Teheran Conference● Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill● November 1943● Plan D-Day
Moscow Conference 1944● Stalin & Churchill● Make divisions of occupied Europe● Soviets in E.Europe but agree to give sovereignty to nations
Yalta – Feb. 1945● Create UN – San Francisco conference planned● 4 occupation zones will be made in Germany● US wants help in Pacific after defeating Nazis● Free-elections guaranteed for all of Europe
Potsdam Conference – July 1945● Stalin, Churchill, Truman● Soviets are not shy about creating Comm. govts in E Europe● US refuses to give $6 billion to USSR● “communist conspiracy” as seen by US
Post War Status of the Soviet Union● Continued industrialization (and its problems); many women worked (40%)● Scarcity of consumer goods● Anti-Western policies (i.e. Censorship)● Anti-intellectual● Strict one-party system; secret police● Continued gulags and executions until 53
Post War Status of Western Europe● Economic recovery thanks to the USA● Decolonization of Africa, India, SE Asia − France had to be coerced into giving up colonies in Africa − By 1962 all former colonies have independence − Former colonies become known as “third world”
Post War Status of Eastern Europe● 1948-53 these countries are “Stalinized”● 5 Year Plans put into place for industry● Secret police forces● Strict (forced) loyalty to Soviets● Collectivization of agriculture − No private farms − State-controlled production of goods
Post War Status of Eastern Europe● 1946 – Czech resists bringing communists to power● 1948 – Soviets send troops to Czech and dissolves non-communist parties − Klement Gottwald is the comm. President now● 1958 – Yugoslavia is communist under Tito, but refuses to “stalinize”; stays allied to USSR but independent● Red Army ensured loyalty and dependence
Superpowers Face Off 1945-49● Pro-Soviet regimes installed in Hungary, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria as “buffers”● Truman Doctrine (1947) gives $400 mill to help free Greece & Turkey from Communist forces − Sets a precedent for any country “threatened” by Communism − Prevents “domino effect” of communism
Superpowers Face Off 1945-49● Marshall Plan (1947)● $13 billion given for European rebuilding● Economic turmoil=communist expansion?● Soviets saw this as economic bribery of small, weak European nations● E. Europe & USSR refuse to participate● See political cartoon on p. 849
Superpowers Face Off 1945-49● Blockade of Berlin in 1948 prompts “containment of communism” to be a formal U.S. Foreign policy● Soviets prevent France, Britain & US from entering W. Berlin to try to keep a democratic West Germany from forming● 13,000 tons of supplies were flown into Berlin● Neither side is ready to have WWIII!
Superpowers Face Off 1945-49● Communists (Mao Zedong) take over China in 1949● USSR detonates atomic bomb in 1949● Arms race escalates!● Extensive arsenal of nukes was only supposed to scare the enemy...not really to be used!
Superpowers Face Off 1945-49● NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is formed in 1949 as an anti-communism military alliance● COMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) is formed in 1949 as an anti- west military alliance − Turns into the formal Warsaw Pact in 1955● Two big alliance camps...sound familiar??
Korean War 1950-53● Following liberation from Japan in 1945, North Korea is supported by USSR● South Korea is supported by USA● 38th parallel divides the two halves● June 1950 N. Korea invades S. Korea● UN (under Gen. MacArthur) attempts to unify Korea under a non-communist regime
Korean War 1950-53● Forces march north past the 38th parallel● Communist Chinese join in and drive the UN forces south● BLOODBATHS!● Armistice signed in 1953; Communism is contained to N. Korea● USSR seen as the ones that sent China into Korea (they didnt really)
Developments 1953-1959● President Eisenhower adopts “massive retaliation” policy − US will strike will all nukes in the event of a Soviet attack on Europe● CENTO (Central Treaty Org) allies US with Middle East● SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Org) allies US with SE Asia (duh)● US has 42 allied nations!
Developments 1953-1959● 1953 Stalin dies – Kruschev takes over − Hes not a Stalin fan!● 1956 Soviets overthrow Hungarian revolt● 1957 Soviets launch Sputnik I - 1st satellite − Now the US freaks out and makes all kids take math and science!!! :) (Blame the communists!)● 1959 Fidel Castro overthrows dictator Bautista in CUBA; supported by Soviets
Cuban Missile Crisis● 1961 – CIA attempts to assassinate Castro● 1962 – USSR sends nukes to Cuba (just in case)● President Kennedy threatens to invade Cuba if nukes arrive● Kruschev threatens to use nukes if the US invades Cuba● BTW...the US already has nukes in Turkey!
Cuban Missile Crisis● Kennedy orders a blockade of Cuba● Discussions between him and Kruschev ensue● USSR agreed to stop the ships; US agrees not to invade Cuba and overturn communism● Nuclear War was avoided...but it was very tense (ask someone who can remember 1962!)
Post - Cuban Missile Crisis● 1963 a hotline is installed between Washington and Moscow (the Red button)● 1964 – Kruschev forced from power for being too “soft” and for lessening the privileges of party officials● 1964 – Leonid Brezhnev assumes the leadership role (against reform)● 1968 – reforms in Czech are crushed by Red Army (no “human face” for communism)
Alexander Dubceks “Prague Spring”● Reforms are given in Czech● Poland and Hungary begin stirring for reforms● USSR wont let this “spring fever” spread
Vietnam War 1963-75● 1954 – French rulers overthrown● N. Vietnam is Soviet supported − Nationalist Ho Chih Minh● S. Vietnam is US supported − Autocratic Ngo Dinh Diem − Corrupt; hated by people● 1963 - Kennedy supports a military coup in hopes of resisting communist guerillas (Vietcong).
Vietnam War 1963-75● 1964 – much communist support in S. Vietnam because of weak military regime● 1964 – President Johnson sends many US troops to Vietnam to defeat Vietcong● Goal: Keep Asia from falling to communism!● Guerilla warfare no match for US war tech.● First TV war in the West = antiwar sentiment
Vietnam War 1963-75● Mounting US losses over a 10 year period● 1973 – President Nixon talks w/N. Vietnam● Troops begin to be withdrawn● 1975 – Communists capture Saigon in S. Vietnam● Communism rules Vietnam, but it doesnt turn out to be as catastrophic as once believed.
Soviet/US Detente 1972-1990● 1972 – Antiballistic Missiles Treaty● 1972 – Nixon opens economic relations with China● 1975 – Helsinki Agreements – US officially recognizes postwar E European borders● 1979 – SETBACK! - Soviets invade Afghanistan to spread communism● 1980 – embargo on US grain to USSR● 1980 – US doesnt go to Moscow Olympics
Life in Soviet Union 1972-1990● Poor economy● Dependent on western grain exports● High rate of alcoholism (vodka)● Inefficient bureaucracy● No incentives for collective farmers● Party rewards● Corruption and the KGB (secret police)● Great space program; bad earth technology
Soviet/US Detente 1972-1990● 1982 – President Reagan calls the USSR an “evil empire”● US missile production and defense system are increased● Arms race is renewed● 1983 – 11 year olds (like me) truly believed there could be a nuclear war! − “Dont push the red button!!!” − The Day After
Soviet/US Detente 1972-1990● Mikhail Gorbachev becomes the communist leader of USSR in 1985● He wants arms limitations● Both US and USSR realize that their military budgets are too high and the economy is affected● Gorbachev allows autonomy in E. Europe● Many E. European countries overthrow communism (E. Germany in Oct. 1990)
Perestroika under Gorbachev● “restructuring” of the Soviet Union 1985● Market economy encouraged● Private property OK● Conservative party members feared rapid change● Radicals thought it was too little● “glastnost” = openness (free speech) − Leads to nationalist movements and the end of the USSR by 1990!
Perestroika under Gorbachev● Boris Yeltsin becomes the 1st president of the Russian Republic● Gorbachev kidnapped by conservatives in 1991● Attempted coup fails and the Soviet Union ceases to exist● Former Soviet republics gain full independence● Ethnic problems continue (ex. Chechnya)