2. Question………• Define skill and ability• State the link between them• Define Learning and performance• State the link between them
3. Learning Objectives• Describe Social Learning theorists theory on how we learn• State the three stages of learning and illustrate these with sporting examples• Give examples of how feedback and guidance changes at the different stages• Explain Learning curves and strategies to ensure learning continues
4. Learning CurvesWhy do these different shapesoccur?
5. Exam questions…..
8. Reinforcers• Reinforcers strengthen the S-R bond and increase the probability of the response occurring again, ensuring that correct action are repeated therefore future behaviour is shaped• Positive reinforcement given for a correct response to ensure that action is repeated e.g. praise, reward• Positive-giving a stimulus to strengthen the S-R bond e.g. success, praise, rewards• Negative reinforcements are: – a positive stimulus that is withdrawn when the performance is not good• or – a negative stimulus that is withdrawn when the correct performance is shown• In other words:• Eg: Coach does not give praise when performance is not good enough• or• A coach who is constantly shouting at the team does not shout if things are going well
10. Exam question……• (b) Explain why knowledge of the stages of learning is beneficial when a teacher or coach is providing guidance to a young sportsperson. Provide examples where appropriate. 
11. Guidance• Information given to the learner/performer to help limit mistakes, ensuring correct movement patterns occurDepends on:• Learner, stage of learning (beginner or expert, cognitive or autonomous phase of learning), past experience, motivation, ability• Nature of the Skill or Task• Situation or Environment
12. Feedback v guidance• Feedback is what the performer did.• Guidance is how the performer can improve.
13. Three main TYPES OF GUIDANCE – Visual, Verbal, Physical – A combination of all 3 usually works best
15. Visual Guidance• Used at all phases of learning but especially with beginners in the cognitive phase• To see simply and quickly what is expected, making a framework/model, (link to social learning/role models)• To "see" skills/concepts/tactics more clearly, finer points, cues, selective attention• Teacher can modify the display, bigger goals, balls and bats, coloured balls, cones, static/less/more opposition etc.
16. Verbal Guidance• Often used with visual to explain what is being shown• General – talk through tactics to give general picture• Specific - skills• Verbal labelling - link of visual image to verbal cues• (Swimming – Pull- Kick - Push in breast stroke)• Verbal instructions should be clear, precise, short, appropriate to performers ability/experience, alter volume and pitch of the voice• Avoid overloading by giving only 1 or 2 points at a time• Reduce guidance over time so that learners get used to thinking for themselves and dont become over reliant on the coach/teacher
17. Physical Guidance• Useful for kinaesthesis – learning and knowing what it feels like to perform set routines and put the body through set positions – The Feel of an action.,• Manual - hands on e.g. coach moves your arms into the correct position for serving in tennis• Mechanical - machinery e.g. ropes, floats, harness golf practice machinesThis can be used to Reduce errors by:• physically moving - forced response• restricting/supporting - physical restriction• Particularly useful for safety and avoiding tiredness• Safety e.g. support from trampoline coach, rock climbing-ropes, swimming- floats and armbands, vault-helped over by coach, weight training machines• Tiredness e.g. pommel horse-rope and bucket in order to "feel" body in the correct position• Remove over time so that the performer can work on their own. If overused the performer can become too reliant on the mechanical assistance or lose motivation if they are a passive learner.
18. Exam question……• (b) Explain why knowledge of the stages of learning is beneficial when a teacher or coach is providing guidance to a young sportsperson. Provide examples where appropriate. 
19. • 1-2 marks the candidate has an understanding of the stages of learning and provide appropriate forms of guidance for at least two of the stages. There are few examples of guidance appropriate to the stage of learning.• 3-4 marks the candidate has a good understanding of the characteristics within the stages of learning. Good knowledge and understanding is apparent with a link to appropriate forms of guidance relevant to the stage of learning. There is good use of examples of guidance appropriate to the stage of learning.• 5-6 marks the candidate has a very good understanding of the characteristics within the stages of learning. Very good knowledge and understanding is apparent with a link to appropriate forms of guidance relevant to the stage of learning. The candidate always reinforces the guidance used by providing appropriate examples.
20. The mark scheme…..• Characteristics of a performer in the cognitive stage of learning• Not always understanding new information• Difficulty in processing large amount of information• Difficulty deciding what to pay attention to• Errors are made which performer is unable to correct• Cognitive phase, guidance is characterised by• Manual in nature to get performer used to the kinaesthesia of the movement• Verbal repetition in terms of reinforcing on key points• Verbal identification of key cues• Constant visual demonstration of tasks essential• Modelling of good practice key to performers understanding• Coach may be more motivational/pep talks/verbal persuasion• Removal of critical comments/shouting from coach/equiv e.g.• Punishment is not applicable because it weakens response
21. Part 2……• Associative stage of learning of learning characteristics will have many aspects that have progressed/developed form the cognitive phase but are not developed enough to be classified as autonomous. The type of guidance provided by a teacher or coach will reflect this.• Characteristics of a performer in the autonomous stage of learning• Performs complex skills with ease/correct technique/confidence• Has plenty of time/efficient/consistent• Can pick up early signals/use of selective attention – good reaction time• Can concentrate on other aspects other that technique i.e. tactics• Can detect and correct errors• Few errors in performance• Use of intrinsic feedback• Autonomous phase guidance characterised by• Verbal guidance concentrates on style and form and finer points• Subtle technical cues are often given• Visual guidance through video analysis• Visual guidance through biomechanical analysis• Far more emphasis on tactics