coherence: – Extraneous material not related to the focus of the lesson overloads the processing channels and impedes learning • Visual: unnecessary colors, complicated drawings, irrelevant pictures or on-screen text • Auditory: background music or sound effects 24Slide adapted from: “Instructional Design Tips for Computer-Based E-Learning”, CC BY Cary Engleberg, University of Michigan, http://open.umich.edu/education/med/oernetwork/guides/instructional-design-tips/2010.
  • There are multiple ways in which a presentation can overload working memory. 25 Words Eyes Ears Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad Phonological Loop Slide from: “PowerPoint Supported by the Science of Learning”, CC BY Barbara Eckstein, University of Michigan, http://www.slideshare.net/ummedicalschool/powerpoint-supported-by-the-science-of-learning-using-the-assertionevidence-model-to-make-your-po
  • There are multiple ways in which a presentation can overload working memory. 26 Eyes Ears Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad Phonological Loop Images Slide from: “PowerPoint Supported by the Science of Learning”, CC BY Barbara Eckstein, University of Michigan, http://www.slideshare.net/ummedicalschool/powerpoint-supported-by-the-science-of-learning-using-the-assertionevidence-model-to-make-your-po
  • There are multiple ways in which a presentation can overload working memory. 27 Words Eyes Ears Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad Phonological Loop Images Slide from: “PowerPoint Supported by the Science of Learning”, CC BY Barbara Eckstein, University of Michigan, http://www.slideshare.net/ummedicalschool/powerpoint-supported-by-the-science-of-learning-using-the-assertionevidence-model-to-make-your-po
  • Information received through images and sound can be processed and supports understanding and retention. 28 Words Eyes Ears Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad Phonological Loop Images Slide from: “PowerPoint Supported by the Science of Learning”, CC BY Barbara Eckstein, University of Michigan, http://www.slideshare.net/ummedicalschool/powerpoint-supported-by-the-science-of-learning-using-the-assertionevidence-model- to-make-your-point
  • Proven Instructional Principles for Multimedia • Signaling – Limited text, highlighting, or arrows to focus the learners attention enhances learning • Redundancy – Elimination of on-screen text of the narration with the video or animation impairs learning 29Slide from: “Instructional Design Tips for Computer-Based E-Learning”, CC BY Cary Engleberg, University of Michigan, http://open.umich.edu/education/med/oernetwork/guides/instructional-design-tips/2010.
  • Proven Instructional Principles for Multimedia • Spatial Contiguity – Placing text or labels next to the object they label improves learning • Temporal Contiguity – When narration and animation are present simultaneously, learning is improved 30Slide from: “Instructional Design Tips for Computer-Based E-Learning”, CC BY Cary Engleberg, University of Michigan, http://open.umich.edu/education/med/oernetwork/guides/instructional-design-tips/2010.
  • Proven Instructional Principles for Multimedia • Segmenting – Breaking up complex presentations into learner- controlled segments improves learning • Pre-training – Making learners aware of terms and definitions prior to explaining a process improves learning • Modality – Pictures and voice are better assimilated than pictures and printed words 31Slide from: “Instructional Design Tips for Computer-Based E-Learning”, CC BY Cary Engleberg, University of Michigan, http://open.umich.edu/education/med/oernetwork/guides/instructional-design-tips/2010.
  • Proven Instructional Principles for Multimedia • Personalization – Narration should be directed personally at the learner, using the pronouns “you” and “I” rather than a passive voice. • Voice principle – A human, familiar voice in narrations enhances learning 32Slide from: “Instructional Design Tips for Computer-Based E-Learning”, CC BY Cary Engleberg, University of Michigan, http://open.umich.edu/education/med/oernetwork/guides/instructional-design-tips/2010.
  • There are three conditions for writing a clear assertion-evidence slide. 1. The assertion sentence makes sense by itself. 2. The assertion sentence is clear and specific. 3. The visual reference directly illustrates or supports the assertion. 33 Slide from: “PowerPoint Supported by the Science of Learning”, CC BY Barbara Eckstein, University of Michigan, http://www.slideshare.net/ummedicalschool/powerpoint-supported-by-the-science-of-learning-using-the-assertionevidence-model- to-make-your-point
  • Nursing’s culture of accountability continues to result in near perfect compliance. 34 Assertion Slide from: “PowerPoint Supported by the Science of Learning”, CC BY Barbara Eckstein, University of Michigan, http://www.slideshare.net/ummedicalschool/powerpoint-supported-by-the-science-of-learning-using-the-assertionevidence-model- to-make-your-point
  • Nursing’s culture of accountability continues to result in near perfect compliance. Evidence Slide from: “PowerPoint Supported by the Science of Learning”, CC BY Barbara Eckstein, University of Michigan, http://www.slideshare.net/ummedicalschool/powerpoint-supported-by-the-science-of-learning-using-the-assertionevidence-model- to-make-your-point
  • Students learn best when we stop trying to teach them and instead give them a framework in which to discover. Slide from: Building Digital Literacies through Digital Portfolios, Jonan Donaldson Oregon State University Ecampus, CC BY
  • Questions? 37