(3501) swiss cheese in the emmemtaller style 01.12.12

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(3501) swiss cheese in the emmemtaller style 01.12.12

  1. 1. SWISS CHEESE IN AN EMMENTALER STYLE Rubbing the out- side of the cheese, molding, and draining whey Fig.1 Cheese; from the Theatrum Sanitatis, Library Casanatense, Rome1.1 Fig.137. Cheese; from the Theatrum Sanitatis, Library Casanatense, Rome, http://www.godecookery.com/afeast/foods/foods.html 1
  2. 2. Moulding cheese in wooden hoops and cheeses drying & aging on shelves.Fig.2 Cheese manufacture, 1390-1400, Illustration from "Tacuinum Sanitatis",illuminated medical manual based on texts translated from Arabic into Latin, in thecollection of the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris.2“Also known as Emmentaler and Emmenthaler, this cheese takes its name from theEmmental Valley where it originated circa 1293. It is considered Switzerlands oldest andmost prestigious cheese.”3 The cheese is named for the Emmen Valley (Emmen + tal[valley]). There is archaeological evidence that there has been cheese making in themountains of Switzerland since 800 B.C.4 The people of the Emmen Valley have beenmaking cheeses of this type since the 13th century, but is was not until the 16th centurythat the huge wheels of cheese we recognize today started being made.5 The wheels canweigh as much as 200 pounds; Sandy Carr describes the making of this cheese “…isconsidered to be one of the most difficult cheeses to make successfully.”62 Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, http://images.imagestate.com/Watermark/1276116.jpg3 Trowbridge-Filippone, Peggy, Swiss Cheese Varieties, http://homecooking.about.com/od/cheeseinformation/a/swisscheesehist.htm4 Prehistoric hut gives clues to ancient Alp life, Jul 25, 2009 - 18:05,http://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/Specials/Border_Stories/Features/Prehistoric_hut_gives_clues_to_ancient_Alp_life.html?cid=75251945 Kitchen Daily – Food Encyclopedia, Emmental, http://www.kitchendaily.com/encyclopedia/definition/emmental/8476 Carr, Sandy (1985), The Mitchell Beazley Pocket Guide to Cheese, London: Mitchell Beazley 2
  3. 3. Tribes such as the Helvetica, who had settled in the Swiss Alps, developed their owndistinctive types of cheese.7 In the spring and summer the cows would be taken to thehigh mountain valleys to graze. The milk was collected twice a day and turned intocheese in these high mountain valleys. The cheese was then stored in caves near by toage. Artisan Emmental cheese is still made in much the same today. 8Fig. 3 A Family of Cheese makers stands outside their wood home in the Alps.To illustrate this below you can see an excerpt from a letter dated 1556 talking about thecheese produced in Switzerland. Conrad Gessner lived in the Upper Engadine Valley inSwitzerland. This letter is very interesting in the detail and descriptions of the cheesemaking process, the tools used, and what the products were called in the Alps, and inSwitzerland an area called Rhaetia.97 History of Cheese, 01/06/10, http://www.world-of-cheese.com/history.htm8 Grosvenor, Dr. Gilbert H., A family of cheese makers stands outside their wood home in the Alps., Alps, Switzerland, NationalGeographic Stock Photo, #13211409 Epistola de caseis et operibus lactariis et modo quo in Rhiticis regionibus et alpibus parantur, 1556: “Letter from Jacob Bifrons toConrad Gessner”, 1556, Translated by Rikke D. Giles (Aelianora de Witringham), http://staff-www.uni-marburg.de/~gloning/bifrun/bifrun.htm, http://staff-www.uni-marburg.de/~gloning/bifrun/decaseis.htm for a scan of the originalpages, translation found at http://www.florilegium.org 3
  4. 4. “My son, returning to Curia in Pontissella, told me you suggested that I should write toyou about the ways of cheesemaking and the types of cheese of our region. This I now domost willingly, and I hope that this will be pleasing to you. There are two types of cheesewhich concern us; one lean and called domestic since it is made both in the house andin the Alps (see image above) and its use goes back before the memory of man. The othertype is called fat cheese and it was brought from Italy into our region in the last 30years.”10The summer wooden home pictured here is very similar to what we might have seenduring the Middle Ages. The cheese was made in the Spring & Summer and aged in thenatural caves near by. Fig.4 11Cheese ripens on shelves in a cave in Pontresina, SwitzerlandMaking an Emmental Style Cheese in PeriodThe cows were collected twice a day (morning & evening) at the milking house to bemilked (Fig.5). The cream was allowed to come to the top then skimmed to make butter.In period they would have left the skimmed milk to warm over night by the fire near thehearth (this helped with the Acidification Process). Emmental Cheese can range in sizefrom 1 pound to 200 pound rounds. We now know that a special bacterium called10 Epistola de caseis et operibus lactariis et modo quo in Rhiticis regionibus et alpibus parantur, 1556: “Letter from Jacob Bifrons toConrad Gessner”, 1556, Translated by Rikke D. Giles (Aelianora de Witringham), http://staff-www.uni-marburg.de/~gloning/bifrun/bifrun.htm, http://staff-www.uni-marburg.de/~gloning/bifrun/decaseis.htm for a scan of the originalpages, translation found at http://www.florilegium.org11 Taylor S. Kennedy, Photographer, National Geographic Stock, ID#991879,http://www.nationalgeographicstock.com/ngsimages/explore/explorecomp.jsf?xsys=SF&id=7887 4
  5. 5. Proprionic Shermanii causes the eye formation in the cheese by producing CO2. Thesizes of the holes are directly related to the size of the cheese round so the largest holessome up to the size of walnuts would be found in the 200lb. rounds. A milk starter (abacterial agent some times referred to as a live culture) was also added that acted as anagent to help back down the proteins in the milk so that the milk solids out separate out(the curds).12 One method in period for the source of a starter was to save a small amountof milk from a previous batch of cheese before the rennet (or agent was added to causethe curd to separate from the whey). Next they would add rennet13 to cause the milk tocallboard.Fig. 5 Dairy cows on alm in the Tyrol, Alpbach, Austria14 Fig. 6 Brown Swiss in Mn.15“My Lady of Middlesex makes excellent slipp-coat Cheese of good morning milk,putting Cream to it. A quart of Cream is the proportion she useth to as much milk,as both together make a large round Cheese of the bigness of an ordinary Tart-plate, orcheese-plate; as big as an ordinary soft cheese, that eh Market women sell for tenpence…”16The milk used for this project was a Raw Whole Milk. The Raw milk came from freerange Short Horn Milking Cows which was a breed known in the middle ages.References known in period to the methods of making a hard cheese:“Take a gallon of milk from the cow, and seethe it, and when it doth seethe put thereuntoa quart or two of morning milk in fair cleansing pans in such place as no dust may falltherein. This is for you clotted cream. The next morning take a quart of morning milk,and seethe it, and put in a quart of cream thereunto, and when it doth seethe, take if offthe fire. Put it in a fair earthen pan, and let it stand until it be somewhat blood warm. Butfirst over night put a good quantity of ginger, rose water, and stir it together. Let it settle12 Power, Eileen, The Goodman of Paris, New York, 1992, pg.16913 Arne Emil Christensen, Professor, Dr. Phil. at the University Museum of National Antiquities in Oslo, author of this article (Hespecializes on shipbuilding history and craftsmanship in the Iron Age and the Viking period), http://ezinearticles.com/?Dairy-Products-in-Anglo-Saxon-Times-%28Part-of-the-Anglo-Saxon-Survival-Guide%29&id=375438714 Melissa Farlow, Photographer, National Geographic Stock, ID#1114587,http://www.nationalgeographicstock.com/ngsimages/explore/explorecomp.jsf?xsys=SF&id=788715 Kimetha Loidolt, Photographer, 8/2011, Taken at Dairy in Lathrup, Mn16 The Project Gutenberg eBook “The Closet of Sir Kenelm Digby”, www.gutenberg.org/files/16441, “To make Silpp-coat cheese” 5
  6. 6. overnight. The next day put it into your said blood warm milk to make your cheesecome.”17 18Fig 7 Dairymen and Cheese Sellers (Mid 13th C., San Marco, Venice)19 20 Fig. 8 Man selling cheese 15th century, also note the crossshaped emboss on the top of the cheese.Columella on Cheese Making:"Cheese should be made of pure milk which is as fresh as possible....It should usually becurdled with rennet obtained from a lamb or kid, though it can also be coagulated withthe flower of the wild thistle or the seeds of the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), andequally well with the liquid which flows from a Fig-tree..."."A pail when it has been filled with milk should always be kept at some degree of heat: it17 Dawson, Thomas, The Good Housewife’s Jewel, Southover Press, 1996, pg.17~1818 Viking Answer Lady, http://www.vikinganswerlady.com/food.shtml 19 At the Table of the Monks: Cheese, Of Course (Part V)http://gherkinstomatoes.com/2009/05/22/at-the-table-of-the-monks-cheese-of-course-part-v/20 Take a Thousand Eggs or More, from Hortus Sanitatis, Mainz, 15th century, pg. 40 6
  7. 7. should not however be brought into contact with the flames....but should be put to standnot far from the fire...""...when the liquid had thickened, it should immediately be transferred to wicker vesselsor baskets or moulds...""...the method of making what we call "hand pressed" cheese is the best-known of all:when the milk is slightly congealed in the pail and still warm it is broken up and hotwater is poured over it, and then it is either shaped by hand or else pressed into box-woodmoulds." (See fig.2)21Letter to Conrad Gessner from Jacob BifronsTranslator: Aelianora de Wintringham, (mka Rikke D. Giles)Epistola de caseis et operibus lactariis et modo quo in Rhiticis regionibus etalpibus parantur, 1556(Letter on cheese and dairy products and how they are made in Switzerland)My son, returning to Curia in Pontissella, told me you suggested that I should write toyou about the ways of cheesemaking and the types of cheese of our region. This I nowdo most willingly, and I hope that this will be pleasing to you.There are two types of cheese which concern us; one lean and called domestic since it ismade both in the house and in the Alps and its use goes back before the memory of man.The other type is called fat cheese and it was brought from Italy into our region in thelast 30 years.Lets start with the lean:When the milk has been milked it is poured by sprinkling into a low wooden vessel. Thevessels are called mottas in our country. For reference, in Italy they use a bronze vesselwhich they call concha. One of these vessels can contain 60 pounds of milk; and out ofwhich, each day, the foam of the milk, which is the condensing of the fat of the milk, isseparated. This foam can be called by two names, Grama or cream. They put the foaminto a round and oblong vessel which they call the Pneulia. It is covered with a coverwhich has small holes in it, into which a long stick is inserted. The stick has a board onits end around which a ball or sphere is fastened, and this stick is alternately lifted out andput back <into the Pneulia> so that the foam is agitated without interruption until butter iscreated. They call the butter Paing in this country <the marginal note in the original saysPingue, or fat>. When it has been separated and removed, the liquid that remains iscalled Pen. The milk which remains in the mottas, the foam having been taken away, isput into a cooking-pot and a small fire is lit underneath it. The milk is left there until it istepid. It is then removed from the fire and a small portion of the rennet of a calf (the sizeof a chestnut) is mixed into the tepid milk. And thus, within half an hour, and oftentimesless, the milk is curdled and made firm. Then this material, which they call Ponna, isstirred with a long rod, until it settles. Then it is removed and transferred into a mould21 Columella II de re Rustica V-IX, Translated by E.S. Forster & E. Heffner, Book VII, pg.285~289 7
  8. 8. while the whey is pressed out. Then the curds are taken out and put on a little board andsprinkled with salt and surrounded by a skin (I think he maybe referring to a CheeseMould), so that it doesnt expand <ie fall apart>. Every day for 8 days it is turned overand rubbed with salt until the cheese is made solid and dry. The milk which remains inthe cooking dish after the Ponna has been removed is whey, and to this is added the Pen<buttermilk>. Then a hot fire is placed under the cooking-pot, and the whey is warmeduntil it boils. The matter which is floating on the top after boiling is made intoSerotium. To us it is zicronum, in Italy they call it Puina or Mascarpa, and you call itZiger. The Serotium is taken from the cooking-pot into a wooden vessel so that the wheyremaining in it drains away. Then it is taken out and put on a board in a dry place, andexposed to smoke and put into the wind. Salt is sprinkled upon it until it is dry.From the rest of the liquid remaining in the cooking-pot nothing can be made, and it isgiven to pigs. (All though this statement is somewhat misleading as whey was oftengiven to the sick as it was easy to digest, herbs were also often added…referenceScappi #68 to make cheese from Goat Milk).Butter, which we nearly forgot, needs no more care than this: It should be taken from thePneulia and the remaining Pen should be expressed from it, then salt added. It is put intoa circular or oblong form, and it is rendered and pressed. From 60 pounds of milk, 3pounds of butter, four of cheese and two of serotium are produced. Three pounds of but-ter are worth here 7 crucifers of Athesini <some kind of coin?>. Six pounds of cheeseand serotij, taken together and sold, would be worth 6 crucifers.And thus, of lean cheese.Fat cheese is only made in the cottage of the Alps, where most of the cows are. This ishow it is made: When the first days milk is taken, that milk is put straight into the cook-ing-pot from the milk-pail. It is put over a fire, and, as we explained earlier, rennet is in-troduced into it. After half an hour it is condensed and then it is stirred with a long stickor paddle. When it has settled it is removed, and put into moulds of wood, which becausethey are similar to bands are called Fasceras. These are bandaged with a sheet; and thencovered with a clean cloth of linen. Right after that they put a weight on top to expressthe whey. On the next day the cheese is turned upside down and put back under theweight. On the following day the weight is removed and the mould is very tightly bound,and placed into a closed and warm location, one not very damp. This place should not al-low winds from fissures to strike it, or it <the cheese> will swell from excessive drynessor be made full of hollows because of excessive humidity, and if this happens, the cheesewill not be fit <to eat> for a long time. Next it is laid out on a clean board, and salt issprinkled upon it. For the following 8 days it is turned, removed from its bindings andrubbed with salt. It is returned to its tight bindings and this is done until the cheese be-comes solid and dry. When that happens it is put into a dry place and smeared with oil sothat it wont be infested with any rottenness. Care must be taken in cheesemaking, asthose who prepare it will tell you, when the rennet is added to the milk, that the milk beneither too hot nor too cold, and not too great an amount of rennet put into it, and caremust be taken to expel the whey and only add a moderate amount of salt. This is so the 8
  9. 9. cheese wont be full of holes but solid, nor bitter, nor bland, nor too salty or insipid or re-tain the taste of rennet. Also, a fire left under the whey in the cooking-pot will createserotij <plural of serotium>, in the same manner as that from the lean preparation. Thedifference between serotij, fat and lean, is the same as that between cheese, fat andlean. And in general, the same amount in pounds of cheese and serotij is produced frommilk as that from the lean production I explained above.And so great is the fame of our cheese and butter that great quantities are sent away toComum, and the bordering regions of Italy and Germany. And the smallest of ourcheeses, if they are aged, are esteemed as much as the cheese of Placentini. These mosthighly praised cheeses are now in Italy and sell for quite a bit, since a single pound offresh cheese costs two crucifers, and aged cheese costs twice that. It is amazing to saythat so much cheese and butter is made in our jurisdiction (which is the area above thevalley Engedina, and which consists of 1000 homes) that in many years more than 15thousand florens worth are sent downstream. This number would be more, but becauseof domestic use, some product isnt included.And this was about the milk of cows. It is natural <to write> about the milk of goats, butI think I should end up writing a huge work. Goodbye. At Samadenus in the valley of Engedina, the 27th of January, the year of the Lord 155622Supplies:2 gal. Raw Whole Milk (or *Whole Pasteurized Milk)1 pkg. Thermophillic Culture DS (Direct Set) contains: lactose, (ST) streptococcusthermophilus, (LB) lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, (LH) lactobacillushelveticus.1/2 tsp. Proprionic Shermanii contains: Proprionibacteria freudenreichii subsp.Shermanii*½ tsp. Calcium Chloride contains: Calcium Chloride (used only in pasteurized milk)*1/8 tsp. Lipase Power – Capilase (very sharp) You will only need this if usingPasteurized milk (an animal based enzyme used to enhance flavor in cheese)1/2 tsp. Rennet¼ cup cool water1 lb. Sea Salt2 Stainless Steel Pots1 Slotted Stainless Steel Spoon1 yard of cheese cloth1 Colander1 Stainless Steel Ladle1 Thermometer22 Epistola de caseis et operibus lactariis et modo quo in Rhiticis regionibus et alpibus parantur, 1556: “Letter from Jacob Bifrons toConrad Gessner”, 1556, Translated by Rikke D. Giles (Aelianora de Witringham), http://staff-www.uni-marburg.de/~gloning/bifrun/bifrun.htm, http://staff-www.uni-marburg.de/~gloning/bifrun/decaseis.htm for a scan of the originalpages, translation found at http://www.florilegium.org 9
  10. 10. 1 Cheese Press1 Cheese Mould & Follower1 timer1 large plastic container (Tupperware style)2 Reed Mats to place the cheese onA Hard Cheese in the Emmental Style 23Modern Method:2-gallon raw whole milk (Raw Milk will give you a richer cheese)1 pack of Thermophillic Culture DS contains: lactose, (ST) streptococcus thermophilus, (LB) lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, (LH) lactobacillus helveticus. (this is used for temperatures over 110º)½ tsp. of Proprionic Shermanii contains: Proprionibacteria freudenreichii subsp. shermanii1/8 tsp of Lipase Power contains: Goat lipase, salt and non-fat milk for 2 gallons of milk if using pasteurized milk½ tsp. Calcium Chloride contains: Calcium Chloride (needed only if pasteurized milk is used)½ tsp of Rennet for 2 gallons of milk1/4 cup of cool water to dilute the rennet1 lb. Coarse Sea Salt (for brine)Step One:Place milk into large pan (fig. 10). Warm milk until it has risen to a temperature of milkto 90° F. (Use the in-direct warming method using a large metal pan in a sink of warmwater, or inside of a second larger pot), and add the Thermophillic Starter, (if usingpasteurized milk also add Lipase Power (during the pasteurization process most of thenaturally occurring lipase is ruined)24, and Calcium Chloride.)Step Two:Remove ¼ cup of milk from the pot and add the Proprionic Shermanii add to milk coverand let sit for 10 minutes.Step Three:Add Rennet (diluted to 1/4 cup of cool water) and stir for several minuets. Let milk sitcovered for 30 minutes at 90º F. or until a curd has formed and a clean break (the curdshould have what is called a clean break, which is if a clean knife is put into the curd thecurd should separate cleanly).Step Four:Cut the curds in ¼ inch cubes continue to stir the curds at 90 degrees for 40 minutes.This is commonly called Fore-working.Step Five:23 “any rich soft cheese”, Brears, Peter, A Taste of History, London, 1993, pg.13424 Lava, Shari, What is Lipase Powder?, December 08, 2010, http://www.ehow.com/facts_7462852_lipase-powder_.html, December08, 2010 1
  11. 11. Heat the curds to 120 degrees slowly maintain the curds at this temperature for 30minutes, and continue stirring. Test the curds for what is called the “proper break”. Takea handful of curds and wad together then rub it in your palm. It should break apart intoindividual pieces. This will show that the curds are cooked enough. Now let them sit for5 minutes.Step Six:Pour off the whey to the level of the curds. Place the warm curds into a cheese clothlined mold. Fold over one edge of the cheese cloth, and place the follower.Step Seven:Place mould and follower into the cheese press and press at 10 pounds for 15 minutes.Step Eight:Remove from the press take and redress the cheese and flip it over and return to the pressand press at 15 pounds for 2 hours.Step Nine:Remove from the press, flip and redress the cheese return to the press for 12 hours at15~20 pounds.Step Ten:Remove from mould and place in cold brine for 12 hours.Step Eleven:Remove cheese from the brine wipe dry and place on a reed mat at 50~55 degrees and85% humidity for 7 days, turn daily and wipe with a cloth dampened with salt water. Donot wet the cheese.Step Twelve:Remove cheese from the cold place into your cheese box on a reed mat, leave at roomtemperature (70~75 degrees) for 2~3 weeks at room temperature, turn daily and wipewith cloth dampened in salt water. After 2~3 weeks you should notice a swelling androunding of the sides of the cheese this is part of the Eye formation.Step Thirteen:Place the cheese back into your refrigerator at 45 degrees with 80% humidity for at least3 months (or longer for a sharper flavor). Turn weekly and wipe as needed with dampcloth and salt water.25The cheese is ready to eat after 6~12 months, but for a milder flavor cheese is ready after3 months. The longer you age this cheese the stronger the flavor should be and the dryerit maybe. In February of 2012 this round of Emmental will be 12 months old.Steps:25 Carroll, Ricki & Robert, Cheese making made Easy, United States: Capital City Press, 1996, page 36~37 1
  12. 12. Cut the curds curd after 1 hour of heating at 90FFore working & WadingWarm curds placed in to mould Follower addedIn press Brine 1
  13. 13. After 2~3 weeks at room temperatureAt 10 months of age Example of using cheese Tier to checkon progress of cheeseObservations:During the aging process I was able to check on the progress of the cheese twice usingwhat is called a Cheese Tier (see picture above). Basically you are taking a core sample asmall piece off the end and replacing the rest back into the hole. With the sample in hand 1
  14. 14. I smelled it, checked the texture, and color, and then tasted it. In cheese making you areusing all of you senses. The next time I will check on the cheese will be at A&S inFebruary of 2012 and it will be 7 months old then.Conclusion:Some of the early lessons I learned in making hard cheeses were patients had to benumber one. The cheese you sampled today has been aging for one year. In theproduction of hard cheeses time, controlled humidity, and temperature are your friends.Not enough of one or too much of any one of these could effect your final product.Some of the lessons that apply to making this style of cheese are size matters. Accordingto my research the size of the holes in your cheese is proportional to the size of the cheeseround. My first cheese was small there for the holes were very small. Another importantlesson I learned was to either use rubber gloves one pair for each cheese I am working onor wash my hands between handling the different types of cheese I am making. My firstround of Swiss had a blue under flavor. This was from the fact that I had handled myBlue cheese earlier and had cross flavored my round of Swiss by transferring some of theblue mold spores to the Swiss. Though not bad it was not the flavor I was wanting.I have also learned that time is much more critical for making hard cheeses, and theprocess of making hard cheeses is not nearly as forgiving as making soft cheeses.On adding rennet I learned early on that a little goes a long way and adding two much ofsomething in the case of making cheese can be a bad thing. Adding not enough rennetand your curd will not set, but I have found that you can add a little more if necessary.Adding to much rennet will give it a rubbery texture and a bitter under taste. This alsowill happen if your rennet is too old.Another important lesson learned is use the freshest milk possible for the best flavor andcheese. This last statement is important because it explains a couple of writtenstatements I found in period sources that talked about the time of year and the quality ofthe cheese products produced. For example in the spring and early summer the milk isrich and contains a large of amount of protein and milk fat due to new pastures andlactation for their young, so the cheese is going to be very rich in body and flavor. If themilk is in the fall then it is not as rich due to the decline of pasture feeding and that theyare no longer lactating, so the cheese produced in the fall will take more milk to producea pound of cheese due to a lower amount of protein and fat making the milk thinner (thecream that comes to the top is not as thick as in the spring/ summer milk). What theanimals eat also effect the flavor of the cheese as well.Another lesson that applies as much now as then is keeping things clean, “morning milkin fair cleansing pans in such place as no dust may fall therein”. There are times when nomatter what you do the milk will not set and all you can do is start over and feed theprevious batch to the pig. 1
  15. 15. This is a process I have been learning about for the last 4 years, I started MedievalCheese Forum a two years ago (www.medievalcheese.blogspot.com) so I could keeptrack of mistakes and successes, share information I have learned about cheese makingalso.Enjoy sampling the cheese. Warming milk Slotted ladle & strainer 26 Fig. 10 Warming the milk26 From Tacuinum Sanitatis (ÖNB Codex Vindobonensis, series nova 2644), c. 1370-1400)http://www.godecookery.com/afeast/foods/foods.html 1
  16. 16. 27 Fig. 12 Roman Cheese Press in form and function very similar to those found from 600 –1600 A.D.Materials Referenced:1. Fig.137. Cheese; from the Theatrum Sanitatis, Library Casanatense, Rome,http://www.godecookery.com/afeast/foods/foods.html2. Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, http://images.imagestate.com/Watermark/1276116.jpg3. Trowbridge-Filippone, Peggy, Swiss Cheese Varieties,http://homecooking.about.com/od/cheeseinformation/a/swisscheesehist.htm4. Prehistoric hut gives clues to ancient Alp life, Jul 25, 2009 - 18:05,http://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/Specials/Border_Stories/Features/Prehistoric_hut_gives_clues_to_ancient_Alp_life.html?cid=75251945. Kitchen Daily – Food Encyclopedia, Emmental,http://www.kitchendaily.com/encyclopedia/definition/emmental/8476. Carr, Sandy (1985), The Mitchell Beazley Pocket Guide to Cheese, London: MitchellBeazley7. History of Cheese, 01/06/10, http://www.world-of-cheese.com/history.htm8. Grosvenor, Dr. Gilbert H., A family of cheese makers stands outside their wood homein the Alps, Alps, Switzerland, National Geographic Stock Photo, #13211409. Epistola de caseis et operibus lactariis et modo quo in Rhiticis regionibus et alpibusparantur, 1556: “Letter from Jacob Bifrons to Conrad Gessner”, 1556, Translated byRikke D. Giles (Aelianora de Witringham), http://staff-www.uni-marburg.de/~gloning/bifrun/bifrun.htm, http://staff-www.uni-marburg.de/~gloning/bifrun/decaseis.htm for a scan of the original pages, translationfound at http://www.florilegium.org10. Epistola de caseis et operibus lactariis et modo quo in Rhiticis regionibus et alpibusparantur, 1556: “Letter from Jacob Bifrons to Conrad Gessner”, 1556, Translated by27 Roman Cheese Press, Greyware circular straight-sided bowl, used for draining the Whey from cheese, c. 450 A.D.,http://www.museumoflondonprints.comUnless otherwise noted all other pictures are my photography 1
  17. 17. Rikke D. Giles (Aelianora de Witringham), http://staff-www.uni-marburg.de/~gloning/bifrun/bifrun.htm, http://staff-www.uni-marburg.de/~gloning/bifrun/decaseis.htm for a scan of the original pages, translationfound at http://www.florilegium.org11. Taylor S. Kennedy, Photographer, National Geographic Stock, ID#991879,http://www.nationalgeographicstock.com/ngsimages/explore/explorecomp.jsf?xsys=SF&id=788712. Power, Eileen, The Goodman of Paris, New York, 1992, pg.16913. Arne Emil Christensen, Professor, Dr. Phil. at the University Museum of NationalAntiquities in Oslo, author of this article (He specializes on shipbuilding history andcraftsmanship in the Iron Age and the Viking period), http://ezinearticles.com/?Dairy-Products-in-Anglo-Saxon-Times-%28Part-of-the-Anglo-Saxon-Survival-Guide%29&id=375438714. Farlow, Melissa, Photographer, National Geographic Stock, ID#1114587,http://www.nationalgeographicstock.com/ngsimages/explore/explorecomp.jsf?xsys=SF&id=788715. Kimetha Loidolt, Photographer, 8/2011, Taken at Dairy in Lathrup, Mn16. The Project Gutenberg eBook “The Closet of Sir Kenelm Digby”, www.guten-berg.org/files/16441, “To make Silpp-coat cheese”17. Dawson, Thomas, The Good Housewife’s Jewel, Southover Press, 1996, pg.17~1818. Viking Answer Lady, http://www.vikinganswerlady.com/food.shtml19. At the Table of the Monks: Cheese, Of Course (Part V), http://gherkinstomatoes.com/2009/05/22/at-the-table-of-the-monks-cheese-of-course-part-v/20. Take a Thousand Eggs or More, from Hortus Sanitatis, Mainz, 15th century, pg. 4021. Columella II de re Rustica V-IX, Translated by E.S. Forster & E. Heffner, Book VII,pg.285~28922. Epistola de caseis et operibus lactariis et modo quo in Rhiticis regionibus et alpibusparantur, 1556: “Letter from Jacob Bifrons to Conrad Gessner”, 1556, Translated byRikke D. Giles (Aelianora de Witringham), http://staff-www.uni-marburg.de/~gloning/bifrun/bifrun.htm, http://staff-www.uni-marburg.de/~gloning/bifrun/decaseis.htm for a scan of the original pages, translationfound at http://www.florilegium.org23. Brears, Peter, “any rich soft cheese”, A Taste of History, London, 1993, pg.134 1
  18. 18. 24. Lava, Shari, What is Lipase Powder?, December 08, 2010,http://www.ehow.com/facts_7462852_lipase-powder_.html, December 08, 201025. Carroll, Ricki & Robert, Cheese making made Easy, United States: Capital CityPress, 1996, page 36~3726. From Tacuinum Sanitatis (ÖNB Codex Vindobonensis, series nova 2644), c.1370-1400) http://www.godecookery.com/afeast/foods/foods.html27. Roman Cheese Press, Greyware circular straight-sided bowl, used for draining theWhey from cheese, c. 450 A.D., http://www.museumoflondonprints.com 1

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