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(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12
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(3502) a basic dutch cheese in the style of a gouda 01.12.12

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  • 1. A Basic Dutch cheese in the Style of a Gouda: Compare & Contrast of the Terroir Lastrup Gouda & Weissenthal Gouda Fig.1 Cheese; from the Theatrum Sanitatis, Library Casanatense, Rome1.A Note on Gouda Cheese: In reference to historical context I can document that the townof Gouda made a cheese, had a cheese market, and exported cheeses. To date I have notfound any written period sources that actually talk about how Gouda cheese was made.Now with that said this cheese is a Gouda Style due to the fact it is a washed curd cheesesimilar to what we call Gouda today. Edam is also a washed curd cheese and dates to the12th century.2 So it is very possible that the cheese being made in the town of Gouda wasalso a washed curd cheese of some type.1 Fig.137. Cheese; from the Theatrum Sanitatis, Library Casanatense, Rome, http://www.godecookery.com/afeast/foods/foods.html2 After Cheese comes nothing, Nov. 30, 2008, Cheese History, http://aftercheese.wordpress.com/category/cheese-history 1
  • 2. Note the Cheese roundsaging on the shelf and/or airdrying.I would also like you tonotice the tray on the tablethat the cheese is beingworked in and referencepictures on page 23.Collecting the Whey for asecondary use. Fig.2. Cheese manufacture, 1390-1400, Illustration from "Tacuinum Sanitatis", illuminated medical manual based on texts translated from Arabic into Latin, in the collection of the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris.3 Dutch History 4 Element from painting c.1550 titled ‘Market Scene’, notice the rounds of cheese, and milk. Painted by AERTSEN, Pieter Flemish painter (b. 1508, Amsterdam, d. 1575, Amsterdam). 3 Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, http://images.imagestate.com/Watermark/1276116.jpg 4 Market Scene, c. 1550, AERTSEN, Pieter Flemish painter (b. 1508, Amsterdam, d. 1575, Amsterdam), in the Alte Pinakothek, Munich 2
  • 3. The city of Alkmaar in the Netherlands has had a cheese weighing house documented asearly as 1365. Some of the oldest "ordinance on the cheese bearers" dates from June 17th,1593.5 The Cheese Carriers Guild has many traditions and rules stemming from the longhistory of making cheeses in the Netherlands. Types of Dutch cheese’s include Gouda,Edam, Maasdammer, Boerenkaas (literally, farmer cheese), Goat Cheese’s, Frisian clovecheese, Leidse, Dutch blue cheese, and Herb Cheese.6 7 An element from a Dutch still life showing items that were staples of the Dutch diet, depicted here are three styles of Dutch cheese the larger one in the back and on the bottom are similar in style and texture to Gouda. Notice the rinds that are clearly visible.Still Life with Cheeses, Artichoke, and Cherries, Clara Peeters (Holland, Belgium, circa 1594 - before1657) circa 1625 Painting, (M.2003.108.8), Ahmanson Building Room 321 8 A detail from ‘Peasants by the Hearth’, c. 1560’s, currently hung in theMuseum Mayer van den Bergh, Antwerp. Again the cheese pictured here have the look and shape of aGouda style cheese.5 The Alkmaar Cheese Market, http://www.alkmaar.nl/portal2/pages/english/cheesmarket.html6 Coquinaria, Christianne Muusers, http://www.coquinaria.nl/english/making_cheese/gouda_cheese.htm7 Breakfast Still-life with Bread, Cheese and Cherries, Clara Peeters, http://arthistoryblogger.blogspot.com/2011/06/history-as-seen-through-dutch-still.html8 Peasants by the Hearth, 1560’s, Museum Mayer von den Bergh, Antwerp 3
  • 4. 9 A detail from ‘Laid Table’, c.1622, private collection, even thoughthis particular painting is out of our time period the cheese represented remain similar to those picturedabove. Some Gouda Style Cheese was made from Goat Milk, Cow Milk or a combination of both. What I also find interesting about this illumination is that is show’s many types of animals that were milked as well, goat, sheep, cow, and donkey.Fig. 3 M.1001, 48r, Miniature:”Within fence, in lower left corner, woman, supporting herself with staff, stands in doorway of buildingbehind second woman, seated, milking goat beside sheepcote within which is flock of sheep.”109 Laid Table, c.1622, private collection, oil on wood10 Corsair Online Research Resource of the Pierpont Morgan Library, M.1001, 48r, Miniature: Shepherds: Annunciation,http://utu.morganlibrary.org 4
  • 5. According to Matters of taste: food and drink in seventeenth-century Dutch art and lifeby Donna R. Barnes and Peter G. Rose of the Albany Institute of History and Art“…milk was also preserved as butter and as the less perishable cheese. In both ofthe Low Countries, unlike other parts of Europe, butter rather than oil was used tocoat the outside of some of the cheese to help seal and preserve them while aging.Several varieties of cheese, made from both cows and sheep milk were beingmanufactured as early as the 14th & 15th centuries. Cheese was usually named forthe place where is originated, the Netherlands is still known for its Gouda and Edamcheeses. Gouda cheese is made from milk with cream, Edam style cheese is madefrom skimmed milk….)11Time Line for Dutch cheese12 year (city) event (Fiesland, North of the Netherlands) pots and vessels discovered that indicated 2 B.C. that cheese was being made there 586 A.D. Gouda cheese sent to Charlemagne 1100 A.D. (Koblenz, Germany) Dutch bargemen paid their toll in cheese 1266 A.D. (City of Haarlem) Obtained the right to hold a Dairy Market 1303 A.D. (Leyden) Obtained the right to hold a Dairy Market 1326 A.D. (Oudewater) Started holding their Dairy Market 1365 A.D. (Alkmaar) Started holding their Dairy Market 1426 A.D. (starting in) (Rotterdam) the Profession of "Caescoper" (Cheesemonger) was mentioned (Middle (Alkmaar, Gouda, Edam, Hoorn) Four of the Cheese Markets in operation during Ages) the Middle AgesDutch cheese markets 13Setting:I am using a setting as if these cheeses were being served on a wealthy persons table. The reasonfor this is that these cheeses have been aging since last August & September. During this timeperiod cheeses aged this long would only have been served by the wealthy.On wealthy tables the cheese would have been served on a number of different styles of dishes.They included metal (pewter or silver I am not sure from the images), ceramic, and wood (woodwas more likely used by the working class, or in a more rustic setting). I have again resorted tousing images form the Dutch Still Life paintings of the late 16th and early 17th century. Thesetended to reflect a realism that can not be found in earlier period images. I am therefore choosingto use colorful ceramic plates to show case these cheeses.11 Barnes, Donna R. & Rose, Peter G., Matters of taste: food and drink in seventeenth-century Dutch art and life, Syracuse UniversityPress, 2002, pg. 1812 Haris Amin, Dutch Cheese, Published on January 27, 2010 in Food, http://quazen.com/recreation/food/dutch-cheese13 The Alkmaar Cheese Market, a tradition since 1593, http://www.alkmaar.nl/portal2/pages/english/cheesmarket.html 5
  • 6. Sliced cheese in a pretty ceramic bowl, rounds of cheese on a metal plate. Again the cheese appears to be on a metal platedue to the reflection cast by the cheese. Here the round appears to be ona metal plate and the sliced cheese in a ceramic bowl. Here the cheese appears to be on a wooden plate due to noreflection and the color & texture of the plate.Embossing the Cheese: 6
  • 7. Imprinting or embossing cheeses during the middle ages allowed the cheese to beidentified by its type, where it was made, or who made it. One of my Gouda Cheeses isembossed with the image of Saint Nicholas. I choose to use this image for severalreasons, first I found this roundel as a second at an SCA event and it was made of thecorrect wood to be used in cheese making (Maple). Secondly I am a Byzantine Catholicand this style of imagery is very much in keeping with my faith and my SCA persona of aCistercian Nun. 14 Fig. 6 “Skahppo, Lulesamisk osteform”, Cheese MouldNational Historical Museum, Sweden Photo Stream.14 National Historical Museum, Sweden Photo Stream, http://www.flickr.com/photos/28772513@N07/5264101891/in/faves-historiska 7
  • 8. Here is an example of a cheese being embossed with a Cross shape. An Emboss could identify the maker, the town, the Abby, or the type of cheese. 15 Fig. 5 M.81, 47r, 1) Bestiary: Mouse --Mouse nibbles one of two cheeses decorated with cross-shaped cuts, within medallion.2) Bestiary: Mole -- Mole, within medallion. 16 Fig. 7 Cheese moulds with SaintJohn’s Arms motif, seen in the Finnish National Museum, Helsinki15 Corsair Online Research Resource of the Pierpont Morgan Library, M.87 47r, Bestiary http://utu.morganlibrary.org16 Finnish National Museum, Helsinki, Cheese moulds 8
  • 9. Dairy InformationThe milk for this project was Raw Whole Milk from Indiana & Minnesota (normally Iuse all Raw Whole Cows Milk. Raw whole milk only needs to be low temperaturepasteurized if the cheese is going to be aged less than 60 days). The Raw milk camefrom free range Short Horn Milking Cows, Holsteins, and Brown Swiss Crosses breedsknown in the middle ages. • Short Horn Milking: Milk Fat Content 3.8%, Milk Protein 3.3~3.5%.17 • Brown Swiss: Milk Fat Content 4.0%, Milk Protein 3.52%.18 • Holsteins: Milk Fat Content 3.66%, Milk Protein 3.15%.19According to Neil Moralee the components in milk responsible for a good flavor profileare namely the Fat in the milk helps to produce flavor, aroma and body in mature cheese.He goes on to state that cheese made from skimmed milk is hard in body and texture, andlacks flavor. Even if milk only has a small amount of fat (as low as 1%) it can produce anoticeable background flavor. Protein the second component of milk comes in two formsin milk as a suspension/colloidal (casein) and in a soluble form (whey proteins). A thirdcomponent of the flavor profile of cheese are lipases, proteases and lactase Enzymes thathydrolyze the fat, protein and lactose respectively into different components. “In thiscase, these enzymes, which occur naturally in the milk or which are sometimes suppliedby the indigenous bacteria in the milk and the added starter culture, can change the milkfats and proteins in the process of ripening the cheese to produce the delicate flavors andaromas that make mature cheese so enjoyable.” Lactose is the fourth flavor componentthe main sugar in cow milk.”20 Without any of these the flavor of the cheese wouldsuffer.17 Milking Shorthorns – An Efficient Dairy Alternative, http://www.cmss.on.ca/breed.php18 Brown Swiss, http://brownswiss.org.nz/whybrownswiss.htm19 Raw milk Truth, http://rawmilktruth.com/Types-of-Dairy-Cows.html20 Moralee, Neil, Milk a Basic Material, http://www.cip.ukcentre.com/cheese.htm 9
  • 10. (Photo by K. Loidolt) Image 1: Brown Swiss & Holsteins Minnesota Milk(Photo by K. Loidolt)Image 2: Indiana Milk Cream Level Minnesota Milk Cream Level 10
  • 11. (Photo by K. Loidolt) Image 3:Gouda’s made from Minnesota Raw Milk & Indiana Milk note the difference in color.The amount of fat in the cheese definitely effects the final product and flavor as well.The cheese made with Indiana milk and having the highest milk fat content seemed tohave a fuller buttery & nuttier flavor, while the Minnesota milk was very mild andseemed to have a milder flavor.The milk was collected twice a day (morning & evening) at the milking house to beprocessed (fig.3 & 8). In period they would have left the skimmed milk to warmovernight by the fire near the hearth. A milk starter often cream (see Ref.#1) from thenext mornings milking21 (a bacterial agent some times referred to as a live culture) wasadded that acted as an agent to help back down the proteins in the milk so that the milksolids out separate out (the curds) and add in the acidification. One other method inperiod for the source of a starter was to save a small amount of milk from a previousbatch of cheese before the rennet (or agent was added to cause the curd to separate fromthe whey). Then something was added like thistle, safflower juice, or an acid (vinegar orverjuice), ale, or rennet22 to cause the milk to clabbered (the curd to separate from thewhey).23Each town would serve both fresh & hard cheeses adapted from the milk available in thearea where it was located. These cheeses would each have a unique flavor. The flavor ofthe milk used in making the cheese would be effected by the grass or plants the animalsate, the type and breed of animal being milked, the time of the year the milk wascollected and even the time of day (how rich was the milk), what type of milks werebeing combined (some cheeses combine Cow, Goat, and Sheep milk to make cheese),how & where the cheese was aged. In wine making the flavor the land gives to wine iscalled terroir and the same is true for cheeses.21 Power, Eileen, The Goodman of Paris, New York, 1992, pg.16922 Arne Emil Christensen is Professor, Dr. Phil. at the University Museum of National Antiquities in Oslo, author of this article (Hespecializes on shipbuilding history and craftsmanship in the Iron Age and the Viking period), http://ezinearticles.com/?Dairy-Products-in-Anglo-Saxon-Times-%28Part-of-the-Anglo-Saxon-Survival-Guide%29&id=375438723 Power, Eileen, The Goodman of Paris, New York, 1992, pg.169 11
  • 12. For this reason I have chosen to compare and contrast two types of whole raw milk. Thefirst two gallons of milk came from Indiana from around the Kokomo, Indiana area. Thecows from this farm are of the Short Horned milking variety. They are strictly pasturefeed during the summer months; this was contrasted against 2 gallons of milk fromLastrup, Minnesota. The Minnesota milk comes from Holstein & Brown Swiss crossescollected after the morning milking. These cows are mainly grain feed & supplementedwith pasture the milk was from the morning milking (see image #1 below).Hard Cheese In Period and Naming Cheese Practices:Some types of hard cheese were named for the area that they were being made such asGouda (in Holland)24; or the religious orders that made their own cheese. An example ofthis was documented in 1543 in the ledgers of Saint-Aman Abby of Rouen where thecheese called Neufchatel25, was mentioned in the book “A Proper newe Booke ofCokerye.”26. Perhaps one of the most famous cheeses was one made in Germany since1371 by Benedictine monks called Munster. Munster takes its name from the Latin wordfor monastery, monasterium.27 In the 12th century demand for meat & animal productswere driving the medieval market. The expanding economy increased demand fasterthan the demand for grains. Cistercians used the unification of their small communitiesand the practice of pasturalism to effect this changing economy and the increased demandfor meat, milk eggs, butter and cheese.28 I have chosen to call the cheese made from themilk from Minnesota Lastrup Gouda. Lastrup is the town closet to where the farm waslocated. The cheese made from the Indiana milk is called Weissenthal Gouda. Thename reflects the major landmark of the region where I make this cheese from the WhiteRiver Valley.Medieval Method of making cheese:Sabina Flanagan wrote “at the monastery of Cluny, according to an eleventh-centuryaccount, the regime for summer would consist of two meals per day. At the first therewould be a dish of dried beans, a course of cheese or eggs which was replaced by fish onThursday, Sunday, and feast days….”29 St. Hildegard of Bingen, wrote as well in Physicaspecifically that “If one wishes to eat cheese, it should be neither cooked nor fresh, butdried….”30 Here the description of DRIED Cheese and not soft or cooked is possiblyreferencing hard slicing cheese or a grading style of cheese. St. Hildegard had manyvisions that she had recorded in some of these visions she used common everyday thingsas metaphors to relate information to the reader. In one vision she records the following,24 Harreld, Donald J., Brigham Young Univ., The Dutch Ecomony in the Golden Age (16th~17th Centuries), 2/4/10, http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/Harreld.Dutch25 Norman Cheeses, www.formages.org/fnd/fdn_neufcatel_en26 A Proper Newe Booke of Cokerye, 16th Century, 1545, http://www.uni-giessen.de/gloning/tx/bookecok.htm27 Albin, Michel, Linventaire du patrimoine culinaire de France, Lorraine, 1998, article on Munster-gerome AOC cheese, pg.198~201, http://www.nethelper.com.au/article/Munster_%28cheese%2928 Berman, Constance, Medieval Agriculture, the Southern-French Countryside, and the Early Cistercians, 1986, The AmericanPhilosophical Society, ISBN0065-9846, gp10, pg.118~13029 Flanagan, Sabina, Hildegard of Bingen, 1098-1179: a visionary life, Routledge, New York, 1989, Chpt. “World & Cloister”,pg.33-3630 Throop, Priscills, Hildegard von Bingen’s - Physica, Healing Arts Press, 1998, pg.15, pg.19 12
  • 13. “….I also saw the earth with people on it. The people were carrying milk in their vessels,and they were making cheese from the milk. Some of the milk was thick, from whichstrong cheese was being made; some of the milk was thin, from which mild cheese wasbeing curdled; and some of the milk was spoiling, from which bitter cheese was beingproduced.”31Reference 1:(Reference for selling cheese made in the market & using morning milk) “My Lady of Middlesex makes excellent slipp-coat Cheese of good morning milk,putting Cream to it. A quart of Cream is the proportion she useth to as much milk,as both together make a large round Cheese of the bigness of an ordinary Tart-plate, orcheese-plate; as big as an ordinary soft cheese, that eh Market women sell for tenpence…”32Reference 2:(Making a pressed cheese)(England, 17th century, “A True Gentlewoman’s Delight”, 1653)To make a slipcoat CheeseTake five quarts of new Milk from the Cow, and one quart of Water, and one spoonful ofRunnet, and stirre it together, and let it stand till it doth come, then lay your Cheese clothinto the Vate, and let the Whey soak out of it self; when you have taken it all up, lay acloth on the top of it, and one pound weight for one hour, then lay two pound for onehour more, then turn him when he hath stood two houres, lay three pound on him for anhour more, then take him out of the Vate, and let him lie two or three houres, and thensalt him on both sides, when he is salt enough, take a clean cloth and wipe him dry, thenlet him lie on a day or a night, then put Nettles under and upon him, and change themonce a day, if you find any Mouse turd wipe it off, the Cheese will come to his eating ineight or nine dayes.33Reference 3:“Take a gallon of milk from the cow, and seethe it, and when it doth seethe put thereuntoa quart or two of morning milk in fair cleansing pans in such place as no dust may falltherein. This is for you clotted cream. The next morning take a quart of morning milk,and seethe it, and put in a quart of cream thereunto, and when it doth seethe, take if offthe fire. Put it in a fair earthen pan, and let it stand until it be somewhat blood warm. Butfirst over night put a good quantity of ginger, rose water, and stir it together. Let it settleovernight. The next day put it into your said blood warm milk to make your cheesecome. Then put the curds in a fair cloth, with a little good rose water, fine powder ofginger, and a little sugar. So lash great soft rolls together with a thread and crush out thewhey with your clotted cream. Mix it with fine powder of ginger, and sugar and sosprinkle it with rose water, and put your cheese in a fair dish. And put these clots aroundabout it. Then take a pint of raw milk or cream and put it in a pot, and all to shake it untilit be gathered into a froth like snow. And ever as it cometh, take it off with a spoon and31 Classen, Constance, The Color of Angels: Cosmology, Gender, and the Aesthetic Imagination, Rutledge, 1998, pg.1532 The Project Gutenberg eBook “The Closet of Sir Kenelm Digby”, www.gutenberg.org/files/16441, “To make Silpp-coat cheese”33 Gode Cookery, Matterer, James L. site owner, http://www.godecookery.com/engrec/engrec77.html 13
  • 14. put into a colander. There put it upon your fresh cheese, and prick it with wafers, and soserve it.”34Reference 4:Columella on Cheese Making:(Both soft and pressed aged cheeses)(Although an early source from 70 A.D. Columella was a contemporary of Pliny & Cato,and at this point in time this was the most complete written source of instructions I havefound for making cheese both pressed & soft)"Cheese should be made of pure milk which is as fresh as possible....It should usually becurdled with rennet obtained from a lamb or kid, though it can also be coagulated withthe flower of the wild thistle or the seeds of the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), andequally well with the liquid which flows from a Fig-tree..."."A pail when it has been filled with milk should always be kept at some degree of heat: itshould not however be brought into contact with the flames....but should be put to standnot far from the fire...""...when the liquid had thickened, it should immediately be transferred to wicker vesselsor baskets or moulds...""...as soon as the cheese has become somewhat more solid, they place weights on the topof it, so that the whey may be pressed out;....then they are placed into a cool, shady place,that it my not go bad....it is often placed on very clean boards, it is sprinkled withpounded salt so that it may exude the acid liquid,...when it has hardened it is pressedagain...."."...the method of making what we call "hand pressed" cheese is the best-known ofall: when the milk is slightly congealed in the pail and still warm it is broken up andhot water is poured over it, and then it is either shaped by hand or else pressed intobox-wood moulds." (fig. 2)"Others allow thyme which has been crushed and strained through a sieve to coagulatewith the milk and curdle it in this way, similarly, you can give the cheese an flavor youlike by adding any seasoning which you choose....Cheese also which is hardened inbrine and then colored with the smoke of apple tree wood or stubble has a notunpleasant flavor..."3534 Dawson, Thomas, The Good Housewife’s Jewel, Southover Press, 1996, pg.17~1835 Columella II de re Rustica V-IX, Translated by E.S. Forster & E. Heffner, Book VII, pg.285~289 14
  • 15. Gerard Ter Borch (Dutch Baroque Era Painter, 1617-1681) A Milking a Cow36Note the Wooden Hoop for molding the cheese, this style has been in use for manycenturies for molding and pressing hard cheeses. “….and then it is either shaped byhand or else pressed into box-wood moulds.”Reference 5:36 Gerald ter Borch, A Milking Cow, c.1617, http://bjws.blogspot.com/2011/02/women-cooking-1500s-1700s.html 15
  • 16. 37Reference 6:Compendio de i secreti rationali di M. Leonardo Fiorvanti Bolognese, Medico &Cirugico. (The Compendium of rational secroets of M. Leonardo Fiorvanti of Bologna,Medic and Surgeon).Translated by Helewyse de Birkestad, OL (MKA Louise Smithson)Del modo di fare il formaggio ò vero cascio Cap 51Il cascio ò formaggio che si fa, lo fanno in questo modo, cioè. Quando il latte èquagliato, lo rompono & lo mettono sopra il fuoco, e lo fanno scaldare fin tanto, che sifaccia una massa nel fondo della caldara, e poi lo cavano fuori & formano il formaggiosecondo che a lor piace, & poi lo salano, & lo fanno seccare; e con tale ordine tutti ipastor fanno il formaggio, ma molto di questo si guasta; e chi lo volesse fare di estramabontà & che mai si guastarai, faccia in questo modo cioè. Piglia aceto fortissimo, & melcommune, tanto di uno quanto di altro, & fallo bollire insieme, & quando si rome il latte,per ogni trenta libre di latte, mettevi una scudella di detta compositione, & non loscaldare troppo; e poi formale pezze del formaggio di quella forma che si vuolve, &subito che sia fatto salalo cosi caldo; e questo è il vero e gran secreto da fare il formaggiobonissimo, & che non si guasterà mai. Percioche lo aceto & il mele sono materialeincorruttibili, & per la loro virtù conservano il formaggio.37 Best, Michael R., The English Housewife, McGill-Queen’s Univ. Press, 1998, Chpt 6, pg. 176~177 16
  • 17. The way of making cheese or real cheese (it may be the difference betweenformaggio being a molded cheese and Cascio a pressed cheese). Chapter 51.The cheese that one makes, one makes in this way, that is: when the milk is coagulatedone breaks it and puts it over a fire and it is heated until it makes a mass at the bottom ofthe pot. Then one takes it out and shapes the cheese, dependent on ones wishes, and thensalt it and put it to dry. But many times made this way it will spoil. If one would wish tomake a high quality one that never spoils make it in this way. That is: take the strongestvinegar and common honey, more of the one than the other, and put them to boiltogether. When one breaks the milk for each 30 “libre” of milk put in one “scudella” ofthis mix and don’t heat it too much. Then make the pieces of cheese in whichever shapeyou like and immediately a it is done salt it thus warm. This is truly the great secret tomake the very best cheese that never spoils because vinegar and honey are incorruptiblematerials and their virtues preserve the cheese.Libra – about 12 oz, libre - plural of libraScudella – small bowl between 430 -600ml38 Fig.8 Women had charge of the domestic animals including milking, butter making, and cheese making production. (Bodleian Library, MS. Bodley 764, fol. 44)39Supplies:38 Compendio de i secreti rationali di M. Leonardo Fiorvanti Bolognese, Medico & Cirugico. (The Compendium of rational secroetsof M. Leonardo Fiorvanti of Bologna, Medic and Surgeon). The full text of this document is available via BNF Gallica, Translated byHelewyse de Birkestad, OL (MKA Louise Smithson), http://gallica.bnf.fr39 Hanawalt, Barbara, A., The Ties That Bound – Peasant Families in Medieval England, Oxford Univ. Press, Chapter 8 “TheHusbandman’s Year and Economic Ventures:, pg.148 17
  • 18. Modern stainless steel was used to keep the surfaces as clean as possible, formodern health reasons.2 gallons Whole Raw Milk1 pkg. Mesophilic Culture DS (Direct Set)1/2 tsp. Rennet¼ cup cool water2 lbs Sea Salt for brine3 Stainless Steel Pots1 Slotted Stainless Steel Spoon1 yard of cheese cloth1 Colander1 Stainless Steel Ladle1 Thermometer1 Cheese Press1 Cheese Mould & Follower1 Timer2 Reed Mats to place the cheese on1 Stainless Measuring cupCheese Wax or Bee’s Wax (optional)To Make A Basic Gouda Cheese:(Method used in “Cheese making Made Easy” by Ricki & Robert Carroll)40There is an Italian proverb that says “Cheese without a rind is like a maiden withoutshame” 41 that certainly speaks to the fact that hard cheeses were being made (a cheesehaving a rind is most often used in context of a semi-hard / hard aged cheese). There arealso a number of medieval recipes that call for sliced or graded cheese as part of thecooking preparation please reference Item #1 “To make a Tarte of Chese”. The cheeses Ihave made are referred to as a washed curd style of hard cheese. It is pressed, thenplaced in a brine bath to develop a rind, and sealed in some fashion after a drying period(optional), smoked, or it may have a natural rind.Modern Method:2-gallon whole raw milk There is an additional step here if you plan to use Raw Milk and eat your cheese in less than 60 days of aging. You will need to heat the milk for 30 min. to a temperature of 145°, then place the pot immediately into a sink filled with cool water and ice if necessary to bring the temp of the milk down quickly, then after cooled place sterile clean container and proceed with cheese making steps below.40 Carroll, Ricki & Robert, “Cheese Making Made Easy”, Storey Books, 1996, Chapter on “Hard Cheese” pages41 After Cheese Comes Nothing, http://aftercheese.wordpress.com/2008/09/20/blessed-hildegard-and-the-profiling-of-cheese,9/20/2008 18
  • 19. 1 package of Mesophilic Culture DS contains: lactose, lactococcus lactis (subsp. Lactis), lactococcus lactis (subsp. Cremoris) this is used for temperatures under 105º½ tsp. of Rennet for 2 gallons of milk¼ cup of cool water to dilute the rennet intoCoarse Sea Salt for Brine bath(Additional information & supplies may also be found at this site run by Rickii Carrollhttp://www.cheesemaking.com/Gouda.html) Time Line for the Gouda process Step Time Elapsed Time Add culture 0 min. Ripen milk 30 min. 30 min. Rennet 40 min. 70 min. Cut Curds 5 min. 75 min. Cook Curds 15 min. 1h 30m Stir 30 min. 2h Press Under Whey 15 min. 2h 15m Press 8-10 hr. 2h 30m Remove from press and dry overnight 10-12 hr. Brine 24h42 Time Table for making GoudaStep One:Warm the milk to 90ºF (using indirect warming method), add Starter and allow to site for15~30 minutes.Step 2:Then add Rennet, stir, and allow to sit undisturbed for 1 hour or until a clean break hasoccurred.Step 3:Cut the curds into ½ ~ ¼ inch cubes, allow to site for 5 minutes.42 Carroll, Rickii, http://www.cheesemaking.com/Gouda.html, Gouda 19
  • 20. Step 4:In a separate pan warm plain water to 175ºFStep 5:Remove 1/3 of the whey and replace with enough water from above that the temperatureof the curds comes to 92~94ºF, stir for 10 minutes to keep curds from matting.Step 6:Remove again 1/3 of the whey/water and replace with enough warm water from above toheat the curds to 100ºF, stir for 15 minutes.Step 7:Allow curds to sit covered for 30 minutes.Step 8:Pour the warm curds into a cheese cloth lined colander.Step 9:Place the cheese cloth into a ouold and place the follower place into the cheese pressapply approximately 15~21 pounds of pressure for 20~30 minutes.Step 10:Remove the mould from the press and remove the cheese flip it over and return it to thepress for an additional 20~30 minutes with 15~21 pounds of pressure.Step 11:Remove the mould and flip the cheese and return to the press and apply 20 pounds ofpressure for 12 hours.Step 12:Remove the mould and flip the cheese and return to the press and apply 20 pounds ofpressure for an additional 8~12 hours.Step 13:Remove the cheese from the mould, remove the cheese cloth and place into the brinesolution for 8~12 hours (or 3~4 hours per pound of cheese).Step 14:Remove the cheese from the brine, pat dry place on a drying rack and place inrefrigerator for 1~3 weeks turning daily and wiping with a damp brine cloth as needed.(Its is after this step and 3~5 of drying that you could low temperature smoke the Goudaor proceed to Step 15)Step 15:Melt the cheese wax or bees wax and apply to the cheese round. Gouda’s can also beaged with a natural rind and do not have to be waxed.Step 16:Age for 1 month minimum, or up to 18 months for a stronger flavorThis basic Gouda cheese will be ready to eat in 1 month, but the flavor will develop if leftto age longer. 20
  • 21. Cut the curds Curds after 15 minutes of heating at 92º~94ºF, after ndthe 2 round of hot water the curds will be ½ again as small and will form a nice firmball when tested.After drying for 2 weeks notice the embossed top on the right hand sideMelting the Cheese Wax (use a double boiler for this step) 21
  • 22. Rounds can either be dipped or the wax maybe brushed on, I prefer the dip method. Finished cheese ready for additional agingObservations:Tasting Note: The rind was well formed and not overly thick. I found the cheese to benot overly dry with a pleasant mild nutty flavor. I think that in future I may need to seehow to control the Ph a little better to me the cheese seems to have a tangy under flavorthough not unpleasant certainly is something for me to strive to lessen if possible. Sincethis is also cured in brine, this style of cheese does not seem to be as salty to the modernpallet. One should excise a note of caution here, as cheese ages if draws salt from theoutside in, so if you should leave your cheese in the brine liquid to long you run the riskof your Gouda being to salty. I also want to try some low temperature smoking withapple wood to see how it changes the flavor, and also try different things to seal thecheese to see how it changes the flavor.The texture is also different in so much as the Weisstal Gouda made with the Indianamilk had a firmer texture, while the Lastrup Gouda made with the Minnesota milk had acreamier texture. There were also color differences. The Indiana Gouda seemed to be aricher yellow due to a higher milk fat content, while the Minnesota Gouda seemed to bemore to the whiter color side lower milk fat content (Image 3). Again this is mainly dueto the fact the butter fat content of the milks were different with the Minnesota milkhaving about ½ of the cream as the Indiana milk. (Image 2) 22
  • 23. Additional Observations:“Take harde chese and cut it in slices…”43With out sealing the cheese it would develop a nice tart flavor, with a dry crumblytexture. So sealing the out side of a hard cheese is necessary to prevent it from loosingtoo much of the remaining moisture content unless the cheese is a grading style cheese. Lovely white mold that helps develop the flavor of cheese.This is how the unsealed cheese looked after 5 months; it did develop a very nice whitemold which is one of the molds cheese makers want.Conclusion:This is a process I have been learning about for the last 4 years, I started MedievalCheese Forum a year ago (www.medievalcheese.blogspot.com) so I could keep track ofmistakes and successes, share information I have learned about cheese making.Some of the things I learned were if my house is too cold the curd will not set. I canwarm the milk and add more Rennet, and that if using a raw milk product that isproduced near the end of the cows or goat’s lactation cycle the milk does not containenough milk fat to set a curd (you get a weak or soft curd that does not hold up during thecheese making process for hard cheese). I have also learned that time is much morecritical for making hard cheeses, and the process of making hard cheeses is not nearly asforgiving as making soft cheeses.On adding rennet I learned early on that a little goes a long way and adding two much ofsomething in the case of making cheese can be a bad thing. Adding not enough rennetand your curd will not set, but I have found that you can add a little more if necessary.Adding to much rennet will give it a rubbery texture and a bitter under taste. This alsowill happen if your rennet is too old.This last statement is important because it explains a couple of written statements I foundin period sources that talked about the time of year and the quality of the cheese productsproduced. For example in the spring and early summer the milk is rich and contains alarge of amount of protein and milk fat due to new pastures and lactation for their young,so the cheese is going to be very rich in body and flavor. If the milk is in the fall then itis not as rich due to the decline of pasture feeding and that they are no longer lactating, sothe cheese produced in the fall will take more milk to produce a pound of cheese due to alower amount of protein and fat making the milk thinner (the cream that comes to the top43 A Boke of Gode Cooke, To make a Tarte of Chese, http://www.godecookery.com/trscript/trsct032.html 23
  • 24. is not as thick as in the spring/ summer milk). What the animals eat also effect the flavorof the cheese as well. This is a lot of the reason I wanted to compare and contrast cheesesmade from milk from different areas, different breeds of cows.Part of the preservation of hard cheese comes in how moisture can I get the curds to giveup without taking out too much and making a very dry cheese (i.e. how much whey can Iget out of the curd). This is done in several ways thru the process, by hanging, pressing,and salting. Cheeses pressed and aged in this manner can and do last years.Another lesson that applies as much now as then is keeping things clean, “morning milkin fair cleansing pans in such place as no dust may fall therein”44. There are times whenno matter what you do the milk will not set a curd and all you can do is start over andfeed the previous batch to the pig.Enjoy sampling the cheese.Fig. 9 & 10Please reference Illumination in Fig. 2, look on the left hand side, and notice the woodenform that the bundle of cheese is being pressed in and the container below to catch thewhey. Above are two images taken from a modern video showing traditional cheesemaking. The form and methods have not changed since the 14th century.44 Dawson, Thomas, The Good Housewife’s Jewel, Southover Press, 1996, pg.17~1845 Traditional Cheese making, Video #587, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I4LNS7F_-DM&feature=related, screen capture fromvideo587 Gyimesközéplok Traditional cheese-making, Sajtkészítés 24
  • 25. 46 fig. 5 Warming milk Slotted ladle & strainer47 Fig. 6 warming the milk46 Norman Cheeses, www.formages.org/fnd/fdn_neufcatel_en47 From Tacuinum Sanitatis (ÖNB Codex Vindobonensis, series nova 2644), c. 1370-1400)http://www.godecookery.com/afeast/foods/foods.html 25
  • 26. 48Fig.7: A cheese cave as one might have seen it in the middle ages 49 Fig. 8 Draining Whey48 Feibleman, Peter, The Cooking of Spain & Portugal, Time Life Books, 1969, pg. 130~13149 Take 1000 Eggs or More, pg. 45, from Schweizer Chronik, c. 1548 26
  • 27. 50 Fig. 9 Roman Cheese Mold in form and function very similar to those found from 600 – 1600A.D. 51All other photos unless otherwise noted were taken by me.Material Referenced:50 Roman Cheese Press, Greyware circular straight-sided bowl, used for training the Whey from cheese, c. 450 A.D.,http://www.museumoflondonprints.com51 Het eerste gedrukte Nederlandsche kookboek, Brussel, Thomas vander Noot (+/-1510)The First Printed Dutch Cookbook , http://users.telenet.be/willy.vancammeren/NBC/index.htm 27
  • 28. 1. Fig.137. Cheese; from the Theatrum Sanitatis, Library Casanatense, Rome,http://www.godecookery.com/afeast/foods/foods.html2. After Cheese comes nothing, Nov. 30, 2008, Cheese History,http://aftercheese.wordpress.com/category/cheese-history3. Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, http://images.imagestate.com/Watermark/1276116.jpg4. Market Scene, c. 1550, AERTSEN, Pieter Flemish painter (b. 1508, Amsterdam, d.1575, Amsterdam), in the Alte Pinakothek, Munich5. The Alkmaar Cheese Market,http://www.alkmaar.nl/portal2/pages/english/cheesmarket.html6. Coquinaria, Christianne Muusers,http://www.coquinaria.nl/english/making_cheese/gouda_cheese.htm7. Breakfast Still-life with Bread, Cheese and Cherries, Clara Peeters,http://arthistoryblogger.blogspot.com/2011/06/history-as-seen-through-dutch-still.html8. Peasants by the Hearth, 1560’s, Museum Mayer von den Bergh, Antwerp9. Laid Table, c.1622, private collection, oil on wood10. Corsair Online Research Resource of the Pierpont Morgan Library, M.1001, 48r,Miniature: Shepherds: Annunciation, http://utu.morganlibrary.org11. Barnes, Donna R. & Rose, Peter G., Matters of taste: food and drink in seventeenth-century Dutch art and life, Syracuse University Press, 2002, pg. 1812. Haris Amin, Dutch Cheese, Published on January 27, 2010 in Food,http://quazen.com/recreation/food/dutch-cheese13. The Alkmaar Cheese Market, a tradition since 1593,http://www.alkmaar.nl/portal2/pages/english/cheesmarket.html14. National Historical Museum, Sweden Photo Stream,http://www.flickr.com/photos/28772513@N07/5264101891/in/faves-historiska Corsair Online Research Resource of the Pierpont Morgan Library, M.87 47r, Bestiaryhttp://utu.morganlibrary.org15. Finnish National Museum, Helsinki, Cheese moulds16. Milking Shorthorns – An Efficient Dairy Alternative, http://www.cmss.on.ca/breed.php17. Brown Swiss, http://brownswiss.org.nz/whybrownswiss.htm18. Raw milk Truth, http://rawmilktruth.com/Types-of-Dairy-Cows.html19. Moralee, Neil, Milk a Basic Material, http://www.cip.ukcentre.com/cheese.htm20. Power, Eileen, The Goodman of Paris, New York, 1992, pg.16921. Arne Emil Christensen, Professor, Dr. Phil. at the University Museum of NationalAntiquities in Oslo, author of this article (He specializes on shipbuilding history andcraftsmanship in the Iron Age and the Viking period), http://ezinearticles.com/?Dairy-Products-in-Anglo-Saxon-Times-%28Part-of-the-Anglo-Saxon-Survival-Guide%29&id=375438722. Power, Eileen, The Goodman of Paris, New York, 1992, pg.16923. Harreld, Donald J., Brigham Young Univ., The Dutch Ecomony in the Golden Age(16th~17th Centuries), 2/4/10, http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/Harreld.Dutch24. Norman Cheeses, www.formages.org/fnd/fdn_neufcatel_en25. A Proper Newe Booke of Cokerye, 16th Century, 1545, http://www.uni-giessen.de/gloning/tx/bookecok.htm 28
  • 29. 26. Albin, Michel, Linventaire du patrimoine culinaire de France, Lorraine, 1998, articleon Munster-gerome AOC cheese, pg. 198~201,http://www.nethelper.com.au/article/Munster_%28cheese%2927. Berman, Constance, Medieval Agriculture, the Southern-French Countryside, and theEarly Cistercians, 1986, The American Philosophical Society, ISBN0065-9846, gp10,pg.118~13028. Flanagan, Sabina, Hildegard of Bingen, 1098-1179: a visionary life, Routledge, NewYork, 1989, Chpt. “World & Cloister”, pg.33-3629. Throop, Priscills, Hildegard von Bingen’s - Physica, Healing Arts Press, 1998, pg.15,pg.1930. Classen, Constance, The Color of Angels: Cosmology, Gender, and the AestheticImagination, Rutledge, 1998, pg.1531. The Project Gutenberg eBook “The Closet of Sir Kenelm Digby”,www.gutenberg.org/files/16441, “To make Silpp-coat cheese”32. Gode Cookery, Matterer, James L. site owner,http://www.godecookery.com/engrec/engrec77.html33. Gerald ter Borch, A Milking Cow, c.1617, http://bjws.blogspot.com/2011/02/women-cooking-1500s-1700s.html34. Best, Michael R., The English Housewife, McGill-Queen’s Univ. Press, 1998, Chpt 6,pg. 176~17735. Compendio de i secreti rationali di M. Leonardo Fiorvanti Bolognese, Medico &Cirugico. (The Compendium of rational secroets of M. Leonardo Fiorvanti of Bologna,Medic and Surgeon). The full text of this document is available via BNF Gallica,Translated by Helewyse de Birkestad, OL (MKA Louise Smithson), http://gallica.bnf.fr36. Hanawalt, Barbara, A., The Ties That Bound – Peasant Families in MedievalEngland, Oxford Univ. Press, Chapter 8 “The Husbandman’s Year and EconomicVentures:, pg.14837. Carroll, Ricki & Robert, “Cheese Making Made Easy”, Storey Books, 1996, Chapteron “Hard Cheese” pages38. After Cheese Comes Nothing, http://aftercheese.wordpress.com/2008/09/20/blessed-hildegard-and-the-profiling-of-cheese, 9/20/200839. Carroll, Rickii, http://www.cheesemaking.com/Gouda.html, Gouda40. A Boke of Gode Cooke, To make a Tarte of Chese,http://www.godecookery.com/trscript/trsct032.html41. Dawson, Thomas, The Good Housewife’s Jewel, Southover Press, 1996, pg.17~1842. Traditional Cheese making, Video #587, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I4LNS7F_-DM&feature=related, screen capture from video587 Gyimesközéplok Traditional cheese-making, Sajtkészítés43. Norman Cheeses, www.formages.org/fnd/fdn_neufcatel_en44. From Tacuinum Sanitatis (ÖNB Codex Vindobonensis, series nova 2644), c.1370-1400) http://www.godecookery.com/afeast/foods/foods.html45. Feibleman, Peter, The Cooking of Spain & Portugal, Time Life Books, 1969, pg.130~13146. Take 1000 Eggs or More, pg. 45, from Schweizer Chronik, c. 154847. Roman Cheese Press, Greyware circular straight-sided bowl, used for training theWhey from cheese, c. 450 A.D., http://www.museumoflondonprints.com 29
  • 30. 48. Het eerste gedrukte Nederlandsche kookboek, Brussel, Thomas vander Noot(+/-1510) The First Printed Dutch Cookbook , http://users.telenet.be/willy.vancammeren/NBC/index.htm 30

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