Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Gate material   civil engineering, environmental engineering
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Gate material civil engineering, environmental engineering

1,020
views

Published on

THE GATE ACADEMY's GATE Correspondence Materials consist of complete GATE syllabus in the form of booklets with theory, solved examples, model tests, formulae and questions in various levels of …

THE GATE ACADEMY's GATE Correspondence Materials consist of complete GATE syllabus in the form of booklets with theory, solved examples, model tests, formulae and questions in various levels of difficulty in all the topics of the syllabus. The material is designed in such a way that it has proven to be an ideal material in-terms of an accurate and efficient preparation for GATE.

Quick Refresher Guide : is especially developed for the students, for their quick revision of concepts preparing for GATE examination. Also get 1 All India Mock Tests with results including Rank,Percentile,detailed performance analysis and with video solutions

GATE QUESTION BANK : is a topic-wise and subject wise collection of previous year GATE questions ( 2001 – 2013). Also get 1 All India Mock Tests with results including Rank,Percentile,detailed performance analysis and with video solutions

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,020
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
135
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Environmental Engineering for Civil Engineering By www.thegateacademy.com
  • 2. Syllabus Environmental Engineering THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 : 080-65700750,  info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Syllabus for Environmental Engineering Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater, sludge disposal, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment, quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal. Types of pollutants, Their sources and impacts, Air pollution meteorology, Air pollution control, Air quality standards and limits. Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, Engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal) Impacts of noise, Permissible limits of noise pollution, Measurement of noise and control of noise pollution Analysis of GATE Papers (Environmental Engineering) Year Percentage of marks Overall Percentage 2013 8.00 13.36% 2012 10.00 2011 11.00 2010 14.00 2009 12.00 2008 12.67 2007 14.67 2006 16.00 2005 13.33 2004 17.33 2003 18.00
  • 3. Contents Environmental Engineering THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, KeshavaKrupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 : 080-65700750,  info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page I CONTENTS Chapter Page No. #1 Quality Standards of Water 1 – 12  Municipal Water 1  Water Quality & Standard 1 – 2  Hardness 2 – 5  Basic Unit Process for Water Treatment 5  Assignment 1 6 – 7  Assignment 2 7 – 9  Answer Keys  Explanations 10 10 – 12 #2 Water Supply and Its Treatment 13 – 53  Water Quality Standards for Drinking Water 13  Water Requirements and Demands 14 – 16  Population Forecast 16 – 19  Basic Unit Process/Operation for Surface Water Treatment 19 – 20  Screening 20  Plain Sedimentation 20 – 23  Electrical Properties 23 – 25  Types of Sedimentation Tank 25 – 26  Filtration 26 – 30  Disinfection  Solved Examples 30 – 37 38 – 44  Assignment 1 45 – 47  Assignment 2 47 – 49  Answer Keys  Explanations 50 50 - 53 #3 Waste Water Treatment 54 – 90  Sewage & Sewerage Treatment 54  Quality and Characteristic of Waste Water 54 – 72  Types of Tracking Filters 72 – 73  Secondary Sedimentation  Solved Examples 73 – 74 75 – 84
  • 4. Contents Environmental Engineering THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, KeshavaKrupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 : 080-65700750,  info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page II  Assignment 1 85 – 86  Assignment 2 87 – 88  Answer Keys  Explanations 89 89 – 90 #4 Sludge Disposal 91 – 110  Digestion and Disposal of Primary & Secondary Sludge 91 – 96  Design Consideration Involved in An Activated Sludge Plant 96 – 98  Effluent Disposal  Solved Examples 98 – 99 100 – 103  Assignment 1 104 – 105  Assignment 2 106 – 107  Answer Keys  Explanations 108 108 – 110 #5 Domestic Waste Water Treatment 111 – 122  Characteristic of Domestic Waste Water 111 – 112  Treatment of Domestic Waste Water 112 – 113  Chemical Treatment 113 – 114  Sludge Disposal 114 – 116  Assignment 1 117 – 118  Assignment 2 118 – 119  Answer Keys  Explanations 120 120 – 122 #6 Air Pollution 123 – 138  Introduction  Air Pollution System 123 123 – 129  Zone of Atmosphere 129 – 132  Monitoring of stack emissions 132 – 137  Filter Cleaning Method 137 – 138 #7 Solid Waste 139 –156  Classification fo Solid Waste 139 – 140  Physical Properties of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) 140 – 142  Importance of waste transformation 143 – 152  Sources of hazardous waste in MSW 152 – 155
  • 5. Contents Environmental Engineering THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, KeshavaKrupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 : 080-65700750,  info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page III  Solved Examples 155 – 156 Module Test 157 – 169  Test Questions 157 – 164  Answer Keys  Explanations 165 165 - 169 Reference Book 170
  • 6. Chapter 1 Environmental Engineering THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 : 080-65700750,  info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 1 CHAPTER 1 Quality Standards of Water Municipal water supply: Sources Raw water sources: The various sources of water can be classified into two categories 1. Surface sources i) Ponds and lakes ii) Stream and rivers iii) Storage reservoir iv) Ocean, generally not used for water supplies at present technologies are available 2. Sub surface water sources or underground sources i) Springs ii) Infiltration wells and iii) Wells and rife wells Water Quality and Standards Water quality and standards are defined on the basis of analyzing the raw water on their physical chemical and bacteriological characteristics Physical Characteristics i) Turbidity ii) Colour iii) Taste and odour iv) Temperature v) Specific conductance Turbidity: If a large amount of solids are present in water it will appear turbid in appearance. Turbidity depends upon the finess and concentration of practices present in water It is expressed as the amount of suspended matter in mg/L or ppm Measurement (a) For field – Turbidity rod (b) For Lab – (i) Jackson’s turbidity meter (ii) Nphelometer is used for treated water. Nephelometer can measure turbidity less than 1 ppm NTU – Nephlometer Turbidity unit The IS value for drinking awter is 10 – 25 NTU
  • 7. Chapter 1 Environmental Engineering THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 : 080-65700750,  info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 2 Colour: Dissolved organic material from decaying vegetation or inorganic materials may import colour to the water. The standard unit of color is that which is produce by “one mg of platinum cobalt” dissolved in one liter of distilled water The IS value for treated water is 5 to 25 cobalt unit. Taste and Odour: Mostly organic and inorganic material originating from municipal or industrial waste contribute taste and odour to the water. Taste and odour can be expressed in terms of odour intensity and threshold values. Temperature: The increase in temperature decreases palatability (pleasant in taste), because at high temperature CO2 and some other volatile gases are expelled. The ideal temperature of water for drinking purpose is 5 to 120C Specific conductance: Presence of salt can be estimated by measuring specific conductivity (unit: μmho/cm) Chemical characteristics i) pH ii) Acidity iii) Alkalinity iv) Hardness v) Chlorides vi) Iron solids vii) Nitrates pH: pH value denoted about the alkalinity and Baricity of the water. It is the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration pH = log * + The values of PH for drinking water must liest between 6.5 to 8.5 Acidity: It is caused by the presence of uncombined CO2 mineral acids or salts of strong acids and weak bases. It also salts of strong acids and weak bases. It also determines the measures of capacity of water to neutralizes the measures the base.  It is expressed as mg/L in terms of  Desirable 200 mg/L permissible limit 600 mg/L Hardness It is the characteristics of water which prevents formation of lather or foam when mixed with the soap  It is usually caused by divalent ion of calcium and magnesium ( )  Hardness Temporary hardness permanent hardness (due to presence of (Due to presence of sulphates Carbonate and bicarbonate chlorides and nitrates.)
  • 8. Chapter 1 Environmental Engineering THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 : 080-65700750,  info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 3 Of and in water)  The major anions associated with the hardness are sulphates, carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and nitrates  The total hardness (TH) is defined as the sum of concentration of mg and Ca ion and is expressed in terms of in mg/L T.H (mg|L) × = (mg|L) × T.H = (mg|L) × ( ) g ( )  Non carbonate ions cannot be precipitated or removed by boiling add, hence it is called permanent hardness  Desirable limits 300mg/L as Permissible limit 690mg/L as  If hardness ≤ 75ppm > soft water  If hardness lies between 75-200 => moderate hardness if hardness > 200 => hardnes Chlorides Content  In the form of NaCl  Permissible limit – 250 mg/L  Chloride concentration is detected by titrating water with standard silver nitrate solution using as indicator Sulphates: Sulphates occur in water due to leaching from sulphate mineral and oxidation of sulphides  Sulphates desirable limit = 150 mg/L Permissible limit = 400 mg/L Iron: When ferric oxide comes in contact with water it converts into ferrous bicarbonate and further it oxidieses to ferric hydroxide ppt under favorable conditions. Desirable limit – 0.3 mg/L Permissible limit – 1.0 mg/L Nitrates: Nitrates in surface water occurs by leaching of fertilizers from soil during surface run- off and nitrification of organic matter  Desirable limit for drinking water = 45 mg/L Permissible limit for drinking water = 100 mg/L  Concentration of nitrates above 45 mg/L causes a diseases called as blue baby disease Dissolved Gases Methane – explosive H2S – Bad smell CO2 – Indicates biological level then it indicates presence of organic matter oxygen deficiency 5 – 8 ppm Minimum Dissolved oxygen foe survival fishes etc = 4 mg/L
  • 9. Chapter 1 Environmental Engineering THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 : 080-65700750,  info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 4 BOD, COD, TOC, etc: BOD5 = Loss of oxygen (mg/L) × dilution factor BOD of safe drinking water = 0 Bacterial and Microscopic Characteristics i) Aerobic Bacteria → Required oxygen for survival ii) Anaerobic Bacteria → Do not required dissolve O2 iii) Facultative Bacteria → can survive with or without O2  Through some species of bacteria a may be helpful in cleaning of water but other pathogenic bacteria are harmful  The presence of pathogenic bacteria can be tested by counting presence of coil Forms ColiForms (Also called B coli)  Coliforms are important harmless aerobic microorganism which are found residing in the intestines of all warm blooded animals including human being  Since these harmless organism live longer in water than the pathogenic bacteria it is generally presumed that the water will be safe are free from pathogens if no coliform bacteria are present in it. Measurement of coliform  Widely used  Filter the water through a sterile membrane of special design porosity = 80 pore size (5 to 10 rm) and the membrane is put in contact with nutrients (M – Endo’s medium) that will permit the growth of only coliform colonies. This process is called culturing.  After an incubation period of 20 hrs, the coliform organs are developed into visible colonies which can be easily counted Ecoli ferment lactose with gas formation with 48 hours incubation at 350 C. Based on this E.coli density is estimated by multiple fermentation procedure in different test. Which consist of identification of E.coli in different dilution combinations.  MPN value is calculation as follows Five 10 ml (five dilution combinations) tube is tested for E.coli and if out 5 only one given positive test for E.coli and all other are negative  The from the table we can find out the MNP value for one (+ve) and other (-ve), which is equal to 2.2 in present case Coliform Used to measure the coliform bacteria present in water sample “It may be defined as the reciprocal of the smallest quantity of a sample which would give a positive B coli test” Water Borne Diseases and Their Control a) Disease caused by Bacterial infections Disease caused by i) Typhoid fever - salmonella typhi ii) Cholera - vibro – cholera iii) Bacillary Dysentery – shiga bacillus or Flexner - bacillus b) Disease cause by viral infections i) Hepatitis - Hepatist viral
  • 10. Chapter 1 Environmental Engineering THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, Keshava Krupa (third Floor), 30th Cross, 10th Main, Jayanagar 4th Block, Bangalore-11 : 080-65700750,  info@thegateacademy.com © Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com Page 5 ii) Poliomyelitis - polio virus c) Disease caused by protozoal infections i) Amoebic Dysentry – Antoneoba histolitric germ Quality Standard for Industrial Water Supply Boiledferrd water Hardness 1 mg/L Pulp and paper:L water should be free from iron Mn and hardness. Quality Standard for Municipal Water Supply Municipal water required for domestic uses, particularly the water required for drinking, must be colorless odourless and tasteless. It should be free turbidity and excessive toxic chemical and bacteriological characteristics of water must be in between the desirable and permissible limit. Basic Unit Process and Operation for Water Treatment. Unit Process Aeration Function (Removal) colour. Odour, taste. Screening Floating matter Chemical methods Iron, Mangness Softening Hardness Sedimentation Suspended matter Coagulation Suspended matter, a part of colloidal water and bacteria Filtration Remaining colloidal, dissolved matter, bacteria Disinfecting Pathogenic bacteria, organic and reducing substances. Source Treatment required 1. Ground water and spring water fairly free from contamination 2. Ground water with chemical, mineral and gases 3. Lakes, surface water reservoir, with less amount of pollution 4. Other surface water such as river, canals and impounded reservoir with a considerable amount of pollution No treatment or chlorination Aeration, coagulation (if necessary, filtration and disinfection) Disinfection Complete treatment