60 million deaths (military & civilian) Millions of refugees Soviet Union China Eastern Europe Japan (Hiroshima & Nagasaki) New mentality about civilians as “casualties of war” Shifting of “western” power to the United States and “eastern” power to the Soviet Union De-colonization of Africa, India & SE Asia A commitment to internationalism
No more isolationism Commitment to the United Nations Housed in New York City Forum for resolving international disputes Has political rights Active in creating the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to prevent world depression and stimulate economic growth globally
After 2 horrendous wars, Europe bounced back as a prosperous region by 1970. Why?3. An industrial society is a resilient society.4. Nationalism was set aside in favor of international economic cooperation5. The United States was not touched physically by the wars, and it was far away from communist countries 1. Oh…and the US had…
$12 billion “gift” from the US (the Marshall Plan) Help rebuild war-torn Western Europe Prevent a depression Keep Europeans buying American goods Prevent Europeans from seeing communism as a viable option Encourage European Economic Cooperation (common trade policies, reduced tariffs, easier travel) 1957 – the EEC is created (Common Market) 1994 – EEC is renamed “European Union – EU” 2002 – 12 member nations adopt the Euro
Americans wanted Europe to feel protected from another German resurgence and the spreading of communism: 1949 – North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) USA commits to using its nuclear arsenal, if necessary, to protect members of this alliance Ensures that West Germany is a capitalist ally 1955 – Warsaw Pact allies communist countries with each other
US military occupies Japan from 1945-1952 Unbelievable economic growth (10% per year) $2 billion in American aid US bought materials & supplies from Japan to fight the Korean War (1950-1953) A democratic constitution is forced on Japan They aren’t allowed to have a self-sufficient military Therefore they have more $ to invest in production of goods
1970s – 1/3 of the world’s population lived in a communist-run country Soviet Union China North Korea Vietnam Laos & Cambodia Cuba Afghanistan But…it was supposed to be a global revolution!
Karl Marx = Father of Communism 1848 – “The Communist Manifesto” A response to industrial wealth & exploitation of workers Calls for violent overthrow of existing society Workers overtake factories & government All wealth & power is distributed equally within society No private ownership of land, goods, etc “Classless Society” will emerge This revolution has no nation…it spreads worldwide.
Serfdom ends in 1861 Free peasantry is a miserable life Tsars fear industrialization Nicholas II begins industrializing in 1890s Loses war to Japan in 1905 People are ignored; Nicholas does what he wants Makes alliance with Britain & France Fights WWI – more losses than anyone Workers and soldiers abandon the tsar Communists gain support (Bolsheviks)
Vladimir Lenin admires Marxist socialism (communism) Supports “soviets” of workers to resist the tsar and then the provisional government Bolsheviks claim power in 1917 Lenin signs Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany to get Russia out of WWI Bolshevik Red Army fights a civil war against non- communists until 1921 Support comes from workers and farmers Lenin is victorious – renames Russia (Soviet Union or USSR)
Qing Dynasty fell in 1911 New Republic was elite and urban while the population was mostly rural poor 1921 – very small Chinese Communist Party (CCP) is founded to help the small working class By 1927, Mao Zedong became the leader of the CCP Very charismatic & a natural leader Began seeking support of the rural peasants Promises to redistribute land, lower taxes & educate Civil War erupts between Nationalists & Communists
Aggressively fights against Japanese imperialism Fights against the Japanese in WWII Nationalists were more concerned with defeating the communists than defeating the Japanese! 1949 – Communists claim full victory Nationalist government flees to Taiwan US will only recognize the Taiwanese group as the legitimate government!
Modernization and industrialization Rejection and hatred of capitalism Class and gender equality! Collectivization of agriculture & industry Cultural values of selflessness Creating a single-party system Total control over every aspect of citizens’ lives “Totalitarianism” Lots of propaganda Secret police Outlawing of religion!
China Political equality Freedom of marriage Abortions legal Easy divorce Divorce legal Attack on Confucian Women in factories principles of marriage Maternity leave End of child marriage Men hated this! Property rights Stalin repeals most of it Women in factories Men hated this!
China Communism started in Communism started in the cities the fields Redistributed land Redistributed land Confucian peasants had Russian peasants did this to be convinced to attack automatically social superiors Many landlords killed Many landlords killed Violent collectivization Peaceful collectivization of agriculture of agriculture
China Unprecedented economic Unprecedented economic growth 1930s growth 1950s Stalin’s 5 Year Plans Massive forced labor in Massive, forced labor in factories factories Technology improved Technology improved Rural areas exploited Rural areas exploited Urban elites emerge Corruption and elitism Mao tries a backlash continues throughout the against elitism (Great Leap time of the USSR Forward)