Sports injuries 2013

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  • 1. A2 PEInjuries and Rehab
  • 2. Learning Outcomes• Discuss which injuries can occur insports and exercise• Explain reasons why injuries mayoccur• Describe methods to avoid injuriesand aid recovery• Define DOMS and explain how itaffects a sports person’s performance
  • 3. Injuries• Injuries are part andparcel of playingsport or taking partin exercise.• Choose two sportsof your choice andlist as manypossible injuries thatmay occur in thosesports.
  • 4. Unavoidable?• With each of the injuries you’ve listed,decide whether they are avoidable orunavoidable.• Try to think of reasons why.
  • 5. • Avoidable • Unavoidable
  • 6. Prevention……..
  • 7. Injuries• Current studies suggest that 25% ofinjuries could be avoided if the athleteand their trainers took precautionsagainst them.• What basic precautions can differentsports people take?
  • 8. Specialist Equipment• In pairs, choose twosports and list allthe specialistequipment you canwhich is designed toreduce or preventinjuries in thesesports.• 5 minutes
  • 9. Protective equipment….• Include in thisshoes/boots• Ill-fitting shoes problem– skin splints. Hipinjuries, achilles issues,runner’s knee, blistersetc• Need to grip floor butnot restrict movementso injury occurs
  • 10. Weather appropriate clothing• Keep warm & dry • Keep cool
  • 11. Bracing and TapingCan be used toprevent ligamentinjuriesSupport weak joints
  • 12. Core strength/corestability training• Development ofdeep muscles• Give stability to thebody• Prevent injury
  • 13. Types of injury
  • 14. Soft Tissue Injuries• Any injury to muscle, skin,connective tissue or cushioningtissue.• Tears, strains, contusions(bruises), sprains, tendonitis, etc.• Most often, rest over a few weeksis enough to repair. More seriousinjuries can require surgery.• Most common: knee – patellatendon and worn cartilage.
  • 15. Hard Tissue Injuries• Broken bones, fracturesand some dislocations.• Several types offracture, from hairline tocompound.• Dislocations that occurdue to broken bones arehard tissue, whereas ifit’s due to a ligamenttear it’s a soft tissueinjury.
  • 16. Overuse and Malalignment• Most injuries can beattributed to analready existingproblem, either aweakness in amuscle or joint, or asmaller injuryelsewhere on thebody.
  • 17. Incorrect Preparation• 35% of injuries in the Premier Leagueoccur in the first 10 minutes of thesecond half.• Why?• Players spend 15 minutes sat downand are then expected to perform at thehighest level straight away.
  • 18. Incorrect Preparation• Several football clubs haveexperimented with having cyclingmachines in the dressing room athalftime and at the side of the pitchduring the game to allow players tokeep their heart rate and breathing rateat a ‘working’ level.
  • 19. Importance ofwarm-up and CooldownWork sheet
  • 20. Overtraining• Overtraining Symptoms –• Deep muscle soreness• Small nagging injuries that could turn intomajor injuries• Difficulty in raising HR to training level• Loss of appetite• Recurrent sore throat, depressed immunesystem• Interrupted sleep patterns.
  • 21. Overtraining Prevention• Allow recovery time – at least twostraight days during a trainingprogramme• Good nutrition – always restoreglycogen levels immediately aftertraining• Stop training if ill• Periodise your year into hard trainingand lower level training periods.
  • 22. Overtraining – children• Not mini-adults• Bodies still developing• Osgood-schlatter’s disease
  • 23. DOMS• Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness• How do you feel the day after astrenuous training session or a match?• During physical exercise, the musclefibres get torn and damaged.• Over the next 24-48 hours (dependingon the type of training and the intensity)the muscles will feel sore and tight asthey repair themselves.
  • 24. DOMS• Mostly occurs with hypertrophy orstrength training due to the eccentriccontractions that occur with thesetraining methods.• Whilst not an injury in itself, if not giventime to recover and rest, this musclecan easily become overtrained.
  • 25. Speeding up Recovery• Nutritional methods such as specificsupplementation (protein, glutamine, etc.) canhelp• Eating within 30min – Carbs (mix of HighGI/Low GI) and Protein – replenish energystores• Massage – keeps blood circulation (sameaction as muscular pump), more oxygen toarea and encourages movement of lactic acidout
  • 26. Compression clothing
  • 27. Recovery His supportive mate!
  • 28. Ice Baths• The theory is that the body thinks it’sunder attack causing it to:– Constrict the veins and arteries in thelimbs– This forces the blood from the extremitiesback into the body– The blood takes with it excess lactate andwaste products allowing the muscles torecover much quicker.– Reduces swelling from micro-tears inmuscles
  • 29. Treatment of injuriesR.I.C.E.• REST• ICE• COMPRESSION• ELEVATION
  • 30. Hyperbaric Chambers• The theory is that the moreoxygen that can be taken intothe body the more that will bediffused to an injured area.• A method of making the bodytake in more oxygen is to trainlightly in a Hyperbaric Chamber– a pressurised chamber whichcontains more oxygen than ispresent in the normalatmosphere
  • 31. HyperbaricChambers• Similar to the use ofan oxygen tent, theexcess oxygenseems to allow therecovery of injuriesand the dissipationof lactate muchquicker than ‘normal’methods
  • 32. Oxygen tents• But littleresearch tosupport claimsof benefits fromhyperbaricchambers oroxygen tents
  • 33. Cryotherapy• Using cooling measures to treat chronic and acuteinjuries• Chamber cooled with liquid nitrogen -110oC• Only there a few minutes• Protected from frostbite by socks, gloves and mouthand ear protection (and a swim costume)• Relief lasts 6-8 hours
  • 34. Specialised supportfollowing injury• No longer do nothing all way throughrecovery – rehab stage – get going….• Core-strength training• Water-based training• Physiotherapy and sports massage• Proprioceptive retraining – coordination ofbalance and joint positioning senses – balanceboard, hopping, balance drills
  • 35. Task• What do you understand by the termDOMS? (3 marks)• How do hyperbaric chambers help inthe rehabilitation of sports injuries? (3marks)• How does an ice bath help a performerto recover? (3 marks)
  • 36. Learning Outcomes• Discuss which injuries can occur insports and exercise• Explain reasons why injuries mayoccur• Describe methods to avoid injuriesand aid recovery• Define DOMS and explain how itaffects a sports person’s performance