SelfConfidence
“The most consistent difference
between elite and less successful
athletes is that elite athletes
possess g...
Self-Confidence
A

global term or general term

 “Belief

that one has the internal resources,
particularly abilities, t...
Self-Efficacy







Bandura put forward the notion that as people
become competent in particular skills and
situation...
Self efficacy is different from self
confidence.
 Someone may be generally self confident in
sport but when it came to pl...
Bandura Suggested:
People with High Self-Efficacy;
 Seek

challenges – approach behaviour
 Attribute success to internal...
Bandura suggested:
People with low Self-Efficacy;
 Adopt

avoidance behaviour
 Give up easily and become
anxious when ta...
Task










Vealey’s Theory of Sport Confidence
Bandura’s Theory of Self-efficacy
Your table will be allocated a ...
Bandura’s
Theory of SelfEfficacy
………..in more detail
Task 1


Write down 5 situations in sport where you
feel a low sense of self efficacy. How do
you account for these feeli...
Factors Effecting Self-Efficacy
Our expectations of self-efficacy depend
on 4 types of information:
1. Performance accompl...
Factors Effecting Self-Efficacy
2.

Vicarious experiences –
a)

b)

This refers to what we have observed
before. (Better i...
Factors Effecting Self-Efficacy
3.

Verbal persuasion –
a)

If we are encouraged to try a particular
activity, our confide...
Factors Effecting Self-Efficacy
4.

Emotional arousal
a)

Our perceptions of how aroused we are
can effect our confidence ...
Performance
accomplishments

Vicarious
experiences

Verbal persuasion

Emotional arousal

Efficacy Expectations

Behaviour...
 You

would like a
fellow student to
attempt a high
jump but he has
low self
confidence.
 Using Bandura’s
four factors w...
 Try

to give him initial success by
lowering the bar to start with or
using some flexi rope
 Demonstrate how it can be
...
How do we increase our
Self-Efficacy? - Summary
Bandura’s Self Efficacy Theory
Previous Accomplishments

1.


2.

Reminde...
Vealey’s Sport Specific
Model of Sport Confidence

Vealey defines sports confidence as
“the belief or degree of certainty
...
Sports confidence theory
Sports Confidence Theory measures 2 Factors
TRAIT SPORT CONFIDENCE
 Its

innate and
described as...
State Sports Confidence has immediate impact on
the skill which is to be performed e.g. determines
quality of the penalty ...
Sport Specific Model of Sports Confidence
1

Trait sport
confidence (SCtrait)

1

2

5

3

Positive results
increase trait...
Practical Example of Vealey’s Sport
Specific model of Sports Confidence.
1.

The sports situation is a cricketer going int...
3.

4.

The combination of the previous factors
(1) would determine the SC-state, which
in this case would be very high.
T...
4. Depending on how well the cricketer performed
(3) the following factors will be evaluated after the
match.

a. Results ...
5. If the outcomes of 3 and 4 were positive then
this will lead to an increase in trait confidence

6. If the goals that w...
EFFECTS OF
A SUCESSFUL
OUTCOME
1. Trait sports
confidence and
competitiveness will
increase

1. Trait sports
confidence an...
The variations in the levels of trait sports confidence
and competitiveness orientation produces the
following effect. . ....
Vealey’s strategies TO Improve
STATE SPORT CONFIDENCE
Mastery of Skill
This occurs when the skill has been acquired
and th...
Vealy’s strategies TO Improve
STATE SPORT CONFIDENCE
Social Reinforcement
Praise and approval from significant others,
par...
Self confidence/Efficacy links
to…………
Stress

and anxiety
Being ‘in the Zone’
Achievement
motivation (Nach)
Summary sheet
Use the template provide to produce a summary
sheet including:
 Definitions of Self-confidence, self-effica...
Extended task

 You

are the coach of an athlete who is returning
to training after a long period of injury and
rehabilit...
Self confidence and self-efficacy 2013
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Self confidence and self-efficacy 2013

  1. 1. SelfConfidence “The most consistent difference between elite and less successful athletes is that elite athletes possess greater self-confidence” (Gould et al.)
  2. 2. Self-Confidence A global term or general term  “Belief that one has the internal resources, particularly abilities, to achieve success”  “Rooted in beliefs and expectations”  (Advances in Sport Psychology, Thelma S. Horn, 2008)
  3. 3. Self-Efficacy     Bandura put forward the notion that as people become competent in particular skills and situations they develop a feeling of selfefficacy. Self-efficacy is self confidence in a specific situation. The expectation that they will be competent and successful in a particular task Self-efficacy can effect the choice of activity, the amount of effort expended and persistence at the task.
  4. 4. Self efficacy is different from self confidence.  Someone may be generally self confident in sport but when it came to playing golf which they weren’t particularly good at, they may have low self efficacy in that situation.  Self-Efficacy
  5. 5. Bandura Suggested: People with High Self-Efficacy;  Seek challenges – approach behaviour  Attribute success to internal factors such as ability and effort  The above would elevate confidence and increase expectation of success in next challenge  Where have we heard this type of description before??
  6. 6. Bandura suggested: People with low Self-Efficacy;  Adopt avoidance behaviour  Give up easily and become anxious when task is difficult  They attribute failure to internal factors  The above would decrease confidence and reduce expectation of success in next challenge and induce learned helplessness Mmm, where have I heard this before?
  7. 7. Task       Vealey’s Theory of Sport Confidence Bandura’s Theory of Self-efficacy Your table will be allocated a theory above to investigate You are to produce a colourful and interesting factsheet and prepare to teach another group about your theory You will have 30min to prepare and 15 min to produce your fact sheet Teaching your work will take 20 minutes and then you will feedback to your table about what you have learned (10 -15 min)
  8. 8. Bandura’s Theory of SelfEfficacy ………..in more detail
  9. 9. Task 1  Write down 5 situations in sport where you feel a low sense of self efficacy. How do you account for these feelings of low self confidence?  E.g.s   In football, a midfielder having to play in goal. A male having to play in a netball game.
  10. 10. Factors Effecting Self-Efficacy Our expectations of self-efficacy depend on 4 types of information: 1. Performance accomplishments – a) b) These probably have the strongest influence on self confidence. If success has been experienced in the past, then feelings of self confidence are likely to be high
  11. 11. Factors Effecting Self-Efficacy 2. Vicarious experiences – a) b) This refers to what we have observed before. (Better if performer is of same ability level) If we watch others perform and be successful, then we are more likely to experience high self efficacy.
  12. 12. Factors Effecting Self-Efficacy 3. Verbal persuasion – a) If we are encouraged to try a particular activity, our confidence in that situation may increase.
  13. 13. Factors Effecting Self-Efficacy 4. Emotional arousal a) Our perceptions of how aroused we are can effect our confidence in a particular situation.
  14. 14. Performance accomplishments Vicarious experiences Verbal persuasion Emotional arousal Efficacy Expectations Behaviour patterns Choice Goals Effort Worry Persistence Attributions Performance
  15. 15.  You would like a fellow student to attempt a high jump but he has low self confidence.  Using Bandura’s four factors which influence selfefficacy, state how you would try and raise the athlete’s self efficacy in this situation.
  16. 16.  Try to give him initial success by lowering the bar to start with or using some flexi rope  Demonstrate how it can be done, or if you are much better than him, use someone of a similar ability  Verbally encourage the athlete. Tell him that he should ‘have a go’. Tell him that to be worried is a natural, very positive response because it prepares the body well
  17. 17. How do we increase our Self-Efficacy? - Summary Bandura’s Self Efficacy Theory Previous Accomplishments 1.  2. Reminder of previous success in skill (practical) Vicarious Experiences  3. Watching others perform the skill Verbal Persuasion  4. Convincing athlete of their ability to perform the skill Emotional Control  Evaluation of physical state
  18. 18. Vealey’s Sport Specific Model of Sport Confidence Vealey defines sports confidence as “the belief or degree of certainty individuals possess about their ability to be successful in sport.
  19. 19. Sports confidence theory Sports Confidence Theory measures 2 Factors TRAIT SPORT CONFIDENCE  Its innate and described as a natural disposition  Relatively stable  Is the amount of confidence a person has in their overall sports ability STATE SPORT CONFIDENCE  Is the degree of confidence in a specific situation i.e. taking a penalty  Can be developed through learning and is unstable and changeable.
  20. 20. State Sports Confidence has immediate impact on the skill which is to be performed e.g. determines quality of the penalty kick. The degree of State Confidence is determined by the interaction of 3 factors: 1. Trait Sports Confidence 2. The objective Sports Situation 3. The performer’s Competitive Orientation The Objective Sport Situation Trait Sports Confidence Competitive Orientation State Sports Confidence
  21. 21. Sport Specific Model of Sports Confidence 1 Trait sport confidence (SCtrait) 1 2 5 3 Positive results increase trait confidence 4 The Sport Situation 1 Competitive Orientation State sport confidence (SCstate) Performance in the sport situation (behavioural responses) a)Results of Performance b) Subjective Outcomes c)Perceived Success d)Perceived attributions e)Performance satisfactions Positive results cause the type of goal to be changed for the next 6 performance
  22. 22. Practical Example of Vealey’s Sport Specific model of Sports Confidence. 1. The sports situation is a cricketer going into bat with the score at 250 for 1 (very good situation). 2. SC-trait = High confidence due to a high score in the previous game. 3. Competitive orientation = The batsman has an outcome goal of scoring 40 runs. If he gets any less than that he would consider it a failure.
  23. 23. 3. 4. The combination of the previous factors (1) would determine the SC-state, which in this case would be very high. The combination of 1 and 2 would determine how well the cricketer will perform. In this case the chances are that he will perform quite well considering the previous factors.
  24. 24. 4. Depending on how well the cricketer performed (3) the following factors will be evaluated after the match. a. Results of performance (was he successful or not according to his goal) b. Subjective outcome (How did other people rate the performance) c. Perceived Success (whether the goal was met or not, did he feel like he succeeded?) d. Perceived Attribution (Why did he perform well / badly. Was it internal / external reasons e. Performance satisfaction (Was he happy with the performance)
  25. 25. 5. If the outcomes of 3 and 4 were positive then this will lead to an increase in trait confidence 6. If the goals that were set in 1 were met, the cricketer will change the goal next time around. The cricketers last outcome goal was to score 40 runs. If he scored 80 in the previous innings then this goal would be increased to say 50 or 60. 7. If he failed to meet his 40 run target then this would stay the same for the next innings.
  26. 26. EFFECTS OF A SUCESSFUL OUTCOME 1. Trait sports confidence and competitiveness will increase 1. Trait sports confidence and competitiveness will decrease 2. Increased trait confidence will increase state confidence for future competition 2. Decreased trait confidence will decrease state confidence for future competition
  27. 27. The variations in the levels of trait sports confidence and competitiveness orientation produces the following effect. . . A Decrease in trait sports confidence and competitiveness will: An increase in trait confidence and competitiveness will: Depress state confidence Elevate state confidence Reduce self-efficacy Increase self-efficacy Makes the performer feel less confident Makes the performer feel more confident Causes avoidance behaviour Facilitate approach behaviour
  28. 28. Vealey’s strategies TO Improve STATE SPORT CONFIDENCE Mastery of Skill This occurs when the skill has been acquired and the performer perceives that progress has been made. Styling Confidence will increase if the athlete can demonstrate a highly skilled performance to significant others Physical and mental Preparation Will increase the likelihood of a successful performance
  29. 29. Vealy’s strategies TO Improve STATE SPORT CONFIDENCE Social Reinforcement Praise and approval from significant others, particularly in the context of strong team cohesion, will raise confidence Effective Leadership Promotes confidence in team members Environmental comfort People who lack self confidence will be helped if the working conditions are suitable, for example a novice should not be observed when learning a new skill.
  30. 30. Self confidence/Efficacy links to………… Stress and anxiety Being ‘in the Zone’ Achievement motivation (Nach)
  31. 31. Summary sheet Use the template provide to produce a summary sheet including:  Definitions of Self-confidence, self-efficacy and sport confidence  Bandura’s descriptions of people with high and low self-efficacy  Bandura’s model – applied to how to improve selfefficacy  Vealey’s model of sport confidence  Explain all the terms of Vealey’s model  Apply sporting example to terms  Vealey’s strategies to improve confidence
  32. 32. Extended task  You are the coach of an athlete who is returning to training after a long period of injury and rehabilitation. Discuss the strategies that could be implemented to help the athlete to regain confidence (6)  How will developing Self-efficacy and selfconfidence affect an athlete’s achievement motivation?  And how would effect how it affect an athlete’s attribution theory? (Use books and notes to research)
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