Instrumentation Engineering  : Analytical, optical & biomedical instrumentation, THE GATE ACADEMY
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Instrumentation Engineering : Analytical, optical & biomedical instrumentation, THE GATE ACADEMY

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THE GATE ACADEMY's GATE Correspondence Materials consist of complete GATE syllabus in the form of booklets with theory, solved examples, model tests, formulae and questions in various levels of ...

THE GATE ACADEMY's GATE Correspondence Materials consist of complete GATE syllabus in the form of booklets with theory, solved examples, model tests, formulae and questions in various levels of difficulty in all the topics of the syllabus. The material is designed in such a way that it has proven to be an ideal material in-terms of an accurate and efficient preparation for GATE.

Quick Refresher Guide : is especially developed for the students, for their quick revision of concepts preparing for GATE examination. Also get 1 All India Mock Tests with results including Rank,Percentile,detailed performance analysis and with video solutions

GATE QUESTION BANK : is a topic-wise and subject wise collection of previous year GATE questions ( 2001 – 2013). Also get 1 All India Mock Tests with results including Rank,Percentile,detailed performance analysis and with video solutions

Bangalore Head Office:
THE GATE ACADEMY
# 74, Keshava Krupa(Third floor), 30th Cross,
10th Main, Jayanagar 4th block, Bangalore- 560011
E-Mail: info@thegateacademy.com
Ph: 080-61766222

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Instrumentation Engineering : Analytical, optical & biomedical instrumentation, THE GATE ACADEMY Document Transcript

  • 1. Analytical, Optical and Biomedical Instrumentation for Instrumentation Engineering By www.thegateacademy.com
  • 2. Syllabus A.O.B THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 : 080-65700750,  info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Syllabus for Analytical, Optical and Biomedical Instrumentation Mass spectrometry. UV, visible and IR spectrometry. X-ray and nuclear radiation measurements. Optical sources and detectors, LED, laser, Photo-diode, photo-resistor and their characteristics. Interferometers, applications in metrology. Basics of fiber optics. Biomedical instruments, EEG, ECG and EMG. Clinical measurements. Ultrasonic transducers and Ultrasonography. Principles of Computer Assisted Tomography. Analysis of GATE Papers (Analytical, Optical and Biomedical Instrumentation) Year Percentage of marks Overall Percentage 2013 3.0 12.12% 2012 6.0 2011 2.0 2010 9.0 2009 11.0 2008 16.0 2007 16.0 2006 14.66 2005 12.66 2004 25.0 2003 18.0
  • 3. Contents A.O.B THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 : 080-65700750,  info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com C O N T E N T S Chapter Page No. #1. U.V, Visible and IR spectrometry 1 - 15  Analytical Instrumentation 1 - 3  Beer – Lamberts law 3 - 7  Infrared Spectroscopy Instrumentation 7 - 9  Assigment 1 10 - 11  Assigment 2 11 - 12  Answer Keys 13  Explanations 13 - 15 #2. Mass Spectrometer 16 - 22  Introduction 16 - 17  Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer 17 - 18  Assignment 19 - 20  Answer Keys 21  Explanations 21 - 22 #3. X ray and Nuclear Radiation Measurements 23 - 34  Origin of X rays 23 - 24  X-ray Diffraction – Bragg’s Law 24 - 26  Nuclear Detectors 26 - 28  Assignment 1 29 - 30  Assignment 2 30 - 31  Answer Keys 32  Explanations 32 - 34 #4. Optical Sources and Detectors 35 - 55  Optical Sources 35 - 37  LASER 37 - 41  Photo Detectors 41 - 49  Assignment 1 50 - 51  Assignment 2 51 - 52  Answer Keys 53  Explanations 53 - 55 #5. Interferometer, Applications in Metrology 56 – 63  Introduction 56  Michelson’s Interferometer Working 56 - 57  Application in Metrology 57 - 58  Assignment 59 - 60
  • 4. Contents A.O.B THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 : 080-65700750,  info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com  Answer Keys 61  Explanations 61 - 63 #6. Basics of Fiber Optics 64 – 76  Introduction 64  Construction 64 - 66  Fibre Characteristics and Classification 66 - 69  Assignment 1 70 - 71  Assignment 2 71 - 72  Answer Keys 73  Explanations 73 - 76 #7. Ultrasonic Transducers and Ultrasonography 77 - 83  Introduction 77  Acoustic Impedence(z) 77  Ultrasonic Transducers 78 - 79  Doppler Shift Ultrasound Transducer 79  Assignment 80 - 81  Answer Keys 82  Explanations 82 - 83 #8. ECG EEG EMG 84 - 102  Sources of Bioelectric Potentials 84 - 87  ECG (Electro Cardio Gram) 87 - 89  EEG (Electro Encephalogram) 89 - 91  EMG (Electromyogram) 91 - 94  Assignment 1 95 - 96  Assignment 2 97 - 98  Answer Keys. 99  Explanations. 99 - 102 #9. Clinical Measurement and Computer Assisted Tomography 103 - 114  Introduction 103  Measurement of Blood Pressure 103 - 104  Measurement of Blood Volume 104  Measurement of Heart Sounds 105  Test on Blood Cells 105 - 109  Principle of Computer Assisted Tomography 109 - 110  Assignment 111 - 112  Answer Keys 113  Explanations 113 - 114
  • 5. Contents A.O.B THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 : 080-65700750,  info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Module Test 115 - 126  Test Questions 115 - 119  Answer Keys 120  Explanations 120 - 126 Reference Books 127
  • 6. Chapter 1 A.O.B THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 : 080-65700750,  info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 1 CHAPTER 1 U.V, Visible and IR spectrometry Analytical Instrumentation  Analytical instruments are primarily used to obtained qualitative and quantitative information regarding the composition of a given unknown sample.  The basic building blocks are:  Chemical information source generates signal containing information of the unknown sample.  Analytical instruments then generate signal based on the composition of the sample. This stage forms an important building block in analytical instruments where the separation, detection and of the composition is done by employing either emission or absorption or scattering of electromagnetic radiation as the key principle of detection. Electromagnetic Radiation  Electromagnetic radiation is a type of energy that is transmitted through space at a speed of 3 × m/sec.  These radiations do not require a medium of propagation and can also travel through vacuum.  Relation between the energy of electromagnetic radiation (normally called as photons) and frequency of its propagation is given by where E: energy h: Planck’s constant ergs-s (or) Joules-s ν: frequency  If λ is the wavelength interval between successive maxima and minima of the wave), then C = νλ Where C: velocity of propagation of radiant energy in vacuum. Interaction of radiation with matter S. No Radiation absorbed Energy changes involved 1. Visible, ultraviolet, x – ray Electronic transitions, vibrational or rotational changes Chemical information source Analytical instrument Signal conditioner Display system
  • 7. Chapter 1 A.O.B THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 : 080-65700750,  info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 2 2. Infrared Molecular vibrational changes with superimpose rotational changes 3. Microwave Rotational changes 4. Radio – frequency They are absorbed by an intense magnetic field. Spectroscopic methods and corresponding energy states of matter or basis of phenomenon S. No Method Phenomena employed 1. Nuclear magnetic resonance Nuclear spin coupling with an applied magnetic field 2. Microwave spectroscopy Rotation of molecules 3. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy Rotation or vibration of molecules, electronic transitions 4. UV – visible spectroscopy Electronic energy changes, 5. X-ray spectroscopy Diffraction and reflection of X-ray radiation from atomic layers. Electromagnetic Spectrum Fig (1.1) shows the various regions of electromagnetic spectrum which are normally used in spectroscopic works. Fig.1.1 Electromagnetic spectrum from DC to X-ray In the following sections, we discuss the various methods employed (by the analytical instruments) for detection of the composition of the analyte sample in the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. λ 3× m 3× m 10 kHz 100 kHz 1 MHz 30 MHz 450 MHz 1 GHz 10 GHz 300 GHz 4.3× z z z z MICROWAVES VERY LOW FREQUENCY LOW FREQUENCY MEDIUM FREQUENCY HIGH FREQUENCY VERY HIGH FREQUENCY ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY SUPER HIGH FREQUENCY EXTRA HIGH FREQUENCY INFRARED VISIBLE ULTRAVIOLET X-RAY FREQUENCY RANGE OF HUMAN EYE 7000 – 4000 Å 300 m 10 m 0.67 m 30 m 3 cm m 7000 Å 3000 Å 30 Å 3× MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPY 2000 MHz – 300 GHz 20 – 100 MHz (~ 300 MHz IN SUPERCONDUCTING INSTRUMENTS) NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE UV – VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY 2.5𝛍 M – 2400 Å 0 – 15 kHz; FREQUENCY RANGE OF AVERAGE HUMAN EAR NUCLEAR QUADRUPOLE RESONANCE 2 – 1000 MHz ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE; X-BAND 9.46 GHz INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY 1 MM- 2.5 𝛍 M 10 – 4000 cm RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY
  • 8. Chapter 1 A.O.B THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 : 080-65700750,  info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 3 Visible and Ultraviolet: Calorimeter and Spectrophotometer  In the visible and ultraviolet region of spectrum, the method of analysis employed by the analytical instruments are based on the absorption of electromagnetic radiation.  Calorimeters and spectrophotometers are the analytical instruments used in this region. Principle  Whenever a beam of radiant energy strikes the surface of a substance (analyte or sample), the radiation interacts with the atoms or molecules of the substance resulting in absorption (or) transmittance or scattering (reflection) depending on the properties of the sample.  Absorption spectroscopy is based on the principle that the amount of absorption that occurs is dependent on the number of molecules present in the sample.  Here the analysis is done by studying the intensity of the radiant power leaving the substance, i.e., the transmitted radiation which is an indication of concentration of the sample.  The absorbance is calculated as; Transmittance (T) where: p: energy transmitted P : Incident energy Absorbance log ( ⁄ ) log ( ) Optical density log ( ⁄ ) Beer – Lamberts Law  This law gives a relation between energy absorbed by the sample and the energy transmitted. Absorbance (A) = abc where: a is the absorptivity of the sample (constant) Incident Radiation Absorbed Radiation Transmitted Radiation Sample
  • 9. Chapter 1 A.O.B THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 : 080-65700750,  info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 4 b is the thickness of the absorbing material c is the concentration of the sample As we known, A log ( ⁄ ) and T p P⁄ ∴ log ( ⁄ ) abc log ( ) and T = Assumptions 1. Here the radiation used is monochromatic (single wave length) in nature. 2. Sample is of low concentration. 3. The others factors that influence the absorption are not considered. The instrument module for UV and visible spectrometry can be pictorized as below Example: The transmittance of a coloured solution is 0.5, the absorption of the solution is? A = log = log ) = 0.3 Example: In a particular sample the absorption is 0.6 for a molar concentration of the solute of 1.0 moles and 2cm path length the molar absorptivity is? A = abc a = Substitute a = 3000 Radiation sources used are 1. Hydrogen or deuterium discharge lamp(U.V) 2. Incandescent filament lamps 350nm – 2.5µm 3. Tungsten halogen lamps (visible) Wavelength selection is done with the various dispersive techniques given. Optical Filters Absorption Filter  These optical filters usually absorb the radiation and transmit light of single wavelength.  There efficiency is poor, when compared to other filters. Interference Filters  These filters use interference phenomena. Radiant Source Wavelength Selector Solvent Photo detector Read out device Sample
  • 10. Chapter 1 A.O.B THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 : 080-65700750,  info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 5  Thus, these filters normally have semi-transparent layers.  Light, which is incident on it undergoes multiple reflections between the pair of semi transparent layers and the wavelength that is transmitted through them is determined by the thickness of the dielectric layer.  The wavelength selection is done by the relation: m λ d n) sin θ where θ : angle of incidence d : thickness of dielectric spaces, n : refractive index of dielectric spacer. m : order of interference λ : wavelength Monochromators  They are the another class of filters, which provide better isolation than optical filters.  They are capable or isolating a narrow band of wavelengths effectively.  Principle employed for separation of wavelength is done by using a dispersing medium, where the radiant energy gets isolated.  Dispersion of radiant energy into different wavelength’s is usually done by prism monochromators or by diffraction grating. Prism Monochromators  Here in prism monochromators, the isolation of different wavelengths is done by using the refractive index of wavelengths, which is different for different wavelengths.  Thus, radiation of different wavelengths gets disperssed at different angles by prism.  Prisms are normally made of glass or quartz. Glass is used in visible region and quartz for ultraviolet region. Resolving Power (R) The term resolving power is applied to spectrum producing devices and means as the ability of the instrument to form separate images of two closely adjacent spectral lines.  It is defined generally by the equation where R: resolving power λ : wavelength dλ : smallest wavelength separation, which is separable with the instrument.  dλ λ λ and . For prism, the resolving power is given by the expression: t where dμ is the difference or refractive index t : base of the prism. Example: A prism spectrometer uses flint glam prism with glam dispersion 952cm-1 and dλ = 6 0A at λ = 5893 0A find base t of prism?