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  2. 2. WHY PHOTOJOURNALISM? Captures reality – a snapshot of history Raw, honest, personal, emotional Powerful storytelling device Before TV: it painted pictures of war, human life and suffering never seen before Photos influence opinion, evoke reaction
  3. 3. WHY PHOTOJOURNALISM? War, famine, Civil Rights, celebrity, politics, death, political upheaval Why do photojournalists do what they do? “One feels he has a responsibility to cover the events of his time, that he has a strong feeling that this is a moment of history that should be recorded.” -- Photographer Carl Mydans
  4. 4. ―From a book to a Web site, from a series of photographs to a digital flipbook, my work—and that of many of my colleagues— is looking at the long-standing notion that it is the task of a photographer to capture a decisive moment.‖ -- Ed Kashi, Multimedia Adds New Dimensions to the Art of Storytelling,
  5. 5. GORDON PARKS Photography as a tool to capture history … : k53yY
  6. 6. THE “DECISIVE MOMENT” Photos have to ‗tell‘ a story Some circumstances are easy: • Academy Awards; Principal awarding the diploma; a „handshake‟ closing a deal Others are more difficult • Keep shooting until you get it • The “Aha” Moment • Feel it in your gut
  10. 10. A BRIEF HISTORY Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre invented the daguerreotype process in France. The invention was announced to the public on August 19, 1839 at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris. American photographers quickly capitalized on this new invention, which was capable of capturing a "truthful likeness."
  13. 13. THE CHALLENGES Photographers limited to what they could shoot Had to carry dark room equipment with them Focus on portraits Few news event photos of anything until Mathew Brady and Civil War
  14. 14. EASTMAN KODAK George Eastman: 1880s/90s: Introduced an affordable handheld camera that used film
  15. 15. APPETITE FOR IMAGES At turn of the century, newspaper publishers began to realize readers wanted illustrations, images In 1888, National Geographic Society published its first magazie
  16. 16. MATHEW BRADY Set out to cover the Civil War Sending images to newspapers that revealed the horror of war Images fueled resentment of war Government sought control
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  19. 19. MILITARY CENSORSHIP Military leaders tried to prevent publishers from running images Hired their own photographers to ―direct the visual representation of the war‖. Justified the the control of the press to protect the safety of soldiers Restricted access to the front lines Some photojournalists made up fake pictures Source: “Photojournalism and today‟s news, Visualizing Reality, Loup Langton (2009)
  20. 20. PHOTOS AS REALITY & POLITICAL PAWNS 1930s: President Franklin Delano Roosevelt‘s Farm Security Administration hired photographers to chronicle the lives of farm families ―Grapes of Wrath‖ type photos that were ―direct, honest and truthful portrayals of American life‖ in the 1930s
  21. 21. Migrant Mother, by Dorothea Lange, Life Magazine, 1936 Source
  22. 22. LIFE MAGAZINE A magazine dedicated to photos, created by Henry R. Luce Considered the first news magazine "We tell the truth as we see it," Mr. Luce once explained when his magazines took sides on controversies. And he was accustomed to urge his editors to make a judgment. He believed that objectivity was impossible. "Show me a man who claims he is objective," he told an interviewer, "and I'll show you a man with illusions." --
  23. 23. PHOTOJOURNALISM HISTORY History of Photojournalism by Serena Carter: Power of Photojournalism: Part 1: Part 2: The History of Photojournalism – The story of Life Magazine through the eyes of its photographers
  24. 24. WHAT MAKES A GREAT PHOTOGRAPH Toren Beasley, principal, Seaberry Design and former photo editor, Newhouse News Service: - Captures that moment in time - Conveys the human condition - ―Can‘t tell the whole truth in a single picture‖ - Objectivity doesn‘t exist: A photographer‘s image represents what he/she decided to shoot at that moment
  25. 25. ―Historically, photojournalism has resided somewhere between reportage, the delivery of information, and individual interpretation.‖ - Wendy Watriss,
  26. 26. WHAT MAKES A GREAT PHOTOGRAPH Composition The organization of: Shape Lines Texture
  27. 27. 1. What story am I telling? • Why am I taking this photo? 2. What is the visual focal point of this shot? • Remember the Rule of Thirds 3. What competing focal points are there? • Remember: Avoid Clutter and Avoid Mergers 4. What is in the background and foreground? • Use your eyes to analyze the scene 5. Am I close enough? 6. What is the main source of light?
  28. 28. 7. Is my Framing Straight? 8. What other perspectives could I capture this subject from? • Remember: Use the angles 9. How would holding the camera in the other format change this shot? 10. How will the eye travel through this image? • Remember: Lines/Visual Concepts Source:
  29. 29. Positioning of main focal point of image • The rule is: if you place points of interest in the intersections or along the lines that your photo becomes more balanced and will enable a viewer of the image to interact with it more naturally • Balancing image, light, background, colors, textures • Creating a sense of motion • Creating a depth of perception
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  31. 31. You want to avoid ―surprises‖ in the background Learn to see what the camera sees
  32. 32. Don‘t shoot pictures from the same height • Shoot low, get high • Get close: Shoot from different angles
  33. 33. Reflections Shadows Lines Curves
  34. 34. IMPACT OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY & MULTIMEDIA Readers look at images first, then text Stories are more interesting when they include photo(s) Add audio and you create a more engaging piece The best photos show people doing something – avoid buildings and things SOURCE: Elements of News Writing, James W. Kershner, 2012
  35. 35. IMPACT OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY New ways of telling stories via multimedia It allows photographers to focus on a story and produce more content with greater control over how those pictures are presented. The meaning of visual stories can be directed through the construction of a narrative that draws on sound and text as well as photographs and video. SOURCE:
  36. 36. IMPACT OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY It overcomes restrictions on getting longer and more complex stories published for a global audience, especially younger generations who do not consume traditional media. It is an effective response to the conceptual challenge of how to provide context for a photograph. It can overcome photojournalism‘s objectification of people by giving subjects their own voice. SOURCE:
  37. 37. PHOTOJOURNALISTS’ FUTURE Greater opportunities as the barriers to publishing are lower, technology is less expensive and distribution is much easier
  38. 38. OPPORTUNITIES DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY Flexibility Immediacy Permanence/Archival Interactivity
  39. 39. ―Photographers who understand they are publishers as well as producers, for whom engaging a loyal community is more valuable than chasing a mass audience, will be in a powerful position. ―They will be the ones who use social media in combination with traditional tools to activate partnerships with other interested parties to fund their stories, host their stories, circulate their stories, and engage with their stories.‖ -- David Campbell,
  40. 40. CHALLENGES Unlimited capacity • The Ol‟ Days: Limited space, wrong photo, badly cropped, size of photo doesn‟t do event justice • Slide shows, photo galleries Multiple publishing formats More tools to improve quality – or manipulate Control • Greater control on which images to use • Higher risk of managing copyright – ethical issues
  41. 41. ETHICS Transparency & Disclosure Tell people what you have done, if anything, to manipulate a photograph NPPA offers the following guidelines:
  42. 42. ETHICS 1. 2. 3. 4. Be accurate and comprehensive in the representation of subjects. Resist being manipulated by staged photo opportunities. Be complete and provide context when photographing or recording subjects. Avoid stereotyping individuals and groups. Recognize and work to avoid presenting one's own biases in the work. Treat all subjects with respect and dignity. Give special consideration to vulnerable subjects and compassion to victims of crime or tragedy. Intrude on private moments of grief only when the public has an overriding and justifiable need to see. Source:
  43. 43. ETHICS 5. While photographing subjects do not intentionally contribute to, alter, or seek to alter or influence events. 6. Editing should maintain the integrity of the photographic images' content and context. 7. Do not manipulate images or add or alter sound in any way that can mislead viewers or misrepresent subjects. Source:
  44. 44. ETHICS 7. Do not pay sources or subjects or reward them materially for information or participation. 8. Do not accept gifts, favors, or compensation from those who might seek to influence coverage. 9. Do not intentionally sabotage the efforts of other journalists. Source:
  45. 45. HERE’S WHAT RAN This photo ran in 2004 when thenSen. John Kerry was running for president.
  46. 46. HERE’S THE TRUTH John Kerry, Mineola, NY, 1971 Jane Fonda, Republican National Convention, 1972 Click HERE for more examples. These photos were merged to re-create an image that Fonda, a wellknown actress and anti-war activist, was joined by Kerry, who served in the Vietnam War, but later spoke out against it.
  47. 47. ACCURATE PORTRAYAL Photojournalists are charged with shooting events as they happen Photo editors / publishers must be careful on how they portray people Trying to avoid extreme behavior or only certain types of images can be misleading For example, only showing Africans barebreasted and impoverished. Only showing images of scantily clad women . Only showing men dressed in crisp suits and ties.
  48. 48. IMAGES … CLINTON
  49. 49. IMAGES … OBAMA
  50. 50. IMAGES … MCCAIN
  51. 51. IMAGES … ROMNEY
  52. 52. TODAY’S QUESTION You‘re a photographer for a small local newspaper who have just gotten an assignment to cover a shooting at a local mall. When you get to the scene, there numerous bloody dead bodies outside and inside the mall. You start shooting dozens of pictures of the bodies. When you get back to the newsroom, you show your editor the images.  Do you publish or not?  Give three reasons why you would or would not publish the pictures.
  53. 53. MAYBORN LINKS Student Projects: War Comes Home: Heart of Mexico: - Hatch Visuals: The work of Professor Thorne Anderson: e_beautiful