What is Epigenetics?• Epigenetics is the study of inheritable changes that can occur without a change in the DNA sequence.
• Epigenetics are the changes of gene expressions and the cells phenotypes.• They are caused not by the DNA sequence but other mechanisms.• EPIGENETICS literally means ~epi (above) ~genetics.• This refers to changes in the genome.
• Epigenetics goes deeper then just your genes they depend on your social aspects, environment, and even your diet.• The choices you make will affect your children and even your grandchildren.
• Epigenetics is really easy to see in identical twins.• If two twins with the same DNA were seperated early on in life and one went to live in New York and the other on the beach. The one in New York would have a stressful lifa and may end up having asthma due to the environment, while the other would be living a stress-free life, it all depends on the area, the people and your diet.
• Even if you make bad decisions for yourself, your children may be have some of that in them due to your mistake• Diet is especially important, because not making healthy choices can lead to cancer and cause trouble to you in the future.• The twin on the beach may do yoga every morning and will be healthy and fit, she won’t have cancer.
Ethical concerns• Epigenetics is moving at a rapid rate.• Intriguing research is being done, primarily done on animals• Epigenetics show up faster than mutations• Researchers have found out that epigenetic changes can be reversible• People began calling epigenetics the new “Lamarckism.”
Advantages• One human testing it mainly works on identical twins.• Researchers are very picky and are adopting epigenetics, to se if the methods will answer any biological questions.
Disadvantages• Epigeneticss can cause abnormilities• Cardiac hypertrophy• Heart failure
5-mC intact. The uracils are amplified as thymines, and 5-mC residues are amplified as cytosines in PCR. Comparison of sequence information between the reference genome and bisulfite-treated DNA can provide single-nucleotide resolution information about cytosine methylation patterns.Sequence-Specific Enzyme Digestion Restriction enzymes are used to generate DNA •High enzyme turnover •Determination of methylation status is limited by the enzyme recognition site fragments for methylation •Well-studied •Overnight protocols analysis. Some restriction •Easy-to-use •Lower throughput enzymes are methylation- •Availability of recombinant sensitive (i.e., digestion is enzymes impaired or blocked by methylated DNA). When used in conjunction with an isoschizomer that has the same recognition site but is methylation insensitive, information about methylation status can be obtained. Additionally, the use of methylation- dependent restriction enzymes (i.e., requires methylated DNA for cleavage to occur) can be used to fragment DNA for sequencing analysis.Methylated DNA Fragmented genomic DNAImmunoprecipitation (restriction enzyme •Relatively fast •Dependent on antibody specificity digestion or sonication) is •Compatible with array-based •May require more than one 5-mC for antibody binding denatured and analysis •Requires DNA denaturation immunoprecipitated with •Applicable for high •Resolution depends on the size of the immunoprecipitated DNA and for microarray antibodies specific for 5- throughput sequencing experiments, depends on probe design mC. The enriched DNA •Data from repeat sequences may be overrepresented fragments can be analyzed by PCR for locus-specific studies or by microarrays (MeDIP-chip) and massively parallel sequencing (MeDIP- seq) for whole genome studies.Methylated DNA-Binding Instead of relying onProteins antibodies for DNA •Well-studied •May require high DNA input enrichment, affinity-based •Does not require •May require a long protocol assays use proteins that denaturation •Requires salt elutions specifically bind methylated •Compatible with array-based •Does not give single base methylation resolution data or unmethylated CpG sites analysis in fragmented genomic DNA •Applicable for high (restriction enzyme throughput sequencing digestion or sonication). The enriched DNA fragments can be analyzed by PCR for locus-specific studies or by microarrays and massively parallel