Instructional Design Framework for KNUST OER


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Presentation by Mr. Adam Rahman from KNUST Dept. of Communication Design on instructional design models and principles for OER.

Given in February 2011 at University of Michigan and August 2011 in Kumasi.

CC BY NC SA Adam Rahman

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Instructional Design Framework for KNUST OER

  1. 1. Adam Rahman UMAPS Scholar (2010-2011), Medical School, Univ. of Michigan Lecturer, Dept. of Communication Design, KNUST, Ghana Unless otherwise noted this content is licensed under CC BY NC SA 3.0: KNUST OER INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN FRAMEWORK: MAKING THE CASE FOR THE ADOPTION OF THE ADDIE MODEL AND MAYER ’ S PRINCIPLES OF MULTIMEDIA INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
  2. 2. GHANA Constitutional Presidential Republic President : Prof. John Atta Mills Vice President : John Dramani Mahama Speaker of Parliament : Joyce Bamford-Addo Chief Justice : Georgina Theodora Wood Facts Total Area : 238, 535km 2 (92, 098 sq. mi) Total Drainage : 3.5% Population : 2010 Estimates- 24, 233.431 Population Density : 101.5/km 2 (258.8/sq. mi There are 11,801,661 males and 12,421,770 Females. This suggests that males make up 48.7 percent of the population while females constitute 51.3 percent. Total GDP : 2010 Estimate-$38.143 Billion Per Capita Income : $1, 600 Map: Public Domain, from Wikipedia
  3. 3. <ul><li>Total Area- 254 km 2  (98 sq mi) </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation - 250 m (820 ft) </li></ul><ul><li>Population - Total 1,468,609 </li></ul>KUMASI Map: CC BY SA NordNordWest, from Wikipedia Photos of KNUST CC BY NC SA Adam Rahman
  4. 4. COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCES & DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNICATION DESIGN <ul><li>4 Faculties, 24 Departments, I Research Center </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacy And Pharmaceutical Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>School Of Medical Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Allied Health Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>School Of Dentistry </li></ul><ul><li>Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital </li></ul>CHS DeCoDe Photos CC BY NC SA Adam Rahman
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION Since the latter part of 2008, there has been a systematic growth in the development of Open Educational Resources (OER) in Health Science Education in Ghana and, in particular, at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi. The developments of these OER lesson modules, openly licensed under the Creative Commons Attributions License, are expected to enhance the activities of teaching, learning, and research. OER are teaching, learning and research resources that have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use or re-purposing by others . Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials or techniques used to support access to knowledge. Keywords: OER, ISD, Multimedia Learning, ADDIE
  6. 6. BACKGROUND Health OER in Ghana “ The Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST, est. 1952) is the second largest university in Ghana with 23,000 students. The College of Health Sciences is responsible for training many healthcare workers in Ghana. Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Ghana struggles with low doctor to patient ratios. There are only 0.15 doctors and 0.92 nurses, per 1,000 Ghanaians, which is well below the World Health Organization ’ s recommendation of 2.0 doctors and 2.5 nurses. In 2008, KNUST and UG entered into a partnership with Ministry of Health (MOH), University of Michigan (U-M), and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to strengthen human resources for health education and healthcare professionals. ” [1] “ The College of Health Sciences (CHS) is the first of KNUST ’ s six colleges to launch an OER initiative supporting the production and use of Open Educational Resources (OER). ” [2] Excerpts from: [1] Information and Communication Technology Infrastructure Analysis of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and University of Ghana . CC BY K.L. Omollo, University of Michigan. [2] Growing an Institutional Health OER Initiative: A Case Study of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology , CC BY K.L. Omollo, University of Michigan.
  7. 7. <ul><li>“ Proposed And Passed Institutional OER Policy </li></ul><ul><li>In early 2009, CHS established an interdisciplinary committee of faculty, staff, and librarians across the university to examine the institutional faculty development and intellectual property policies. ” [3] </li></ul><ul><li>“ The purpose of the OER Policy is to: </li></ul><ul><li>identify human resource to support faculty in turning teaching and learning material into OER. </li></ul><ul><li>clarify publication rights and policies regarding the use of required infrastructure (information technology, library, etc) and other support services. </li></ul><ul><li>define collaborations within and [beyond] the university and the intent to allow access. </li></ul><ul><li>develop and review OER materials prior to sharing them on a worldwide scale. ” [4] </li></ul><ul><li>Excerpts from: </li></ul><ul><li>[3] Growing an Institutional Health OER Initiative: A Case Study of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology , CC BY K.L. Omollo, University of Michigan. </li></ul><ul><li>[4] KNUST OER Policy , CC BY KNUST </li></ul>BACKGROUND
  8. 8. PROBLEM STATEMENT <ul><li>A recent workshop with the College of Health Sciences and the Department of Communication Design, to review KNUST ’ s experimentation with Health Science OER production since late 2008, resulted in the following observations; </li></ul><ul><li>There was the need to teach elements of Instructional Design since there was no consistency in the structuring of learning materials through effective instructional methods, for well-designed lesson modules. </li></ul><ul><li>A disconnect between the objectives of creating sophisticated videos and animations vis-à-vis the goals of creating materials intended to foster learning. Students of the Department of Communication Design engaged with OER production had advanced media design skills, but the OER projects were their first endeavour in creating resources intended for educational rather than for entertainment and other purposes. Hence pedagogy was negatively affected. </li></ul>
  9. 9. OBJECTIVES In addressing these concerns, this paper makes the case for the following 1.Adoption of a modified form of the popular Instructional System Design (ISD), model, the ADDIE model. ADDIE is an acronym, which stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. The structured phased approach of the ADDIE model creates a dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective training and e-Learning programs. This model would take into consideration the characteristics of the KNUST learning environment, learners, content providers and instructional materials, ultimately promoting a quality assurance orientation 2. The use of instructional design methods, based on principles derived from the Cognitive Theory of Learning or Multimedia Learning , arguably, would meet the aspirations of pedagogy and enhance the learning experience through well-designed instructional lesson modules.  
  10. 10. <ul><li>Instructional System Design (ISD) </li></ul><ul><li>“ the practice of maximizing the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of instruction and other learning experiences. The process consists broadly of determining the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some ‘ intervention ’ to assist in the transition. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ideally the process is informed by pedagogically and andragogically (adult learning) tested theories of learning and may take place in student-only, teacher-led or community-based settings. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed ” </li></ul><ul><li>Excerpts CC BY SA, Wikipedia </li></ul>UNDERLYING PRINCIPLE
  11. 11. <ul><li>There are many instructional design models, including include Allen ’s SAVVY, Dick and Carey Systems Approach Model, the Smith/Ragan Model, the Morrison/Ross/Kemp ISD Model and the OAR model , Wiggins theory of Backward Design , and Instructional Development Leaning System (IDLS) but many are based on the ADDIE model with the phases Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Following are diagrams of the Morrison/Ross/Kemp ISD Model and Dick and Carey Systems Approach Model respectively. </li></ul>UNDERLYING PRINCIPLE
  12. 12. Morrison/Ross/Kemp ISD Model Source of Adaptation Unknown UNDERLYING PRINCIPLE
  13. 13. Dick and Carey Systems Approach Model Image CC BY SA Wikipedia UNDERLYING PRINCIPLE
  14. 14. <ul><li>Allen Interactions has their own instructional design process for eLearning called the SAVVY Process: </li></ul>UNDERLYING PRINCIPLE
  15. 15. The traditional ADDIE model, as already indicated, is an acronym standing for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation . UNDERLYING PRINCIPLE
  16. 16. <ul><li>Analysis Phase </li></ul><ul><li>The instructional goals and objectives are established and the learning environment and learners ’ existing knowledge and skills are identified. Below are some of the questions that are addressed during the analysis phase: </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the learners and what are their characteristics? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the new behavioural outcome? </li></ul><ul><li>What types of learning constraints exist? </li></ul><ul><li>Determine extent of training, participant knowledge/skill assessment required. </li></ul><ul><li>Design Phase </li></ul><ul><li>The design phase deals with learning objectives, assessment instruments, exercises, content, subject matter analysis, lesson planning and media selection. The media specialists should think of a seamless combination of the principles of visual and Mayer ’ s 12 instructional design principles. should be brought to bear on the design of effective multimedia instruction. These are steps involved in design phase: </li></ul>UNDERLYING PRINCIPLE
  17. 17. <ul><li>Document the project's instructional, visual and technical design strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Apply instructional strategies according to the intended behavioural outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Create prototype </li></ul><ul><li>Translate the program objectives into terminal and enabling learning objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine program structure, sequence, duration, space </li></ul><ul><li>Specify type of participant assessments and assessment conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Development phase is the creation and assemblage of the content assets that were blueprinted in the design phase. In this phase, storyboards and graphics are designed. Debugging procedures are performed. dScribing with content provider/SME. The project is reviewed and revised according to the feedback received from the OER content provider/SME. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop session plans, trainer guides, learner guides and trainer and participant resources. </li></ul>UNDERLYING PRINCIPLE
  18. 18. <ul><li>Develop coaching/mentoring guides and resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop participant assessments, project and evaluation instruments. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct pilot program to test that program meets content providers requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation phase , a procedure for demonstrating the host-stage level of the lesson module is done media specialists with content provider being present. This is also the phase where the project manager ensures that the lesson modules, CD-ROMs and software are in place, and that the learning application. </li></ul><ul><li>Produce program materials and aids. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct demo sessions. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on feedback, finalise and host lesson module. </li></ul>UNDERLYING PRINCIPLE
  19. 19. <ul><li>Evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative. Formative evaluation is present in each stage. This is shown in the diagram, where Evaluation has projections into all the other phases. Summative evaluation covers the whole lesson module. Tests are also designed for feedback from the users (E.g. Peer Review/Star User Ratings, Feedback form). Subsequent adjustments are made to incorporate concerns raised </li></ul><ul><li>Collect lesson module evaluation data. </li></ul><ul><li>Review lesson module performance (number of online hits, participant feedback). </li></ul><ul><li>Review project performance (stakeholder satisfaction, project team satisfaction). </li></ul>UNDERLYING PRINCIPLE
  20. 20. Criticisms of The Addie Model Drawn a lot of criticisms. Tripp and Bichelmeyer (1991) argue that the model does not take advantage of digital technologies that allow for less-linear approaches to instructional design. Jack Gordon and Ron Zemke (2001) - ISD is too slow and clumsy to meet today ’s training challenges, Used as directed, it produces bad solutions, too time-consuming. Nevertheless, the classic ADDIE Model continues to be used as a basis for other models and still extensively relevant in many spheres of endeavour. For the purposes of this paper, the ADDIE instructional design system will be used. Frequently, however, the ISD model is used together with instructional design methods to ensure effective development of instructional materials for learners.   UNDERLYING PRINCIPLE
  21. 21. METHODOLOGY RADDIE <ul><li>Modified ADDIE model </li></ul><ul><li>Mayer ’s Theory of Cognitive Learning </li></ul>Image CC BY NC SA Adam Rahman Photos of KNUST CC BY NC SA Adam Rahman A D I R D E Pedagogy
  22. 22. <ul><li>Research Phase </li></ul><ul><li>The five phases of the ADDIE model are preceded by a RESEARCH phase, because of the peculiarities of the KNUST learning environment. This initial phase involves Media Specialists contacting CHS faculty with proposed OER projects, and determination of the needed resources and logistical support. This forms the overarching rationale for proceeding with the project. A project definition that outlines basic project parameters such as objectives, scope, timelines and resource requirements is then drawn up. To complete this phase, the Project Manager develops the project plan that is then used to guide and manage the project. Below are some of the questions dealt with at this phase. </li></ul><ul><li>Agree on the scope of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate constraints in implementing the project, including timing, duration, delivery platform, network and software. </li></ul>METHODOLOGY
  23. 23. <ul><li>Data Acquisition (Text, Audio, Video, Photograph, etc). </li></ul><ul><li>Consent from patients, etc being filmed, photographed or interviewed </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics for onsite procedures to be recorded </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure observation of appropriate clinical practices/standards, and use of right regalia during surgical procedures, laboratory experiments and so on. </li></ul>METHODOLOGY
  24. 24. <ul><li>The Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning , based on scientific evidence, is concerned with how humans learn, especially how they learn from words and pictures. The obvious advantage of theory-grounded practice is that instead of rigidly following instructional principles, instructors can have a better understanding of how instructional principles work and the conditions under which they are most likely to be effective </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting words and Images : The first step is to pay attention to relevant words and images in the material presented. </li></ul><ul><li>Organising words and Images : The second step is to mentally organise the selected material in coherent verbal and pictorial representations; and </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating : The final step is to integrate incoming verbal and pictorial representations with each other and with existing knowledge. </li></ul>METHODOLOGY
  25. 25. METHODOLOGY Bus photo from SOS Sahel exhibit by Roberto Neumiller removed. Original at .
  26. 26. <ul><li>Meaningful learning occurs when the learner appropriately engages in all of these processes. The learning model reflects four principles: </li></ul><ul><li>Dual Channels – People have separate channels for processing visual/pictorial material and auditory/verbal material; </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Capacity – People can actively process only a few pieces of information in each channel at one time; </li></ul><ul><li>Active Processing - Learning occurs when people engage in appropriate cognitive processing during learning, such as attending to relevant material, organising the material into a coherent structure, and integrating it with what they already know; and </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer – New knowledge and skills must be retrieved from long-term memory during performance. </li></ul>METHODOLOGY
  27. 27. METHODOLOGY Image CC BY NC SA Adam Rahman Words Pictures Multimedia Presentation Senses Ears Eyes Working Memory Sounds Images Selecting words Selecting images Long-Term Memory Prior Knowledge Integrating Organizing words Organizing images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning
  28. 28. <ul><li>According to the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, there are twelve (12) proven principles of multimedia principles, with two boundary conditions, which could be used by instructional designers to create learning environments that minimise extraneous cognitive processing, manage essential processing, and foster generative processing; </li></ul><ul><li>Coherence Principle - People learn better when extraneous materials (words, pictures and sounds) are excluded rather than included. </li></ul><ul><li>Signalling Principle - People learn better when cues that highlight the organisation of the materials are added. </li></ul><ul><li>Redundancy Principle - People learn better from graphics and narration than from graphics, narration, and on-screen text. </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial Contiguity Principle - People learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented near rather than far from each other on the page or screen. </li></ul>METHODOLOGY
  29. 29. METHODOLOGY Temporal Contiguity Principle - People learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented simultaneously rather than successively. These principles (1-5) help minimise extraneous cognitive processing. Segmenting Principle - People learn better when a multimedia lesson is presented in user-paced segments rather than as a continuous unit Pre-training Principle - People learn better from a multimedia lesson when they know the names and characteristics of the main concepts. Modality Principle - People learn better from graphics and narration than from animation and on-screen text. Principles 6-8 help manage essential cognitive processing.
  30. 30. METHODOLOGY Video CC BY NC Cary Engleberg
  31. 31. <ul><li>Multimedia Principle – People learn better from words and pictures than from words alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Personalisation Principe - People learn better from multimedia lessons when words are in conversational style rather than formal style. </li></ul><ul><li>Voice Principle - People learn better when the narration in multimedia lessons is spoken in a friendly human voice rather than a machine voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Image Principle - People do not necessarily learn better from a multimedia lesson when the speaker ’ s image is added to the screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Principles 9-12 help foster generative cognitive processing </li></ul>METHODOLOGY
  32. 32. Still photo from a surgical video METHODOLOGY Image CC BY NC Cary Engleberg
  33. 33. <ul><li>To date, fourteen lesson modules in five different categories have been produced. However, issues of pedagogy, quality assurance and best practices were raised by the end of a two-year period. In addressing these concerns to provide a more efficient structure of instructional design and better learning outcomes, it is argued that a modified form of the ISD model, ADDIE should be adopted. Despite criticisms, many models are, however, based on the ADDIE Model. This modified version, RADDIE process, takes into consideration, the peculiar characteristics of KNUST ’ s learning environment, learners, content providers and instructional materials and provides an effective framework for the arrangement of resources and procedures. Furthermore, usage of Mayer ’ s principles of multimedia learning as the foundation for designing lesson modules for better learning outcomes would all cumulatively contribute effectively to the culture of learning, teaching and research . It will also meet the aspirations of pedagogy, quality assurance, needs and expectations of students, faculty and other stakeholders. </li></ul>CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS
  34. 34. CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS It is recommended that further studies be conducted on the Needs Assessment of KNUST Health OER lesson modules , and the Role of Students and Advocacy in contributing to the growth of Health Science OER in Ghana . THANK YOU