Characteristics and Objectives• Play• Leisure and Recreation• Active leisure• Outdoor and Adventurous activities• Sport• Physical Education
PLAY - characteristics Fun Spontaneous Fantasy world Characteristics No strict of Play structureAlthough fun can be serious Rules Changeable Intrinsic Value and negotiated
Play - objectivesChildren Adults• Test boundaries • Escape reality• Experience risk within safe • To be childlike limits • Creativity and fantasy• Socialisation• Promotes independence• Develops respect• Allows social interaction
Leisure• Used to be for privileged few – now essential for normal life• Done during FREE TIME• CHOICE• RELAXATION• ENJOYMENT
Recreation – “active positive and beneficial” – similar to leisure +• Refresh mind and body• Recuperate• “re-create” – be creative – participate in activities for self-fulfilment• Physical Recreation does all that through physical activity
Active Leisure• Physical recreation normally linked to sport• Sport – competitive – not everyone wants competition• Everyone does need physical activity for health benefits• Active Leisure – physically active in leisure time – jogging, swimming, aerobics walking• “Lifetime sports”
Outdoor and Adventurous Activites• Popularity increased in last 70 years• Government support• More availability
CharacteristicsOutdoor Recreation Adventure Activities• Activity done in natural • Same environment environment – woods, lakes • Element of challenge and• Not all outdoor recreation is risk adventure • All adventure activities considered outdoor recreation
Outdoor and Adventure education• Using natural environment as classroom• Children experience danger and risk in controlled manner• Benefits – Appreciate natural environment – Skills – map reading etc.. – Team work – leadership
Challenge and Risk• Difference between outdoor and adventure lies in the concept of challenge and risk• Adventure activities have an element of perceived or actual risk• Perceived risk – dependent on skills and experience and actions they take• Actual Risk – real danger – real risk – cannot be eliminated no matter how skilful
Risk• Risk relates to predictability• If risk is predictable it is avoidable – danger is subjective – linked to knowledge and expertise• At other end of scale a situation can be so unpredictable that danger is real and objective• Mortlock – experience – risk continuum page 131
objectivesOutdoor rec/education Adventure activities• Learn to appreciate natural • Excitement, thrill, fear environment • Self-reliance• Active leisure, lifetime sport • Self awareness/discovery• Experience beyond normal • Leadership routine • Team work• Escape from mundane • Trust
Urban adventure• Cost may prevent those from cities experiencing outdoor and adventurous activity• Overcome by using parks, canals, climbing walls• Free running has developed to use features in the city to experience the thrill of outdoor education
Sport• Major part of modern life – “new religion”• Sport England – 5 million people gave 1 billion hours to sport on a voluntary basis• Billion pound industry
Defining Sport• Coakley defines Sport as….• "Sports are institutionalized competitive activities that involve rigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively complex physical skills by participants motivated by internal and external rewards."
SportInstitutionalised Intrinsic/Extrinsic• Fixed competitive structures – leagues, cups- overseen • Why people play by governing body • Intrinsic – internal factors –• Standardised rules – set by enjoyment, satisfaction governing body• Rules enforced by officials • Extrinsic – external –• Strategies for play, training, medals, prizes, money, positions, equipment trophies, praise• Codes of conduct • Most people motivated by a combination of the two
Categories of sportBased on National curriculumactivities – and distinctive Games – sub divisionscharacteristic• Dance - aesthetic • Invasion - Football• Games - outwitting • Striking and Field - Cricket opponents • Combat - Judo• Gymnastics - replication • Target - Golf• Swimming and Water Safety • Net sports - Tennis• Athletic Activities – maximising speed or distance• Outdoor and Adventurous – challenge and risk
A sport is….• Competitive• Selective by ability and excellence• Serious – commitment needed• Requires physical endeavour• Organised• Involves “sportsmanship” – codes of conduct – fair play – morals• Is Darts a Sport?
FulfilDevelop sense potential challenge of fair play Show Release tension perseverance Objectives of SportWork with others Health Learn to accept Self esteem rules
socialisation Prevent anti-Create a social behaviourhealthier nation Benefits to EconomicFeelgood society benefits factor Improve Bring country international together relations
Over commercial – win at all costs Media – more Media – has too spectators than much influence – can players change nature of game Sport related problemsBad behaviour can Hooliganism influence youth Drug abuse
Physical Education - characteristics• “learning through the physical”• Formal body of knowledge with an educational philosophy• Learnt through experience of physical activity• Learning fundamental physical/motor skills• Learning rules, tactics and etiquette of a range of activities.• A means of developing positive social and personal values such as teamwork and cooperation.• To develop the ability to appreciate the quality of movement• To understand Health-Related Fitness• To develop a lifelong love and engagement with exercise, physical activity and sport.
How PE, Sport and Recreation overlap PE – learning how to serve in tennis Sport – playing Recreation – for the school playing tennis tennis at lunch time tournament
Physical activity continuum• Level of organisationPlay Leisure Physical Rec/Active Leisure Outdoor PE SportLeast organised most organised• CompetitionPlay Leisure Outdoor Physical Rec/Active Leisure PE SportLeast competitive most competitive
Benefits of Physical activity Stress reduction Learn about natural Improved fitness environment and health To Develop socialTeam working skills individuals relationships Self-fulfilment Make friends challenge
Improved health of the nation – reduce burden on NHS Reduce anti-social Economic benefits behaviour Benefits to societyShop window effect – highlevel performers enhance Personal development – reputation of country role models in society
Exam Questions• January 09 2a Mark scheme• June 08 1 Mark Scheme• June 08 2abc Mark scheme• June 08 4 Mark Scheme• Jan 08 1ab Mark Scheme• June 07 3a Mark Scheme
Leisure Provision• Physical Activity has major benefits to society in terms of health and the reduction of anti- social behaviour.• Provided by three sectors• Public• Private• Voluntary• What are the characteristics and goals of each?
Public Sector• Provided from taxation – local or national• Or through other forms of government or public support – e.g lottery.• Local authorities have responsibility for building and maintaining recreation facilities• Provided for the public good• Some user groups are subsidised
Joint and dual use – Funded by taxation and Facilities aim to break often partners with lottery even not to make profit schools Day to day Characteristics Aim to encouragemanagement may be of public under-representedby private company – sector groups DC leisure Run for the good of the community Subsidised for less well off Pay for entry and use
Private Sector• Commercial companies• Run for profit• Growing sector – many employment opportunities• Rapid expansion in last 20 years• High quality• Higher cost for membership• Exclusive
Profit motiveNo public service High quality remit Characteristics of private sector Cater for morewell-off members Higher admission of society prices
Covers whole range of Not-for-profitsport and leisure activity Players pay to play through match fees and subs Characteristics of voluntary sectorSurplus funds used to improve facilities orservices for members Support roles filled by volunteers Receive grant aid from Will hold fund raisers lottery, Sport England and Governing Bodies
Inequality of opportunity – advantages and disadvantages of each sector• Government keen to see • Inequality because.. more people physically • Some local areas poorly active for 3 reasons provided• Improved health – less • Individuals lack resources burden on the NHS • Not everyone aware of the• Reduce crime and anti- benefits social behaviour by • Social exclusion or engaging people in discrimination purposeful physical activity• Enhance community esteem and cohesion• 3 sectors because – one sector alone cannot achieve all this
How good is each sector at providing “sport for all” Private SectorAdvantages Disadvantages• React quickly to demand • Costs high• Meet individual needs • Restrictions – long waiting• Restrict membership – so lists – exclusive facility is rarely over- • Discrimination – rules to crowded prevent some people joining • Sport may suffer – thought only for certain types of people – tennis – middle class
Voluntary SectorAdvantages Disadvantages• Just needs enthusiasm • Unplanned and relatively• Huge range of activities uncontrolled – relies on goodwill• Exist for the benefit of the • No equal opps remit people • Continuity not guaranteed –• Voluntary efforts keep costs relies on voluntary low enthusiasm• Lots of financial support • No guarantee of financial from government support• Sponsors often keen to help • Can still be socially exclusive
Public SectorAdvantages Disadvantages• Required to act in the public • Funds often limited – may good not be enough• Resources allocated for this • Local authorities in purpose economically disadvantaged• Not driven by profit motive areas may have less to spend • Less financial freedom to borrow money to invest in facilities for the future
“Best Value” – improving the public sector• 1980’s introduced Compulsory Competitive Tendering (CCT) – Local authorities had to invite private companies to tender for the provision of local services. The best bid won the right to provide the leisure services for that area.• Replaced in 2000 with “Best Value”• Government policy aimed to improve local government services – including leisure and recreation – system operates around best value performance indicators – leisure services departments are inspected regularly and judged against criteria known as the 4C’s
4 C’s• Challenge – are councils doing as well as they can, compared to the best councils• Consult – do they ask local communities what they think• Compare – do they compare performance with other councils and the private and voluntary sector• Compete – have they demonstrated that they are managing the services in the best way possible.
Private Sector Local/Public Sector Small- medium size Multi-sport Specialist Outdoor Facilities Profit Dual use High Quality Social provision Recreation – Who manages what? Nat. government Voluntary Sector Department of Culture, Media and Clubs – amateur Sport (DCMS)Facilities – owned, leased, rented Recreational PolicyProvision for self +wider society Social Provision Sport England Lottery
The role of National Government• Department for Culture, Media and Sport• “playground to podium”• Sport England – one of the National sports Councils – primarily concerned with• Increased participation• UK Sport – development of elite performers
SPORT ENGLAND• Developing community sport and increasing participation nationwide• Major Policy – National Framework for Sport• Key Partners – NGB’s, Sport Equity Alliance, National Sport foundation to address inequality for some groups• Liase with – Youth Sport Trust and UK Sport to create structure from first experience to elite performance• Achieves objectives through local initiatives putting into practice national framework• Locally works with councils, schools and clubs• Allocates funding from taxation and the lottery to achieve objectives• Provides advice to local and national providers• Conducts research in levels of participation to find out why individuals participate or not• Works with other government agencies to promote wider social policies for community health and well-being
Exam Questions• Jan 09 4c Mark Scheme• Jan 08 4c Mark Scheme• June 07 2c Mark Scheme
National Curriculum PE and School Sport• PE is defined as ..• “a formalised body of knowledge and experience taught within educational establishments”• Relatively new subject – 100 years• Developed from two different strands• Public Schools (upper and middle class) – emphasised team games• State Elementary – health and fitness bias
Public School Sports (1800 -1870)• Upper Class• Bullying common• Large amounts of leisure time• Hunting, Gambling and drinking• Younger boys used as servants – “fagging”• Played games – “mob sports”• Considered violent by head-teachers• Some saw potential for games if controlled to channel boys energy• Thomas Arnold (Rugby School) used games as a form of “social control”• The importance of Leadership was emphasised – senior boys organised the matches• Schools began to play each other and became more important• Masters recognised the potential for more than just improving discipline• Promoted games, brought back old boys to coach – standards of play improved as did facilities and equipment.• Success on playing field a good way of promoting school
Fair Play• Games played with a strict code of conduct• Seen as a way of instilling moral qualities• Leadership, Discipline, Integrity, Loyalty, Bravery and Decision making.• Games played for the team not the individual• Ultimately the idea that games developed both the physical and moral side of an individual was given the term “Athleticism” – “physical endeavour with moral integrity”• This vision was used by De Coubertin when he created the modern olympic games in 1896
Codification• Games grew in popularity• More schools played each other• Schoolboys took games to university• Need to agree a common set of rules• Groups set up to settle disputes fore-runners of Governing bodies
Popular Rec Rational Rec •Regular Participation•Occasional – Feast Days •Complex rules•Few rules •Highly structured•Violent •Spectator based and•Force rather than skill participation•Participation •Refined skills rather than•Lower Class force •Middle/upper class•Local development•Limited structure •Regional/national •Sophisticated equipment
Rational Recreation 1850 - 1890• As games developed in public schools society was changing• Industrial revolution brought people to towns from the countryside – urbanisation• This led to..• Changed work patterns• Less space – cramped terraced housing• Move from seasonal time to machine time• 12 hour days six days a week – little leisure time• These all contributed to the decline of popular recreation but why did rational recreation take it’s place?
Rational Recreation – the middle class• Industrial revolution also created the new “middle class”• People who had profited from industrialisation.• Factory owners, Doctors, clergymen.• Wanted their children to experience the same sort of education as the upper classes.• Created own version of public schools• With team games and it’s values central to these schools• They wanted to pass these on to wider society because of the physical and moral benefits associated with team sports.• Factory owners created teams and facilities as did churches to encourage working people to participate.• They improved working conditions and gradually the standard of living of the working class improved. They had more money and with the advent of half-day Wednesday and Saturday more leisure time.• They hoped this would lead to a fitter and more moral society.• Most of today’s sports were created between 1860 and 1890• Rational Recreation was the name given to this new form of organised and regulated sport.
Social changes – that helped the development of rational recreation•Pre-industrial •Post-industrial•Seasonal Time •Machine Time•Limited Transport •Improved transport•Illiteracy •Business/Admin Skills•Harsh Rural Lifestyle •More civilized•Feudal System •Middle Class•Agricultural •Industrial•Uncivilized •Increased law and order•Lack of technology •Technological advancement
State School Education 1870 - 1940 Public Schools State Schools• Aims • Aims – Develop leaders of society • Education for the masses• Characteristics • Disciplined and obedient – Upper/Middle class workforce – Hierarchichal • Morals – Prefects • Characteristics – Single Sex • Small, cramped spaces• Physical Activities • Local and Free of charge – Team Games • Mixed Sex
Developments in State School Physical EducationDrill – boys only NCO’s • WHY?• Girls later • Health/Fitness• 1890 – Swedish Gym • Instil develop• Focus on therapeutic discipline/accept role benefits • Easy to implement• Teachers begin to • Military service takeover • Cheap • Little space required
The Model Course 1902• Military Drill • WHY?• Command-Obey • Health/Fitness• NCO’s • Instil develop• Sticks as dummy discipline/accept role weapons • Easy to implement • Military service • Cheap • Little space required
1904-1919 • Why?• How? • Improve health/physical• 1904 Swedish system development reinstated – therapeutic• Age/sex differences noted • Medical basis – preventative measure• 1909 – games introduced • Rehabilitation after WW1• 1919 – post WW1 • Increase enjoyment importance of recreation • Teacher uses more initiative • Control to Education board • Female PE teachers
• What? 1933 -1952 • Why?• 1933 Introduce group work • Encourage interaction• Moves towards between teachers and decentralisation pupils• 1944/post WW2 Child • Develop creativity centred approach • Discovery style• emphasis on skill • Teacher initiative• Apparatus/gyms • PE teaching developed• 1952/1954 moving and further growing/planning the • Influence of Dance programme - individualised movement - Laban
POST WW2 – Key words• Moving and Growing• Planning the Programme• Child Centred• Exploratory• Discovery• Obstacle• Movement• Recreative
1902 1909 1933 1954 Return to military 1909 Syllabus became Physical World War 2 saw a lead towards 1956 – new programme following Boer War Training Moving + Growing 1904 Syllabus moved 1919 Syllabus moved from PT away from military to PE with educational towards therapeutic. principlesIntroduction Right marker; fall in; Fall in in 2 lines; attention; Free running; signal – 1 large Running + leaping; stand at ease; attention; right turn; quick march; about ring; free running; signal 4 change speed; change right turn; march; halt; turn etc…then free gymnastic rings; free running; 4 lines direction; change shape; about turn; march; halt; running; halt; gymnastic twisting + turning left turn; stand at ease skipping; halt; stand at easeArms + Attention; arms bend; Attention; arms bend + In lines – elbow circling ; arms Pulling + pushing –trunk up; bend; forward; bend; stretch; x2; down; swing swing forwards+ backwards; pairs; obstinate calf; side; bend; down; stand forward; up + down; with leg cross leg sitting knee to ear; knee boxing; chinese at ease lunges – up + down; halt; lateral reach + twisting; stand boxing; pushing + stand at ease + touch ground; lying-hip pulling; tug-o-war; arm turning lock wrestling; crouch tug-o-warBody + legs Attention; double knee Attention; feet astride; trunk Running – statues; farmers Body curling + bend; onto hands- down; forward – bend; swing up with seeking rabbits; rabbits hopping stretching; forwards + leg stretches; arms bend arms raised; down + up; swing + crouch hopping; alternately backwards; lying + stretch; x2; knees sideways; bend sideways with still on signal alternatives; sitting bend; up; stand at ease arms raised; halt; stand at alternatives; kneeling ease alternatives; standing + twistingApplied Attention; astride with Jumping astride x2; with arms Class activity skills Supported jumps +work cross; forward, up, bend raising; halt; stand at ease Through vaults in 3s vaults in 2s + 3s down; x2; at ease exploring different alternatives. With dumb-bells; Catherine Wheel; 1st line arm Corner activities – Apparatus work. Twisting attention; swing raised; ready; cartwheel; Frog jump into hoops + turning on frame up+downx2; swing stand; 2nd line etc; return; Forward roll along mattress apparatus, boxes + up+through x2; halt; deep breathing; arms raising benches. Changing round stand at ease; halt; right on breathing; walk in lines back Through vault in 3s to new apparatus. turn; quick march back to class Handstanding in pairs to class Game hand tennis – 2 teams
National Curriculum• Education Reform Act 1988 introduced a National Curriculum with the aim of raising standards by centralising the decisions regarding what is taught in schools and making schools more accountable for their performance.• Since 1988 the National Curriculum has been revised several times most recently in 2008 when schools again were given more say over what they include in their curriculum.
New Secondary Curriculum• The latest version of the National Curriculum gives greater freedom to schools to decide what to include depending on the needs and interests of it’s pupils. All schools have a common goal to develop• Successful learners• Confident Individuals• Responsible Citizens• Every subject including Physical Education should be aspiring to achieve these goals. How this is achieved is down to individual schools.
Developing school-club links• “Social inclusion” is the driving force behind the government’s policy for Sport and physical activity.• Numerous documents have been published to outline how the government plans to use sport and physical activity in the fight against social exclusion.• A sporting future for all – 2001• Game Plan 2002 - 2 main objectives – – increased participation – Improved success at international level
High Quality Physical Education and School Sport• The better students experience of Sport and Physical activity at school the more likely they are to continue into adult life.• To achieve high quality the government has implemented a number of strategies• Sports Colleges – now over 400 – receive additional funding to promote good practice in their own and partner schools.• Youth Sport Trust is the lead body for Sports Colleges and is charged with helping them to deliver the PE and Sport Strategy for Young People (PESSYP) in partnership with Sport England
Exam questions• Jan 09 2bcd Mark Scheme• Jan 09 3abc• June 08 1 Mark scheme• June 08 3a• Jan 08 1bc Mark Scheme• Jan 08 3a• Jan 08 4a• Jun 07 1 Mark Scheme
Equal opportunities• Sport and physical activity are of benefit to individuals and society.• Equality of opportunity means that all individuals have the same chance to participate• Inequality of opportunity exists for some groups of people because of a number of barriers• Lack of opportunity• Lack of personal resources• Discrimination - stereotyping• Self-discrimination• Group or peer pressure
Who suffers from the barriers to participation?• Women• Ethnic Minorities• Disabled• Lower socio-economic groups
Gender - Reasons for lower participation of Women- Domestic Role- Social Stereotyping- Sport traditionally established and controlled by men- Less media coverage- Less money / power- Sexism – the belief that one sex is inferior to the other- Inequalities in sporting opportunities- Role models
ResearchTeenage girls – Sport England Muslim women – Womens Sport2006 Foundation 2006• Perceived lack of interest of • Negative experiences in friends schools• Family uninterested • Mixed groups – lack of• Concerns over weight and single sex groups appearance • Problems with dress code• Lack of self-confidence • Lack of positive role models• Lack of information about staying invovled
Solutions to Low Participation• EqualOpportunities - Suffragettes –Right to Vote– 1917 Sex Discrimination Act (1975)•Organisations - Women’s Sport Foundation•More Facilities for women•Better Links between Schools and Clubs•Increased Media Coverage•Health Related Activities in schools – broadercurriculum
Ethnic Groups• Group of people who share common origins• Cultural, religious, racial or linguistic.• Sport England research revealed differing levels of participation by different ethnic groups.• Certain minority ethnic groups are under represented.
Reasons for Low Participation- Home and family responsibilities- Lack of money- Work / study demands- Religious beliefs- NEGATIVE EXPERIENCES Racism – a set of ideas or beliefs based on the assumption that someraces have distinct characteristics that make them more superior toothers.
Solutions to the lower participation rates from ethnic minority groups• Sport Policies – Sporting Equals/CRE• Information• Clubs• Sports leaders / development officers• Media Coverage – role models• Campaigns to eliminate racism
Disability• Understand the effect of disability on opportunities for participation and the role of Disability for Sport England Disability – a term used when an impairment adversely affects performance Physical Sensory Mental
Categories of Disabled AthletesAmputee Includes athletes who have at least one majorjoint in a limb missing,Cerebral palsy A disorder of movement and posture due todamage to an area, or areas, of the brain that control andcoordinate muscle tone, reflexes, posture and movement..Intellectual disability Substantial limitation in intellectualfunctioning (an IQ of 70 or below), and two or more of thefollowing: communication, self-care, home living, socialskills, community use, self-direction, health and safety,functional academics, leisure and work and have acquiredtheir condition before age 18.
Categories of Disabled AthletesLes autres the others. A term used to describeathletes with a range of conditions which result inlocomotive disorders - such as dwarfism - thatdont fit into other classifications.Vision impaired Any condition which interfereswith normal vision.Wheelchair At least a 10% loss of function of theirlower limbs, e.g. traumatic paraplegia andquadriplegia, spina bifida, poliomyelitis, amputees,cerebral palsy and all non ambulant les autresathletes.
Disabled people are more likely to participate insome sports than others.• Which sports are these?• Why are disabled people more likely to participate in them? • Horse riding • Swimming • Sports that tend to organize events specifically for people with disabilities
Key Words Key questions Inclusiveness –all people should have their needs abilities and aspirations recognized, understood and met within a supportive environment Integration – able bodied and disabled taking part together in the same activity Segregated Activity – People with disabilities participating separately from able bodied.Which Sports can disabled athletes be integrated with ablebodied athletes?How can sports be adapted to enable disabled athletes toparticipate?
Adapted SportsTennis – wheelchair users are allowed to let the ball bounce twicebefore playing it.Wheelchair basketball – two pushes and one bounce replacesbouncing whilst travelling / dribblingSwimming – some technique rules can be more flexible for someclassifications and visually impaired people may need a tap on the headto let them know they’re nearing the end of the lane.
How can opportunities for people with disabilities be improved?- Raise awareness amongst the disabled about opportunitiesalready available- Raising awareness amongst the general public aboutdisability issues- Specialist training programmes for staff who’ll be involved- Make access to and within facilities more manageable
Disability Sport England Role - Promote participation in sport for people with all forms of disabilityAims:• provide opportunities• promote the benefits• support organizations providing opportunities• educate• enhance image, awareness and understanding• encourage development
Socio-economic Groups• Generally individuals from the lower socio-economic groups have poorer health and mortality rates therefore the benefits of physical activity are particularly important to this group. They are very likely to suffer from social exclusion as they have less power, less disposable income etc.• To help increase their levels of participation the following factors play an important role.• Attitudes – they can afford sports. Need to change attitudes of other classes to the lower class – see them as equals• Awareness – lower classes need to be taught how to be physically active – be provided with facilities and knowledge of what they can do• Adaptation and modification – adapt rules /prices of clubs etc to enable less fortunate to play sports• School PE – integration of different classes within PE at schools – schools target disadvantaged• Access – facilities – clubs – can different classes play together?• Funding – government investment programmes to help lower classes afford sports – provide more ‘free’ provision.
Exam Questions• Jan 09 3d Mark Scheme• June 08 2cd Mark Scheme• June 08 3b• Jan 08 3b Mark Scheme