57. Roasted Stuffed Quail7/76 small or 4 large quail8 ounces Farmers cheese (the cheese was made by me) (2 ounces per bird)8 walnut size chucks of beef marrow8 thin slices fresh organic bacon (2 per bird)8 bay leaves (I added Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) another herb that was commonto kitchen garden)Sea saltGround black pepper8Period Recipe:Pluck them dry, then remove the crop and innards, and singe them over a smoke-free fire,and skewer them with slices of fat and bay leaves between them, and fill their cavitieswith fine rich cheese and beef morrow; eat them with fine salt, and bring them to tablecovered (to keep warm) between two bowls or plates. (VT Maz Scul 97)Notes:Salt and Pepper the insides of the quails and stuff each one generously with a sprig ofRosemary and Farmers cheese. Then wrap each bird with 2 slices of bacon, on the breastand on the back of each quail, and fasten with toothpicks or twine.In period these would have been skewered and roasted over a fire. For my cooking Iplaced the birds on a wire rack and placed in a roasting pan in the oven. Cook them in apreheated hot oven (400 degrees) for 20 to 25 minutes, checking frequently to make surethey do not overcook, and turning them once about halfway the cooking time. When theyare nice and brown, serve them with the pan juices and sprinkled with salt. By using theOrganic Bacon I did not need the bone marrow, and choose Rosemary instead of BayLeaf as I felt that the flavor fit better with the quail & the fresh cheese.B. Fennel and Leeks with Saffron72 1/4 pounds Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)2 large Leeks2 ounces salt pork or blanched pancetta (organic bacon also works for this dish)1 egg1 pinch saffron (Crocus Sativus) (a dozen threads)Sea salt to taste7 Scully, Terence, “The Viandier of Taillevent”, Canada: University of Ottawa Press, 1988, pages 284`285,items 45, 97.8 Redon, Sabban, Serventi, “The Medieval Kitchen”, Chicago, Ill.: The University of Chicago Press, 1993,page 63,75,113.
Wash the fennel, thinly slice the white bulbs, do the same with the leeks (do not use thetops). Wash the Fennel and Leeks under running water. Cut up the pork in small piecesand cook in a pan until it begins to brown. Add the fennel and leeks and stir. Add ¾ cupof water and some salt. Cook, covered, over low heat for about 30 minutes, depending onhow soft you like your vegetables, and I prefer to cook mine to still have a slight crunch.Beat an egg with the saffron and set aside to infuse. Just before serving, stir some of thehot juices from the vegetables into the eggs and saffron mixture, off the heat, pour theegg mixture into the pan of vegetables and mix well. Serve hot or warm.Notes:This recipe was pretty easy to follow; I choose to use organic bacon to complement thequail.Another source of this recipe is called “Finocchio” (Libro Della Cocina), MediterraneanCuisine by Barbara Santich, page 119. This version is very similar to the one above,except that the leeks and fennel is pan fried in olive oil with the pork. Footnote: 3
Savory Cheese, Pear Cheese, Farmers Cheese, Fresh Butter, and WheatBread“My Lady of Middlesex makes excellent slipp-coat Cheese of good morning milk,putting Cream to it. A quart of Cream is the proportion she useth to as much milk, asboth together make a large round Cheese of the bigness of an ordinary Tart-plate, orcheese-plate; as big as an ordinary soft cheese, that eh Market women sell for tenpence…”9Farmers Cheese (Neufchatel)1-gallon whole milk (non-homogenized)4 ounces of mesophilic cheese starter culture (can also use buttermilk or an 8 ouncecontainer of plain yogurt that contain a live culture)1 pint of heavy cream (I did not need to add this since I used organic whole milk that hasbeen low temperature pasteurized but not homogenized)4-8 drops of Rennet1/3 cup of water*The cheese that I have made here is also used in the filling for the quail, the cheesetart, and the 3 types of Farmers cheese.Step One: making the Mesophilic starter:Sterilize a clean one-quart canning jar and its cover by placing them in boiling water forfive minutes. Cool them and fill the jar with fresh skim milk, leaving ½ inch of head-space. Cover the jar tightly with its sterilized lid.Put the jar in a big deep pot with the water level at least ¼ inch over the top of the jar lid.Put the pot on the burner and bring the water to a boil. Note when the water begins toboil, and let it continue at a slow boil for thirty minutes.Take the jar out of the water, and let it cool to 72°, away from drafts. (To check thetemperature, use the current room temperature, to avoid contaminating the milk).Inoculate the milk by adding the contents of the freeze-dried starter culture packet to themilk (still at 72°) (the starter culture was purchased from a cheese supply company). Addthe power quickly, to minimize exposure to the air. Re-cover and swirl the jar every fiveminutes or so, to mix and dissolve the powered culture thoroughly.Put the jar where the milk temperature for fifteen to twenty-four hours during its ripeningperiod. Sixteen hours usually does the trick, but can be left for an additional 8 hours.The culture will have the consistency of a good yogurt. It should separate cleanly fromthe sides of the jar, and the surface should be shiny. Taste it. It should be slightly acidand also a bit sweet. Chill it immediately. You can keep it in the refrigerator for up tothree days before using it. The remaining used produce should be placed in ice cubetrays and frozen for storage (make sure to sterilize the plastic ice cube trays). Whenfrozen remove from the tray and place in a plastic bag and place back into the freezer.9 The Project Gutenberg eBook “The Closet of Sir Kenelm Digby”, www.gutenberg.org/files/16441, “Tomake Silpp-coat cheese”
Each cube is equal to about one ounce of starter and keeps for about a month in thefreezer.Step Two:Place milk into large pan. Warm milk using in-direct warming method (I used a largemetal pan in a sink of warm water) raised temperature of milk to 72° F (I found due to thefact that I tend to keep my house cooler that I needed to warm the milk to 80~85°F). Add4 ounces of mesophilic starter (four cubes of starter). Add 4~8 drops of Rennet (diluteRennet to 1/3 cup of cool water). Let milk sit covered 12 to 18 hours or until a thick curdhas formed.Pour the curds into a cheesecloth-lined colander and hang to drain for 12 to 24 hours oruntil bag has stopped dripping.Place the curds into a cheesecloth-lined colander and place the colander in a pot. Place aplate in the colander, resting on the bag of curds. Place a weight on the plate (the weightof two bricks is sufficient (wrap the bricks in a plastic bag)). Put the cover on the pot andrefrigerate for 13 to 24 hours.Take the cheese from the pot and place in a bowl. Knead and mold the cheese by handinto four cheeses. You can add salt to taste and add a variety of condiments if desiredsuch as chopped chive, chopped garlic, etc.10Savory CheeseTake one 1/3 of the amount of the cheese above and add a good handful of Fresh Dill(Anethum graveolens) (about 3 tablespoons) and a 1/3 of a cup of finely chopped Garlic(Allium sativum). Place in a container add another tablespoonful of dill to the top andcover and refrigerate.Notes:This cheese is better if you make it 1 week in advance and give the flavor a chance toreach mature.Pear CheeseTake 1/3 of the amount of the cheese above add to this 3 ounces of sieved pears, 1 ounceof pea juice, and one ounce each minced pears and apricots. Place into a coveredcontainer and refrigerate.Observations:The flavor on the Pear Cheese is very mild and a more flavorful fruit might have been abetter choice such as apricot or a tart apple.10 Carroll, Ricki & Robert, “Cheese making made easy”, United States: Capital City Press, 1996, page36~37
Notes:The flavor of this cheese is slightly sweet and very light.Farmer’s cheese or soft cheeses were some of the earliest and easiest cheese to make. Inperiod they would have left whole milk to warm over night by the fire, they also addedthings like nettle juice, acid (vinegar or lemon juice) to cause the milk to callboard.Neufchatel is a Norman style cheese; it is believed that it was first mentioned in a textfrom the year 1035 A.D. in the Neufchatel-en-bray countryside. The cheese candefinitely be documented in 1543 in the ledgers of Saint-Aman Abby of Rouen where thecheese was called Neufchatel.11 The book was “A Proper newe Booke of Cokerye.Other sources used for making the cheese included Tournaments Illuminated Issue #143,Summer 2002, “Cheese making at Home”, by Bryn Smith pages 19~23. 311 Norman Cheeses, www.formages.org/fnd/fdn_neufcatel_en
Cheese Tart (Tart de Bry)12Original: 174. Tart de Bry. Take a crust ynche depe in a trap. Take yolkes of rawe & chese ruayn & medle it & pe yolkes togyder. Do perto powdour ginger, sugar, safroun, and salt. Do it in a tarp; bake it & serue it forth.Translation:Make a pie crust an inch deep in pie pan. Take yolks of eggs raw and autumn cheese andmix it and the yolks together. Do there to powder ginger, sugar, saffron, and salt. Do itin a pie shell, bake it and serve it forth.Step one:Tart Shell2 cups of Organic White Flour¼ cup Lard 2 tablespoons butter (butter made by me)Buttermilk (Just enough liquid to make a firm dough), by product of making the butter.Pinch saltCombine flour, salt, lard, and butter in a large bowl. Cut in lard and butter into the flourand forms pea size balls. Add enough buttermilk to form a form ball. Be careful not toover work the dough because the curst will be tough.Let it rest, place dough in a lightly greased pie pan forming by hand making sure it iseven in thickness. Place tart shell in a 400° oven for 15 minutes or until lightly brown.Step two:Filling4 Egg yolks16 ounces of Farmers Cheese (made by me)½ teaspoon Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) or to taste filling should have a slight bite1/3 cup SugarA pinch of saffron (Crocus Sativus) about 12 threadsA pinch of sea saltCream together sugar, eggs, salt and ginger, when smooth add cheese in small amountstill mixed (by mixing by hand you may have some small lumps of cheese). Place filling12 Heiatt, Constance and Sharon Butler, “Curye on Inglish: …Forme of Cury,” New York, The EarlyEnglish text Society, 1985, 174
in the tart shell and bake in a 375° oven for 20 to 25 minutes or until the pastry is goldenbrown and the filling has set. Serve warm or cold.The original recipe called for “Chese Ruayn” a soft cheese. 13Butter½ gallon of half & half½ gallon of heavy whipping creamLet the cream and half & half come to room temperature. Place in a butter churn, agitatethe mixture till the product passes thru all stages and separates into buttermilk and ayellow mass of butter. Separate the (save the buttermilk) butter and place in a bowl andadd salt to taste, kneed the butter till no more whey will separate from the butter (Thedryer you can get the butter the longer it will keep). Place in a covered dish andrefrigerate.Wheat Bread Footnote: 34 cups of stone ground whole-wheat flour2 tablespoons sugar½ to 1 cup of warm buttermilk2 teaspoons dry yeast½ teaspoon salt½ teaspoon olive oil13 Translation of tart de Bry, www.godecookery.com
Combine dry ingredients. In a separate bowl add 1/3 of a cup of warm milk and sugarand yeast to proof. When yeast has proofed add to dry ingredients and add the remainingliquid and mix by hand. If mixture is too dry add a little more liquid, if mixture is to wetadd a little more flour. When mixture makes a firm ball (not sticky) Kneed by hand for10 to 15 minutes. Place dough in a greased bowl and cover, place in a warm area. Letthe dough rise till it is about double in size. Turn out of the bowl and lightly kneed,divide into thirds and let rise a second time. When risen for the second time bake in apre-heated oven (350°~375°). Bake for 45~55 minutes or until golden brown, whenthumped with index and thumb the loaf will have hollow sound. Place on a rack and letcool.Orange Barley Water2 cups of hulled barley4 cups of water1 orangeIn a large bowl mix barley and water and let it sit over night. Separate the barley and thewater. To the water add the juice of the orange and the zest. Serve cool or roomtemperature.ButtermilkCool the buttermilk and serve (this is not the type of buttermilk you buy in the store,originally buttermilk was what was left after making of butter).Conclusion:On the following pages you will see additional examples of people enjoying small meals.