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A white leach (3505)  01.18.12
 

A white leach (3505) 01.18.12

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    A white leach (3505)  01.18.12 A white leach (3505) 01.18.12 Document Transcript

    • Fig. 1 first attempt at White Leach1 A WHITE LEACH (JELLIED MILK) #1 Loidolt, K, Photographer 1
    • Historical Information:There are several forms of this dish in many cultures. During my working on the finalversions of the jellied milk the most common statement about it was that it most closelyresembled is a dish called Russia Cream. The basics include milk, sugar, flavoring, andto thicken the milk and sugar in some fashion.2According to “All the Kings Cooks” a cookbook documenting the kitchens and foodsevered at Hampton Court during the time of King Henry VIII, aspics & jellies weremuch in favor and used in many forms during the meal. One such menu included areference to this dish “... in Sauce, Chicken Farced, and Smothered Rabbit and WhiteLeach (a luscious cool jelly)…” 3I found some very cool information on a website call Historical Food by Ivan Day. Mr.Day is considered one of the foremost authorities on food history and period cooking formany time periods including the middle ages, and Tudor periods. According to his bio,“He is a major and independent social historian of food culture and also a professionalchef and confectioner. He runs practical courses on all aspects of British and Italian foodhistory in his home in the English Lake District. He also is the author of a number ofbooks and many papers on the history of food and has curates many major exhibitions onfood history in the UK, US and Europe.” 4Ivan Day had the following to say about Leche. “… Elias Ashmoles History of the NobleOrder of the Garter (London: 1672). It includes this account of a garter supper and dinnerboth held at St Georges Hall, Windsor Castle in the eleventh year of Henry VIIIs reign(1520). Leche was served at the end of the courses… turned into a jelly withisinglass, hartshorn, calves feet or ivory shavings. Although no Tudor moulds havesurvived, there are records of jellies molded into the shape of castles and animals atHenrys court. In the Plantagenet period, even more elaborate jellies and leches had beenserved to royalty. At Henry VIs5 coronation in Westminster Hall in 1429, hispersonal badge, an antelope with a crowne about his necke with a chayne of goldewas emblazoned on a white leach.” There was also mention of this last entry beingfound in Gely party wryten and noted with Te Deum laudamus.”6I love Project Gutenberg I was able to locate the book mentioned above and the coursefrom King Henry VI’s meal were the gilded White Leche is mentioned. The period entryreads as follows:2 Dulce de leche, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dulce_de_leche3 Brears, Peter, All the Kings Cooks: The Tudor Kitchens of King Henry VIII at Hampton Court Palace, 2011, isbn# 02856353364 Day, Ivan, Food History Jottings, http://foodhistorjottings.blogspot.com/search?updated-min=2011-01-01T00:00:00-08:00&updated-max=2012-01-01T00:00:00-08:00&max-results=235 Anonymous Author,Project Gutenbergs A Chronicle of London from 1089 to 1483, Written in the Fifteenth Century, First TimePrinted from MSS. in the British Museum, October 26, 2008, [EBook #27027], http://www.gutenberg.org/files/27027/27027-h/27027-h.htm6 Day, Ivan, Historical Food, 2003, http://www.historicfood.com/Jellies.htm 2
    • “Here foloweth the second Course; that is to wite,Viand blank, barrid of golde. Gelypartid writen and notid Te Deum Laudamus. Pigge endored. Crane. Bitore. Conyes.Chikyns endored. Partrich. Pecok enhakill. Great breame. Leches white with anantelope of redde corven theryn, a crowne about his neck with a cheyne of golde.Flampayne poudred with lepardis and flours de lice of golde. Fritour, a lepardis heddewith ij Ostrich169 fethers. A Sotelte, themperour and the kyng that ded is, armed, andthere mantells of the garters; and the kyng that nowe is, knelyng before them with thisReason.”7In the menu below (fig. 2) there are several jellied milk dishes that are flavored withdifferent items, and one jellied spiced wine. One of the jellies milk dishes is described asbeing gilded, it is most likely being served as a subtleties due to the gold being applied tothe surface. As to wither all the Leche being served in this menu were gilded I am notsure.There are many examples of aspics, and jellied items being served at period feast. Asnoted in the menu example from 1429 describes a version of this dish as shaped ormodeled in an antelope. Also according to Ivan Day and others were many moulds forsuch gelatins at the Hampton court kitchens although none survive today. I have chosento use a modern copper mould for safety reasons, in stead of a more period tin style mold.Period Sources:Discussion: One of the first steps in making any of the jellied dishes was to make orprepare the item being used as the Gelatin. Some items used were: animal feet [cow,sheep, and pig], bones, fish scales, harts horn, or Isinglass [the float bladder of a Sturgeonin period]. Making the jelly was an all day process, of cooking, straining upto 3 or moretimes through a very fine cloth. Below are two gelatin recipes that talk about the processof making the final product, a jelly specifically out of animal feet since that was what Iused for my second version [I used pig feet].Source 1 to make the gelatin:This is an excerpt from A Book of Cookrye(England, 1591)The original source can be found at Mark and Jane Waks website8To make Ielly. Take Calves feete and fley them, and faire washe them, and set them onto seethe in faire licour, and faire scum them, and when they be tender sod, faire straineout the licour, and see your licour be verye cleere, and put your licour into a pot, if therebe a pottle of it, put a pottle of claret wine unto it, and two pound Sugar, a quartern ofsinamon, half a quartern of ginger, an ounce of Nutmegs, an ounce of grains, some long7 Anonymous Author,Project Gutenbergs A Chronicle of London from 1089 to 1483, Written in the Fifteenth Century, First TimePrinted from MSS. in the British Museum, October 26, 2008, [EBook #27027], http://www.gutenberg.org/files/27027/27027-h/27027-h.htm, pg 1698 Medieval Cookery, To make Jelly, excerpt for “A Book of Cookrye”, c. 1591, http://www.medievalcookery.com/search/display.html?booko:147:JLY 3
    • Pepper, a fewe Cloves whole, a few Coliander sads, a little salt, Isonglasse being fairewashed and laid in water a day before, Turnsole being aired be the fier and dusted, andwhen they be wel sod, let it run through a bag, and put two whites of Egs in the bag.Source 2 to make the gelatin:This is an excerpt from Du fait de cuisine(France, 1420 - Elizabeth Cook, trans.)The original source can be found at David Friedmans website980. To make jelly of meat, take sheeps feet and clean them well and properly and putthem to cook in fair clean water; then when they are half cooked take pork or piglet asyou wish and according to the quantity of it which you want to make, and put to cookwith your sheeps feet, and chicken also; then take white wine and vinegar and put in andsalt in reason and make it cook well and strongly. Then when it is well cooked taste tosee if it has a good taste of vinegar and of salt, take saffron and soak it therein to give itcolor, then draw out your meat onto a fair and clean board; then take white ginger,pepper, and soak in your broth and make it boil a wave, then arrange that you have acloth strainer and put your broth into it and pass it through again two or threetimes so that it is fair and clear. Then take your meat, pork and chicken, and arrangeyour dish, and the jelly on top.Part 2 to make the Jellied Milk:Source #1a white leach. Take a quart of newe milke, and three ounces weight of Isinglasse10, halfea pounde of beaten suger, and stirre them together, and let it boile half a quarter of anhower till it be thicke, stirring them all the while: then straine it with three spoonfull ofRosewater, thē put it into a platter and let it coole, and cut it in squares. Lay it fair indishes, and lay golde vpon it.11/12Source #2:[The original source of this recipe appears in 1602, according to,http://www.medievalcookery.com/notes/1608closet.pdf ][41] To make white leach of creame. 139 Medieval Cookery, Meat Jelly, excerpt from Du fait de cuisine, c. 1420, #80, http://www.medievalcookery.com/search/display.html?dufai:8010 Isinglass – made from the Swim bladder of a Rudd fish [Sturgon] (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) producing a gelatin like substance,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isinglass11 Dawson, Thomas, The Good Housewife’s Jewel, 2002, London, 1596, http://www.medievalcookery.com12 Florilegium, Jellied Milk, Also referenced, http://www.florilegium.org/?http%3A//www.florilegium.org/files/FOOD-SWEETS/jellied-milk-msg.html13 Holloway, Johanna H., An Elizabethan Book of Recipes for Confections & Banqueting Stuff, 2011, #41 To Make white Leach ofcream, original source 1602, http://www.medievalcookery.com/notes/1608closet.pdf 4
    • Take a pint of sweete creame, and sixe spoone-fuls of Rose water, and two graines of Muske, two drops of oyle of Mace, or one piece of large Mace, and so let it boyle with foure ounces of Isin-glasse: then let it run downe through a gelly bagge, when it is cold, slice it like brawne, and so serue it out: this is the best way to make leach. A Jellied Milk (Leche) was being served at the end of the course. A Jellied Wine was being served at the beginning of this course. A Jellied Milk (Leche) I believe flavored with Orange was being served at the endA Jellied Milk (Leche) was being served of the course.at the end of the course. Fig.2 History of the Noble Order of the Garter, c.1672, includes menus from Henry VIII, c.1520 Garter supper & dinner.14 Working progress: Below is the process I went through working out a final version of this dish. Version 1: 14 Historical Food, History of the Noble Order of the Garter, 1672, pg. 603, http://www.historicfood.com/Leche.htm 5
    • Milk, 4 packages of commercial Knox Gelatin, white sugar, rum extract, powered sugar,and a mould. Chill over night, turn onto a plate cut in diamonds, and sprinkle withpowered sugar, and serve.Discussion: This worked very well and set with no problems over night. The milk setstiff enough that it could be cut into diamond shapes [see fig. 1]. The powered sugarproved to melt when it came into contact with the moist surface of the jellied milk, andjust made a mess.Version 2:Milk, 4 pig feet (fig. 3) [I wanted a more period source of gelatin], sugar, rum extract,gold leaf, and a round bowl as a mould. I started by slow cooking the pigs feet all day ina crock pot. Then allowing the liquid to cool and it did set to a gelatin like state. I thenadded it to the milk the next day and this proved to take nearly a 1:1 ratio to get the milkto set. The milk appeared to again set, but when cut would not hold its form.Discussion: Making my own gelatin lead to several new lesson and problems. Sometasting the dish claimed that the jellied milk had a piggy under flavor. I discovered that Ineed to reduce the liquid further and add another gelatin [such as called for above theyused Isinglass] to help make the gelatin stiffer. Also at this point in the this process I hadnot been able to find a local source of Isinglass or Rose water which was what was calledfor in the period recipe.Version 3:Since regional A&S I was able to find both Isinglass & Rose Water which is what theoriginal recipe called for. It was also the recommendation of at least two of the judgesnot to use the pig gelatin again in favor of using Isinglass, also not to use the Rum extractas it was not as good as using the rose or orange water. Also after making this dishseveral times with both regular milk & Heavy Cream I prefer the flavor the richer creambrings to the dish.a white leach. “Take a quart of newe milke, and three ounces weight of Isinglasse15,halfe a pounde of beaten suger, and stirre them together, and let it boile half a quarter ofan hower till it be thicke, stirring them all the while: then straine it with three spoonfull ofRosewater, thē put it into a platter and let it coole, and cut it in squares. Lay it fair indishes, and lay golde vpon it.”16/17Materials:Isinglass (3 packages)1~2 caps of Rose water1 qt of heavy cream [or whole milk] (32 oz)15 Isinglass – made from the Swim bladder of a Rudd fish [Sturgon] (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) producing a gelatin like substance,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isinglass16 Dawson, Thomas, The Good Housewife’s Jewel, 2002, London, 1596, http://www.medievalcookery.com17 Florilegium, Jellied Milk, Also referenced, http://www.florilegium.org/?http%3A//www.florilegium.org/files/FOOD-SWEETS/jellied-milk-msg.html 6
    • 1 cup Sugar (8 oz)Gold leaf [food grade]Supplies:Butter Cheese Cloth, or yogurt strainerColanderContainer with a lidPotSpoonBowlCopper MouldMortar & pestle (or food processor)For the Jellied MilkInstructions:Put Milk into your pot and heat it gently to just short of boiling stirring often. Place Sugarinto food mortar and grind until fine then add sugar and Isinglass to the very hot milk.Continue to stir until the Isinglass is dissolved. Add the rose water and stir. Cook for15~30 minutes until the milk and sugar mixture start to thicken slightly. Pour liquidthrough the cheese cloth lined strainer into your mould [see steps below for mould useand how to un-mould] and refrigerate over night. Next day turn out the shape onto aserving dish, guild, and serve forth.Mould preparation:This can be done in several ways I have used a plastic dish, a glass dish, and coppermould for previously for this dish. These are the instructions for using a copper mould. 1. Either use plastic wrap, a light coating of vegetable oil, or spray oil to coat the mould. 2. If none of the above methods are used once the milk has set place the mould briefly into a bowl of hot water [making sure no water gets into the mould] for about 15~30 seconds to allow the jellied milk to release from the mould. Use 7
    • a butter knife carefully around the edge to also help to break the seal between the mould and the jellied milk. 3. Place a plate over the mould and invert, you may need to tap the mould a couple of times to get it to release.Conclusions:Changes made since Regional A&S:I have opted to follow the recommendations of the judges from regional and havepurchased Isinglass & rose water from Spicewells. I have also treated this in a moreperiod manor by using a special gelatin mould in this case a copper lobster & shell. Ihave also chosen to use the richer Heavy Cream for flavor reasons, as well as one versionof the recipe called for cream.The original dish is relatively easy to make using modern methods but I choose to trymaking my own gelatin for this dish and learned a lot about a whole new category offood for me. Learning to make the gelatin from the pig feet was interesting. There was amarked smelled at the beginning of the process but the resulting gelatin seems to have thefollowing problems: 1. The gelatin seemed to be weaker and did not hold a form well when cut orturned out of the dish. 2. To me I did not notice any under flavor but during Regional A&S the judgesdid note a decided piggy under flavor. 3. I had to use nearly a 1:1 ratio to get the milk to set well. Further investigationshowed that I needed to reduce the liquid further and even possibly dry it in the ovenremoving more of the moisture and concentrating the gelatin.The first time I tried this dish I used powered sugar to coat the lozenges but this workedbetter in theory than practice. This dish as it comes to room temperature tends to loseliquid making it a little messy to handle. Version 2 had a cheap version of food gradegold leaf that when left in contact with the higher acid of the milk left a discoloration. Ihope you enjoy this version of White Leche.fig.3 pig feet used in Version 2 8