Stress and anxiety 2012


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Stress and anxiety 2012

  1. 1. Stress and Anxiety
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes• State the different types of anxiety• Describe the link between anxiety, arousal and performance• State ways in which anxiety is measured and analyse the pros and cons of different measures• Explain how different techniques are used to control anxiety
  3. 3. Effects of arousal and anxiety• Arousal is measured in the Reticular activating system in the brain stem• Responsible for Organising behaviour• Arousal effects behaviour• Effects of arousal not always negative
  4. 4. Negative v positive Distress (or commonly Negative effects stress) Cognitive effects Cognitive effectsConfusion Confusion Somatic effects Lack of Lack of concentration concentration Irrational Irrational Increased Increased thought thought Increased Increased sweating sweating blood blood heart rate heart rate pressure pressure
  5. 5. Definitions of Stress• Used to describe negative feelings a person experiences in a potentially threatening situation.Seyle (1956)“ The non-specific response of the body to any demand made on it.” If we are placed in a situation in which we feel pressurised, unable to meet the task or worried about the consequences, we may experience stress.
  6. 6. Examples ofstressors
  7. 7. • Stress can be initiated by stressors (perceiveddemands), are stressor could be any demands placedon the performer that initiate stress:Threatens our self-esteem e.g. audienceCauses us personal harm e.g. fear of injuryDevelops fear of the unknown e.g. performance of the oppositionCauses frustration e.g. mistakes being madeIncreases pressure e.g. pressure from parents, crowd and/or coach
  8. 8. Stressor Stressor Frustration, Foul, conflict Competition Demands Climate, Fatigue, Playing badly, Injury worry Alarm, Resist, exhaust. Cognitive or somatic Eustress or distress!Stress experienceStress experience
  9. 9. McGrath (1970) suggest that when placed in a stressful situation, a performer would respond by progressing through four stages: Environment Demands Situation Athlete Athleteperception perception is so is soimportant! important! Perception of the environmental demands Threat or challenge Stress response (physical & psychological) Eustress or Enhanced or Distress impaired performance Actual behaviour
  10. 10. The Effects of Stress on Performance
  11. 11. Anxiety• Anxiety is a negative aspect of stress and includes irrational thoughts and fear of failure
  12. 12. Anxiety“ When an athlete’s performance suffers in an important event, it is often because of too much worry about the outcome……being solely concerned with winning causes an increase in anxiety.” T. Orlick, Psyching for Sport Mental training for athletes, 1986Causes = expectations, audience teammates evaluation (evaluation apprehension)
  13. 13. Two components of Anxiety Cognitive anxiety = “Thoughts” “Psychological”Thoughts, nervousness, apprehension or worry that a performer has about their lack of ability to complete a task. Somatic Anxiety = “physiological”Physiological responses to a situation where the performer feels they may not cope – increased hr, sweaty palms, muscle tension.
  14. 14. Cognitive responses to anxiety Somatic responses to anxiety• Loss of concentration • Sweating• Feelings on apprehension • Increased muscle tension• inability to cope •Feelings of nausea• Attentional narrowing • Increased heart rate• Fear of failure • Increased breathing rateThese are PYSCHOLOGICAL responses These are PHYSIOLOGICAL responses
  15. 15. Symptoms of AnxietyCognitive State Anxiety = Somatic State Anxiety =worry, negativity, nervousness perception of physiological changes
  16. 16. Researchers have distinguishedTHREE FURTHER TYPES
  17. 17. State Anxiety (A-state) = anxiety felt in a particular situation.• A temporary emotional reaction of someone in a situation that they experience as threatening.E.G.A basketball player’s level of state anxiety would change during the match. Prior to tip off – elevated level (nerves) During match – lower level Final seconds faced with 3 free throws – extremely high level.
  18. 18. Trait anxiety (A-trait) = an enduring personality trait, giving a tendency to view all situations as threatening.Anxiety as a personality trait is a tendency to react to situations in an anxious way.E.G. Two rugby players with equal skill are put under pressure to kick a last minute goal. They have different state anxiety reactions to the situation because of their personalities – their level of trait anxiety. 1)Laid back (low trait anxiety), doesn’t perceive kick as overally threatening, doesn’t experience any more state anxiety than expected. 2) High trait anxiety, finds all situations threatening.
  19. 19. Competitive Anxiety• Form of anxiety is specific to sport• Threats include: – Not playing well – Letting team down – Meeting training demands before the event – Personal relationships – Injury• Marten’s – the tendency to see competitive situations as threatening
  20. 20. • There is a direct relationship between a person’s level of trait and state anxiety.• Those who score high on measures of trait anxiety experience more state anxiety in highly competitive and evaluative situations.• Through experience, an athlete with high trait anxiety can learn to cope with a particular situation and lower their state anxiety.• Knowledge of a person’s level of trait anxiety will enable a prediction to be made about how they will react to competitions, being assessed and in threatening conditions.
  21. 21. Measuring Anxiety
  22. 22. MEASUREMENT OF STRESSQUESTIONNAIRES• Marten’s Sport Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT - 1977)• measures emotional and physiological responses to stress in the competitive situation• Speilberger’s State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI - 1970)• measures emotional and physiological responses to stress in general and specific situations• Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI – 1990)
  23. 23. Pro’s and Con’s• Quick • Socially acceptable• Easy answers• Cheap • Misunderstanding• Lots of info question
  24. 24. More measuresBEHAVIOURAL MEASURES• the performance of sports players is observed• a subjective methodPHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES• require laboratory testing equipment, objective methods• examples : – galvanic skin response – Electrocardiogram (ECG) – Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  25. 25. Problems• Observations involves • Physiological methods looking for symptoms of put performers in anxiety artificial circumstances• Can take place in • Wired up artificial environments • Can increase anxiety which lead to extra anxiety
  26. 26. Controlling StressThe coach and performer can control stress through approaching the problem in two ways: 1) Controlling & redirecting the performer’s thoughts & attention - reducing cognitive anxiety. 2) Reducing & controlling the physiological components of anxiety – reducing somatic anxiety.
  27. 27. Cognitive techniques for controlling anxiety Internal/external and stress• Imagery – by method of relaxing by creating mental images to escape the immediate effects of stress. The principle is to recreate an environment that is very relaxing. Mental Rehearsal• Visualisation – the process of creating a mental image of what you want to happen or feel, locking into the ‘perfect performance’. This diverts attention away from the cause of anxiety.
  28. 28. • Attention control – maintaining concentration on appropriate cues. This aims to improve the performer’s ability to focus on appropriate cues then the number of errors caused by other distractions is reduced.• Self-talk – developing positive thoughts about one’s actions. Is vital that self talk remains positive and focus on self-instructing motivational content.
  29. 29. Somatic techniques for controlling anxiety and stress• Biofeedback – information about the changes in physiological variables; the performer watches a monitor displaying changes in readings. E.G. heart rate, using a pulsometer or heart rate monitor.• Breathing control – using diaphragmatic breathing (breathing deeply) as a means of focusing on relaxation. Encourages full oxygen exchange, reduces the heart rate and lowers/stabilises blood pressure.
  30. 30. • Centering – using deep breathing as a way of refocusing your concentration. Requires the performer to focus particularly on the rate of breathing and maintaining a slow, steady pace.• Progressive muscular relaxation (PMR) – learning to be aware of the tension present in muscles and removing it by relaxing. This is done by alternating extreme tension that is held for a few seconds the releasing the tension to relax.
  31. 31. Goal SettingA technique used to control anxiety by directing attention away from stress and towards an achievable target.• Outcome goals – achievement of a particular result e.g. qualifying for the next round. Achievement will increase motivation but the performer cannot control the factors influencing the outcome e.g. officials, opposition and weather. Can lead to increase in anxiety if result is not achieved.
  32. 32. • Performance goals – the performer’s attempts are judged against others or even with themselves. E.G. achieving a certain time in a competition. Motivation will be maintained if not increased.• Process goal – concentrate on the performer’s techniques and tactics, process goals often influence performance goals. E.g. to perform a slower backswing during a bunker shot may well improve efficiency of the stroke.
  33. 33. Learning Outcomes• State the different types of anxiety• Describe the link between anxiety, arousal and performance• State ways in which anxiety is measured and analyse the pros and cons of different measures• Explain how different techniques are used to control anxiety