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APWH Period 3 Review

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My interpretation of the 2012 APWH Period 3 Themes.

My interpretation of the 2012 APWH Period 3 Themes.

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  • 1. Period 3REGIONAL AND TRANSREGIONALINTERACTIONS C. 600-1450
  • 2. TRADE ROUTES GET BIGGER & BETTER! Old trade routes keep on getting more extensive Powerful trading cities emerge  Timbuktu  Calicut  Baghdad  Venice Diasporic communities emerge on the routes  Ex. Muslim merchant communities in the Indian Ocean
  • 3. NEW TRADE ROUTES & NEW PRODUCTS! Mesoamerican and Andean trade routes develop Luxury goods such as porcelain from China, gems from India, and exotic animals from Africa become more common on existing trade routes  Better caravan organization & travel  New compasses & astrolabes  Larger ships in the Indian Ocean  Credit systems, banking houses for loans
  • 4. TRADE EXPANDS States encourage commercial growth within  Ex. Building the Grand Canal in China  Minting coins & paper money in the Caliphates & China  Northern European membership in the Hanseatic League Empires are built and encourage trade within  Tang & Song China  Byzantine Empire  Mongol Empire  Umayyad & Abbasid Caliphates
  • 5. MIGRATION ALONG & AROUND TRADE ROUTES Pastoral groups and nomads adapt to and alter environments  Viking long ships are developed to travel rivers  Berbers breed camels to travel the Sahara  Central Asian pastoralists use horses along the steppes of the Silk Roads  Arabic is spread throughout the Caliphates  Bantu languages & farming techniques spread south of the Sahara
  • 6. CROSS-CULTURAL EXCHANGES Islam developed in the Arabian Peninsula It reflected elements of other monotheistic belief systems Islamic armies conquered lands & expanded the religion through merchants & missionaries Travelers such as Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta tell of the vast differences and integration of different cultures.
  • 7. CULTURAL DIFFUSION Literature, art & religion spread along these trade routes as people make new contacts with each other  Hinduism & Islam in SE Asia  Buddhism in East Asia Science & Technology too!  Greek & Indian math is used by Arabic scholars  Printing & gunpowder spread from China to the Middle East to W. Europe And food!  Bananas to Africa  Champa Rice from Vietnam to China
  • 8. …AND DON’T FORGET DISEASES AGAIN Black Death follows trade & military routes from Central Asia to China to W. Europe  “ooh ooh, fleas on rats, fleas on rats!”
  • 9. CONTINUITY & CHANGE IN AND WITHIN STATES Out with the Roman and Han Empires…. In with the Byzantine and Sui, Tang & Song Empires! Both rely on traditional sources of power (i.e. land ownership) and new innovations to better suit the changing times  Ex:Buddhism in Tang China, Orthodox Christianity in the Byzantine Empire
  • 10. NEW FORMS OF RULING EMERGE Islamic Caliphates (Abbasid/Fatamid) in Middle East and Iberian Peninsula Feudalism in W. Europe & Japan Mongol Khanates in Russia, China, Mid East City-States in East Africa & Mesoamerica Aztec & Inca Empires develop out of many networks of smaller states These places adapted many local cultures & traditions!
  • 11. CONTACTS & CONFLICTS=CULTURE TRANSFER Chinese technology from Tang & Song dynasties reached the Abbasid Caliphate through the trade routes Mongols created “Pax Mongolica” and encouraged transfer of ideas along Silk Roads The Crusades failed to keep Muslims out of the Holy Lands but exposed Western Europeans to new technologies and ideas that spurred the Renaissance
  • 12. ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY INCREASES New technologies = better agriculture  Chinampas in Mesoamerica  Horse collar & plow in W. Europe  Fast-growing Champa rice in China Chinese porcelain & Persian/Indian textiles are demanded by foreigners leading to increased production Iron & Steel production expands in Song & Yuan China
  • 13. URBAN ROLLER COASTER RIDES! Urban decline and revival is prevalent Reasons for decline:  Invasion (Constantinople)  Disease (Venice, Chang’an)  Decline of agricultural productivity (Mayan?)  The Little Ice Age in Europe Reasons for Revivals  Oppositesof the above!  Sometimes new cities replace old ones (Beijing over Chang’an)
  • 14. LABOR ORGANIZATION IS MORE DEFINED Free peasant agriculture in almost every region  Liked to revolt in China when demands became too high Nomadic pastoralism continues Guild organization in W. Europe Slavery (IN Africa, E. Mediterranean, Turkic mamluks) Serfdom (Europe & Japan) Labor Taxation (Incan mit’a system) Military obligations (ex. Mongol Empire)
  • 15. CLASS STRUCTURE & GENDER Class hierarchy & caste systems persisted Patriarchy persists too, however….. Women in some areas exercise more power and influence  Japanese court ladies  Nomadic Mongol women  SE Asian merchant community women  West African matrilineal societies
  • 16. FAMILY LIFE Religious expectations in Christianity, Buddhism, Islam and NeoConfucianism changed gender roles & family life as these religions spread. Shari’a law replaces old Persian laws  Ex. regarding wives and children.