OCWC 2013: Multidirectional knowledge exchange


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Presentation given at the Open CourseWare Consortium global conference on May 10, 2013.

Short URL: http://openmi.ch/ocwcg2013.

Abstract available at: http://conference.ocwconsortium.org/index.php/2013/2013/paper/view/460.

Download slides (PPT, PDF) and speaker notes (RTF) at: http://open.umich.edu/node/7273/.

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  • Hello, I am Kathleen Ludewig Omollo from University of Michigan, where I work as a staff member in a technology support office within the Medical School. My slides are shared under a Creative Commons attribution license and are available on Slideshare with the short URL listed here (http://openmi.ch/ocwcg2013) I would like to acknowledge my colleague Ted Hanss, one of the leaders of open educational resources efforts at University of Michigan and the chief information officer of our medical school. Although Ted was unable to join the conference in person this year, Ted and I collaborate closely on our international OER partnerships. (Next.)
  • My university is located in the city of Ann Arbor in the state of Michigan, which is located in the northern mid-west region of the United States about an hour and a half drive from the U.S. Canadian border. Since the state is shaped like a hand and it gets very cold there in the winter, the state is sometimes referred to as “the mitten”. (Next)
  • Share our knowledge, allow and train others to build upon it, and in return gain new knowledge. The end goal is not just to circulate and revise content and learning materials, but to circulate new ideas, develop new skills, and foster collaboration and innovation. Some of the benefits of this model include: 1. Saving time – for authors by building on one others’ effort, and for formal and informal learners by having ubiquitous access to educational resources that they can use “Anytime, any place, any pace” (to use an expression from a presentation on Wednesday by Stephanie from KU Leuven in Belgium) 2. Saving money for accessing materials (free to access) 3. Improving quality and relevance of learning content (more eyes to review) (Next)
  • At Michigan, our OER efforts have always included a global component. Part of this is due to the central role of the medical school in OER. The University of Michigan Medical School has a strong history of global health research and education partnerships. Approximately 1/3 of our medical students do part of their clinical training abroad. Both our institutional initiative called Open.Michigan, which is our umbrella initiative for OER and all things open – and one of our flagship projects – the African Health Open Educational Resources Network - were envisioned in 2007 and launched in 2008. These complementary initiatives were intentional by our leadership, who knew that learning resources developed at one institution cannot simply be taken and used by others at another institution, especially not one in another country, without any alteration. Customization and communication is necessary to make materials contextually relevant and meaningful to a new group of educators and learners. (Next)
  • The African Health OER Network project emerged out of the belief that OER could be leveraged to address the health care worker shortage faced by many sub-Saharan African countries. Begin by focusing of the higher education institutions that train health professionals. The founding members included: South African Institute for Distance Education, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University of Ghana, University of Cape Town, University of the Western Cape. University of Michigan and OER Africa jointly coordinate the Network activities. (Next.)
  • Even with open licenses addressing default legal barriers, many other hurdles remain to our ideal model of sharing, adapting, and evolving learning materials beyond the original institution. Here are some of the common barriers that we have found, a mix of technological and social. Individuals are unsure where to look for existing OER, or are unsure of the quality of externally-authored materials Existing OER differs from the local curriculum, or is not available in the needed language. Sometimes no relevant OER exists There are also technological barriers (e.g. unreliable Internet connections, limited access to computers, power outages and surges) Lack of institutional support (incentives, skills, equipment) for creating or adapting learning materials Lastly, many we interviewed reported that even if they know about the concept of OER, it is difficult staying up to date on OER practices, processes, and latest materials from their peers How we have addressed some of these challenges? (Next.)
  • In 2009, the University of Ghana and the University of Michigan developed a set of Caesarean section learning modules which included a video of the surgical procedure being conducted on a local patient in Ghana. (Next.)
  • St. Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College in Ethiopia was interested in the learning modules for their ob/gyn training program. When watching the video, Dr. Lia from Ethiopia realized that the procedure is done slightly different in Ghana than how they teach it locally. In order to address these differences, the professor in Ethiopia, Dr. Lia, chose change only a few key elements: - she added a new video introduction where she introduced the module to her students - she narrated over the existing audio commentary on the surgical videos to provide more context for her students. - she added some additional questions to the self-assessment to confirm that students had listened to her audio commentary about specific procedures followed at St. Paul’s With minimal new recording and only a few new multiple choice questions added, Dr. Lia was able to provide nearly immediate access to high quality learning materials to meet a high priority learning need. The original co-author from Michigan was able to guide Dr. Lia through the adaptation. (Next.)
  • Sometimes existing material does not exist. This was especially true when we started the African Health OER Network in 2008. There was lack of contextually appropriate learning materials, not only in health OER but generally for health for sub-Saharan Africa – not just open but proprietary as well. Many medical textbooks and publications originate in Western countries, and therefore use photographs and examples that are not always suitable for the African context. In an OER from the health sciences, for example, there may be differences in curriculum, clinical practices, cultural sensitivity in patient interactions, and the manifestations of certain diseases, particularly dermatological diseases, on light versus dark skin tones. (Next.)
  • Due to bandwidth limitations, materials are distributed multiple standard and creative ways, online, offline, and sometimes a hybrid. The open educational resources created will be posted on the institutional websites, Saide/OER Africa server in South Africa, and a server in the U.S., the University of Michigan open educational resources website, Open.Michigan (http://open.umich.edu). In order to, to enhance discoverability, we promote the resulting learning materials to directories and repositories around the world using metadata and syndication (such RDFa, RSS feeds, and other data export relationships). In areas with limited Internet connectivity, the resources may also be made shared with participating partner institutions through offline, removable media (e.g., USB drive, DVD). We have even experimented with adapting a learning module originally designed for access on a computer for offline HTML distribution on mobile phones using a micro SD card or by bluetooth. We’re looking at other easily customizable offline distribution models, such as Pirate Box or Library Box, or RaspberryPi (which Marshall Smith mentioned during his keynote yesterday), which can be used to setup a low-cost flexible server that can be accessed by those in range, even without Internet access. Even with the various search engines, there is no complete directory of OER, which means sometimes people don’t know where to start. To address this we, created a human-centric OER Search service, which is similar to a reference service offered by libraries. The request is submitted through an online form at http://openmi.ch/request-health-OER, which includes context about the request. To date, we have received and responded to 22 requests. (Next.) (Learn more at https://open.umich.edu/wiki/Distribution_Flow_and_Model_for_OER)
  • 01/26/10 01/26/10 A few months ago, in January, we launched a crowdsourcing campaign to make some existing OER more accessible to non-English speakers. The January – March 2013 pilot focused on 31 videos from their collection of open educational resources for health: 12 clinical microbiology videos co-authored by instructors in Ghana and Michigan and 19 disaster management videos co-authored by seven schools of public health in East Africa. We chose these videos because they already have a global dimension - authors from multiple countries, existing audience in different countries, for some we had already received specific requests for translations. (Next.)
  • Here is the proces that we followed. I do not want to go into too much detail here now. We used YouTube translation toolkit, but we are currently exploring switching to Amara based on some recent improvements that they have made to their system. I know some of you here have experience with translation and captioning. I would be delighted to talk with you about the processes that you follow. What I would like to highlight from this slide is step 5, recruit volunteer translators from local and international connections and websites. We partnered with our Language Resource Center, who helped us recruit local multilingual talent through the weekend long translation event and through their database of translators. We also promoted through our global health offices and events on campus. We also received many responses from outside University of Michigan through the connections we have developed around the world as part of our Open.Michigan outreach and institutional partnerships. (Next)
  • Our community responded to the call with tremendous enthusiasm. Here are some highlights from our results. We’ve received some additional translations over the past couple weeks that are not represented here. While most videos were completed by a single translator, approximately 1/3 had at least two people, which acted as a control for quality assurance. (Next)
  • We did not want each institution to exist in a vacuum. By sharing materials and the know-how about creating them or integrating them into teaching, then each institution could pool resources, learn from each other, and therefore save time and costs. How do we bring people across institutions together? Quarterly newsletter with over 1000+ subscribers (http://openmi.ch/healthoernetwork-newsletter) Cross-institutional workshops (4) (e.g. http://openmi.ch/oertechafrica2012notes) Cross-institutional interest groups, convening mainly by audio conference or email (e.g. http://openmi.ch/healthoernetwork-connect) (Next)
  • The Network has since expanded to include other institutions in Africa. When new institutions join, we are able to bring them into the existing communication channels, so that they can learn from their peers. Some new partners that we have been able to bring in this way: UNIMA UDS UCC AITI-KACE SPHMMC HEALTH Alliance (existing hub to 7 schools of public health) Ethio FMOH (existing hub to 13 other medical schools) Although the Network has Africa in the title, and sub-Saharan Africa remains our regional focus, we welcome participants from around the world. We’ve occasionally had institutions from US, UK, Brazil, Haiti, and elsewhere participate in our in-person or virtual events. Our final Hewlett grant officially ended six months ago, but we have designed the network in a way that have been able to sustain the network. For example, Michigan and OER Africa continue has coordinated quarterly audio conferences for the technology interest groups and has maintained the quarterly newsletter, which goes out to over 1000 subscribers . Each issue of the newsletter consists predominantly of guest articles from individuals and institutions that are part of the Network. Some institutions incorporate open licenses into other grants for content development. It may be worth mentioning that many members participate in other networks - both open content related networks (OCWC, Creative Commons Affiliates) as well as health professional societies. One reason why the Network has continued to grow. (Next.)
  • Approximately 300 African academics and students in open licenses and methods for creating electronic learning materials using free or low-cost technologies. The founding institutions and some of the new ones now staff with skills to create and find OER, some of whom have OER integrated into their job responsibilities. There are enabling practices and policies in place, perhaps most notably KNUST in Ghana who passed an OER policy in 2010 Over 150 new openly licensed learning modules for diverse health sciences topics. The collection includes 24 open textbooks, over 175 videos, multilingual resources (one interactive module in Spanish, one book in Portuguese, and another interactive in both Xhosa and Afrikaans, plus the 31 videos from the crowdsourced translation project), and many self-assessments. Our collection of learning materials is distributed widely, highly visible, and has been accessed in over 190 countries. We receive an average of 8,500 visits/month across our two main websites (one in South Africa and the other hosted in Michigan), have distributed 530 copies of our sampler DVD of OER. On YouTube, we have over 2.5 million total views on YouTube, with an average rating of 4.38 out of 5 and “thank you” among the most frequent of our nearly 400 comments. (Next.) Learn more: openmi.ch/blog-ahon-complete
  • In addition to the creation of new materials, we’ve also seen uses and adaptation of materials from other institutions. There is South to South exchange between African Institution: There have been multiple exchanges of content between the institutions that are part of the Network community Among other examples, Medical residents in Nigeria discovered gynecology surgery videos developed by the University of Ghana, which they integrated into their training. Through student networks in Ghana, medical students at University of Ghana and University of Cape Coast learned of and studied an obstetrics examination module developed by KNUST. There is also South to/from North exchange, that is African to as well as from U.S. and European institutions At Michigan: A U-M professor has used the Buruli ulcer module and clinical microbiology videos from Ghana in his infectious diseases class for first year medical students. Additional, obstetrics and gynecology video-based modules developed by Ghanaian physicians have also been added as supplemental materials for U-M medical students. Open textbooks authored by health professionals in South Africa are available to the U-M community through our library’s print-on-demand service with Espresso Book Machine. These are also in a centralized catalog available to all libraries and organizations that have an Espresso Book Machine. An open access Spanish journal translated and published a lecture from an occupational health module from University of Cape Town. A patient in Croatia discovered an Automated Blood Counts module KNUST online (Next.) Learn more at http://openmi.ch/blog-ahon-remixes
  • We had an independent consultant complete an annual assessment of the African Health OER Network. In his third and most recent assessment, he provided assurance about the value proposition of OER as well as the model of regional networks for fostering collaboration. (Next)
  • If you are interested in learning more about international actives or our model of collaboration, here is my email address and our website address. I would be glad to speak with any of you later today or to follow-up virtually. In case I have convinced you to download my slides now or if none of what I said made any sense, here again is the short URL for the Slide Share presentation. If you go to that link, you will also find my presentation notes for additional context beyond what was displayed on the slides. Are there any questions?
  • OCWC 2013: Multidirectional knowledge exchange

    1. 1. Enabling multi-directionalknowledge sharing: Barriers andexample approaches tocontextualization and integrationof OER from other institutionsKathleen Ludewig Omollo, Ted HanssOpen.Michigan, Medical School Information ServicesUniversity of Michigan May 10, 2013, OCWC GlobalSlides at: http://openmi.ch/ocwcg2013Except where otherwise noted, this work is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/. Copyright 2013 The Regents of the University of Michigan. Background Image CC:BY-SA opensourceway (Flickr)
    2. 2. Physical Location: University of MichiganImage of Mitten Territory CC BY, adapted by Pieter Kleymeer from Marty Hogan on FlickrMap of USA, public domain, http://www.clker.com/clipart-23453.html 2
    3. 3. Vision of open educationImage CC:BY Sherrie Thai (Flickr)3circulate new ideasdevelop new skillsfoster collaboration and innovation
    4. 4. “Through the Health OpenEducational Resourcesprogram, we aretransforming our healthcurriculum to providestudents with richer learningexperiences andstrengthening theirability to practice in aglobal health context.” James O. Woolliscroft, M.D.Dean, University ofMichigan Medical SchoolLocal + GlobalImage CC:BY tuppus (Flickr)4
    5. 5. African Health OER Network (est. 2008) 5
    6. 6. Barriers•  Unsure of where to look orquality•  Differing curriculum,culture, language•  Limited access to Internet,computers, power•  Lack of local support(incentives, skills) •  Staying up to date onOER field6Image CC:BY Phil Roeder (Flickr)
    7. 7. 7Caesarean  Sec*on  OER  Module,  CC  BY-­‐NC  University  of  Ghana  and  Dr.  N.  Cary  Engleberg.    Approach: Local experts, localized contentImage CC:BY NC University of Ghana and Cary Engleberg7
    8. 8. 8Caesarean  Sec*on  OER  Module,  CC  BY-­‐NC  University  of  Ghana  and  Dr.  N.  Cary  Engleberg.    Approach: Local experts, localized contentImage CC:BY NC St. Paul Hospital Millennium Medial College (Ethiopia), University of Ghana, Cary Engleberg(placeholder to Lia)8
    9. 9. Image CC:BY-NC-SA Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and TechnologyApproach: Local experts, localized contentWhen you look intextbooks it’s difficult tofind African cases. [S]ometimes it can beconfusing when you seesomething that you seeon white skin so nicelyand very easy to pick up,but on the dark skin it hasa different manifestationthat may be difficult tosee.Professor at Partner Institution inGhana9
    10. 10. Approach: Distributing online + ofine 10
    11. 11. Approach: Crowdsourcing translationsImage CC:BY NC SA Tobias Mikkelsen (Flickr)11
    12. 12. Approach: Crowdsourcing translations 121.  Prioritize resources to translate. Choose short documents (e.g.videos <15 min.) with multi-cultural origin or appeal2.  Share the resources publicly under a license (e.g. CreativeCommons) that allows derivatives such as translations 3.  Create primary caption track in English as foundation for translations4.  Decide on translation tool (e.g. YouTube, Amara formerlyUniversalSubtitles.org) that permits multiple users and offerscomputer translations 5.  Recruit volunteer translators from local and international connectionsand websites. 6.  As volunteers sign-up, add them to the appropriate languages/videos tracks and send instructions and deadline7.  Encourage and thank volunteers during campaign8.  Report results 9.  Refine process (e.g. collect feedback from volunteers)More details: https://open.umich.edu/wiki/Adding_Captions_to_Videos
    13. 13. Approach: Crowdsourcing translations 13*Numbers from April 10th 2013. More details: openmi.ch/translationw13-results Language # VideosSpanish   31  Portuguese   16  French   14  Russian   7  Danish   2  Swahili   2  Ganda   1  Arabic   1  Chinese  (Simplified)   1  Chinese  (Tradi*onal)   1  Total  Cap*ons   76  Afliation of Volunteers # VolunteersUniversity  of  Michigan  Ac*ve  Member  or  Alumni  22  External  or  Unknown   24  # Languages Per Video otherthan English captions# Videos5 34 03 72 191 2Total (of 31 targeted) 31
    14. 14. Approach: Networks for building capacity 14Image CC:BY-SA Scott Maxwell (Flickr)“African universitiesstruggle to haveaccess to information.If we have information,why do we not alsoshare it as part of apool of universities toexchange information forthe purpose of improvedlearning.”Dean at Partner Institutionin Ghana
    15. 15. Approach: Networks for scaling 15
    16. 16. Image CC:BY-SA opensourceway (Flickr)Outcomes: New content, skills, awareness16Increased awareness, access to, andability to create learning materials (local skills, practices, policies)Visible and used collection:8,500 visits/month to 2 main websites 550 copies of sampler DVDsYouTube: 2.5M total views, ~400 comments, rating of 4.38 out of 5
    17. 17. “We have limited resourcesbut because of the Internet,we can share. The Southhas diseases [the GlobalNorth] knows nothingabout. Our materials arerelevant to us and in theNorth.” Professor at PartnerInstitution in South AfricaOutcomes: Uses and adaptations17Image Public Domain by kuba (OpenClipArt)Learn more:http://openmi.ch/blog-ahon-remixes
    18. 18. Closing: Assurance of model, OER“The African Health Open Educational Resources (OER)Network has shown that:•  quality and cost-effectiveness are neither mutuallyexclusive nor unattainable…•  The current impact study finds examples of direct andsignificant indirect savings through OER…•  Enhanced quality is evidenced in the accounts of academicsand students as well as in new quality assurance peer-review mechanisms.•  OER developed through collaborative networks can leadto more productive teaching and learning...” – 2012 report by independent evaluator18Image CC:BY-SA opensourceway (Flickr)
    19. 19. Email: kludewig@umich.eduSlides: openmi.ch/ocwcg2013Newsletter: openmi.ch/healthoernetwork-newsletterWeb: oerafrica.org/healthoer,openmi.ch/healthoernetworkPresentation by Kathleen Ludewig Omollo, Ted Hanss. Copyright 2013 The Regents of the University of Michigan. Except whereotherwise noted, this work is available under a Creative CommonsAttribution 3.0 License. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/.Engage 19