Period 3REGIONAL AND TRANSREGIONALINTERACTIONS C. 600-1450
TRADE ROUTES GET BIGGER & BETTER! Old trade routes keep on getting more extensive Powerful trading cities emerge Timbuktu Calicut Baghdad Venice Diasporic communities emerge on the routes Ex. Muslim merchant communities in the Indian Ocean
NEW TRADE ROUTES & NEW PRODUCTS! Mesoamerican and Andean trade routes develop Luxury goods such as porcelain from China, gems from India, and exotic animals from Africa become more common on existing trade routes Better caravan organization & travel New compasses & astrolabes Larger ships in the Indian Ocean Credit systems, banking houses for loans
TRADE EXPANDS States encourage commercial growth within Ex. Building the Grand Canal in China Minting coins & paper money in the Caliphates & China Northern European membership in the Hanseatic League Empires are built and encourage trade within Tang & Song China Byzantine Empire Mongol Empire Umayyad & Abbasid Caliphates
MIGRATION ALONG & AROUND TRADE ROUTES Pastoral groups and nomads adapt to and alter environments Viking long ships are developed to travel rivers Berbers breed camels to travel the Sahara Central Asian pastoralists use horses along the steppes of the Silk Roads Arabic is spread throughout the Caliphates Bantu languages & farming techniques spread south of the Sahara
CROSS-CULTURAL EXCHANGES Islam developed in the Arabian Peninsula It reflected elements of other monotheistic belief systems Islamic armies conquered lands & expanded the religion through merchants & missionaries Travelers such as Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta tell of the vast differences and integration of different cultures.
CULTURAL DIFFUSION Literature, art & religion spread along these trade routes as people make new contacts with each other Hinduism & Islam in SE Asia Buddhism in East Asia Science & Technology too! Greek & Indian math is used by Arabic scholars Printing & gunpowder spread from China to the Middle East to W. Europe And food! Bananas to Africa Champa Rice from Vietnam to China
…AND DON’T FORGET DISEASES AGAIN Black Death follows trade & military routes from Central Asia to China to W. Europe “ooh ooh, fleas on rats, fleas on rats!”
CONTINUITY & CHANGE IN AND WITHIN STATES Out with the Roman and Han Empires…. In with the Byzantine and Sui, Tang & Song Empires! Both rely on traditional sources of power (i.e. land ownership) and new innovations to better suit the changing times Ex:Buddhism in Tang China, Orthodox Christianity in the Byzantine Empire
NEW FORMS OF RULING EMERGE Islamic Caliphates (Abbasid/Fatamid) in Middle East and Iberian Peninsula Feudalism in W. Europe & Japan Mongol Khanates in Russia, China, Mid East City-States in East Africa & Mesoamerica Aztec & Inca Empires develop out of many networks of smaller states These places adapted many local cultures & traditions!
CONTACTS & CONFLICTS=CULTURE TRANSFER Chinese technology from Tang & Song dynasties reached the Abbasid Caliphate through the trade routes Mongols created “Pax Mongolica” and encouraged transfer of ideas along Silk Roads The Crusades failed to keep Muslims out of the Holy Lands but exposed Western Europeans to new technologies and ideas that spurred the Renaissance
ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY INCREASES New technologies = better agriculture Chinampas in Mesoamerica Horse collar & plow in W. Europe Fast-growing Champa rice in China Chinese porcelain & Persian/Indian textiles are demanded by foreigners leading to increased production Iron & Steel production expands in Song & Yuan China
URBAN ROLLER COASTER RIDES! Urban decline and revival is prevalent Reasons for decline: Invasion (Constantinople) Disease (Venice, Chang’an) Decline of agricultural productivity (Mayan?) The Little Ice Age in Europe Reasons for Revivals Oppositesof the above! Sometimes new cities replace old ones (Beijing over Chang’an)
LABOR ORGANIZATION IS MORE DEFINED Free peasant agriculture in almost every region Liked to revolt in China when demands became too high Nomadic pastoralism continues Guild organization in W. Europe Slavery (IN Africa, E. Mediterranean, Turkic mamluks) Serfdom (Europe & Japan) Labor Taxation (Incan mit’a system) Military obligations (ex. Mongol Empire)
CLASS STRUCTURE & GENDER Class hierarchy & caste systems persisted Patriarchy persists too, however….. Women in some areas exercise more power and influence Japanese court ladies Nomadic Mongol women SE Asian merchant community women West African matrilineal societies
FAMILY LIFE Religious expectations in Christianity, Buddhism, Islam and NeoConfucianism changed gender roles & family life as these religions spread. Shari’a law replaces old Persian laws Ex. regarding wives and children.