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Deviance and violence in sport
 

Deviance and violence in sport

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WJEC Deviance

WJEC Deviance

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    Deviance and violence in sport Deviance and violence in sport Presentation Transcript

    • Contemporary Influences Affecting Provision, Choice, Participation and Performance in Physical Activity Section B Examined by one 20 mark question from a choice of 2
    • Socio-cultural and economic factors that affect opportunity, participation, provision, attitudes and values Deviance in Sport
    • Lesson Obs: 1. Define and explain the terms gamesmanship and sportsmanship with examples 2. Explain the contract to compete giving the 3 components of morality in sport it upholds 3. Explain the terms positive, negative and relative deviance giving examples in a sporting context 4. Name 4 possible causes of deviance in today’s society
    • “If you can meet with triumph and disasters and treat the two imposters just the same”. Rudyard Kipling – Wimbledon statue Batting on a sticky wicket Being on the ropes The final hurdle Our culture puts sport on a pedestal and our sporting heroes are influential role models. Millions watch sport on the TV – Olympics, World Cup, Premiership matches, F1 But sometimes are sporting heroes let us down….
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    • When we enter in to a sporting situation we enter in to an unwritten moral contract with the others involved. (Pledged verbally at the Olympics)
    • Contract to compete An unwritten code governing how to strive to play fairly, within the rules Sportsmanship Conforming to the rules, spirit and etiquette of a sport Based on the C to C we expect performers to: 1. Try their best 2. Show sportsmanship 3. Respect rules and officials The spirit of the contest Concept based on a deep UK culture – the Victorian ideas of fair play, amateurism, athleticism, respect for opponent, taking part not winning etc
    • Fair play Character Sportsmanship Three components of morality in sport Allowing all participants an equal chance – acting towards other performers in an honest, straightforward, dignified manner – assumes respect of team mates, opponents and officials Refers to values and habits that determine the way a person reacts to fears, challenges, failures and success – typically seen as polite behaviours – helping an opponent up, shaking hands
    • Overtime a more negative ethic has invaded sport involving for example: 1. prize money, 2. Gamesmanship 3. The idea that winning is everything 4. The use of drugs Gamesmanship – bending the rules – often seen as time wasting in some sports 1. Pressure to win increased in modern times – pressures can lead to deviant behaviour 2. Sometimes performer lacks morals or ethical restraints that might govern their behaviour 3. Pressure increase as the importance of the occasion increases 4. Will also increase with age potentially Some pressures are external – outside control of performer – demands from sponsors, the intrusion of media, expectations of organisers/crowd, demand from coach/team mates
    • Functional actions in sport – within the contract to compete: 1. Returning the ball to the opposition after an injury break 2. Clapping the opposition after losing 3. ‘walking’ in cricket 4. Clapping the opposition’s century 5. Exhausting yourself in the attempt to win 6. Lending the opposition a player if they are short 7. Admitting fouls
    • Dysfunctional actions in sport 1. Arguing with the referee 2. Appealing for a throw when you know it’s not yours 3. Deliberately fouling to prevent good performance 4. Diving in a game to gain a foul 5. Tying laces to get a rest 6. Using drugs Reasons why this behaviour is contrary to the contract to compete: •Acts of violence is outside the rules of the activity and outside the characteristics, etiquette and ethics of the activity •In general violence will deprive the victim of free and fair opportunity to win •Violence is often against the law •Some games will allow violence if mutually agreed, accepted limits, and in some sports within the rules – e.g. boxing
    • Deviance Dysfunctional actions in sport From Latin – De (from) via (way)
    • Deviance could be: Voluntary e.g. performer decide Co-operative e.g. the performer decides to take drugs because all his friends are doing so Enforced e.g. a former East German swimmer took drugs because her coach gave them to her
    • Deviance: behaviour that falls outside the norms with in society or outside what is deemed to be acceptable Also behaviour of spectators, managers, coaches and officials Behaviour of players Breaking the laws of sport v breaking the laws of society Sport can be seen as a subsection of social behaviour
    • Types of deviance Sports sociologist Jay Coakley (1992) considered 3 types of behaviour: Positive deviance: Behaviour that is outside the norm but with no intention to harm or break rules – overconforming to what is expected Normal Negative deviance: Behaviour that goes against the norm and has a detrimental effect on individuals and on society in general – underconforming to what is expected Normal distribution for this behaviour
    • Positive deviance: Behaviour that is outside the norm but with no intention to harm or break rules – overconforming to what is expected E.g. oAn individual who trains or plays so hard they injure themselves oBehaviour that can lead to a disruption of normal life oPlay when they are injured Deviance but their actions are for positive reasons: They are striving to win or to improve within the ethical guidelines of the activity Although deviant can be seen in a positive light Could argue that a player who is striving to win within the rules and etiquette of the sport and who accidently and without intent injures another player is also exhibiting positive deviance
    • Negative deviance: Behaviour that goes against the norm and has a detrimental effect on individuals and on society in general – underconforming to what is expected Behaves in a way that knowingly and intentionally breaks the rules and ethics of sport e.g. Using performance enhancing drugs Cheating within a contest – deliberately fouling another player Being bribed to influence the outcome of a match (e.g. Pakistan cricket scandal) Fan violence or hooliganism Illegal betting on the outcome of a contest Financial irregularities in the transferring of players Player violence Gamesmanship e.g. diving in football, sledging in cricket
    • Relative deviance: Deviant behaviour that is not acceptable in wider society but may be deemed to acceptable by those involved in a sub-culture Some behaviour acceptable in sport but not in wider society? e.g. use of fists in rugby (hidden in scrum or otherwise Players deem this acceptable as long as violence doesn’t breach an unwritten limit BUT gouging & biting completely off limits Sport often likes to deal with things in house But police less and less willing to turn a blind eye
    • Deviance and the contract to compete Whether or not the behaviour is viewed within a sporting context is determined by whether or not it breaks the contract to compete.
    • Don’t strive to win or try to loose – negative deviance Not trying to win fairly – cheating or unacceptable physical contact e.g. biting – negative deviance Expected to allow opponent fair and free change to win – taking drugs or bribing an official does not allow this – negative deviance Using tactics, strategies and skills that you use to stop an opponent within the expectations of the activity – Relative deviance
    • Concept of relative deviance and the contract to compete are closely linked Concept increasingly challenge but the media and society in general Both imply that somehow sport exists within its own moral subculture
    • Rewards of winning so great that a large number of individuals may be prepared to cross the line. (May be particularly true of positive deviance) Causes of deviant behaviour Individual lacks moral restraint to keep to code of conduct Individuals may value winning above the loss of respect or punishment that may occur Deviant behaviour may be becoming less socially unacceptable and cause less negative comment than in the past NGBs may feel less able to punish due to power of commercial interests or fear of being taken to court by performer who they punish
    • Is deviance more prevalent in some sports than others? • Common feature in some sports e.g. cycling, athletics • No sport is immune – ‘bloodgate’ scandal in rugby
    • Lesson Obs: 1. Define and explain the terms gamesmanship and sportsmanship with examples 2. Explain the contract to compete giving the 3 components of morality in sport it upholds 3. Explain the terms positive, negative and relative deviance giving examples in a sporting context 4. Name 4 possible causes of deviance in today’s society
    • Lesson Obs: 1. Describe at least 3 causes of hooliganism and 3 methods used to combat it 2. Explain the impact of hooliganism and player violence has on those involved, on sport and on wider society 3. Explain why violence between players may occur and how it is dealt with by managers/coaching staff/NGBs
    • Violence in sport Violence between players Violence among spectators
    • Two ways this generally occurs: A spontaneous outburst A premeditated and planned action Cause of violence between players: Most violence occurs as an aggressive act – refer to sport psychology notes In summary, aggressive behaviour may be caused by: •Innate •Frustration •Loss of identity (follow the actions of the crowd) •Social learning – imitating others Within some teams they have a well-known characters (enforcers), whose role it is to physically intimidate the opposition or to act in retaliation on behalf of others Drugs, gamesmanship taken too far, hyping-up, presence of spectators, unacceptable aggression, acts against the law
    • Dealing with violence between players Responsibility of individual performers, team managers or coaches and the NGBs An NGB may take a range of actions: •Ensuring that match officials and their decisions are supported when dealing with violent behaviour of players •Punishing players post match •Being prepared to use post-match video evidence •Upholding players with a good disciplinary record as role models •Using ‘fair play’ awards to reward clubs with good disciplinary records •Training officials in player management and how to defuse situations between players NGBs keen to diminish violence – so sport’s reputation is not damaged NGBs like to deal with violence themselves but more involvement from legal system evident
    • Important that leaders, managers,, coaches, captains set a good example and set the tone for their teams as they have a great responsibility for player conduct. To ensure good player behaviour they could: Set a good example themselves before and during contests Establish a clear code of conduct and expectations Criticise or punish players who fail to meet the code of conduct; play substitutes in their place Praise or promote those players who set a good example Where possible, ensure that players who have a low flash point are kept away from high stress situations Stress appropriate behaviour in team talks Understand each individual player’s level of arousal and try to avoid overarousal Train players to manage their own level of arousal Avoid an attitude of winning at all costs.
    • Hooliganism
    • Hooliganism: anti-social or aggressive/violent behaviour by people in a group of spectators Suggested causes: • Fans drink too much alcohol • Local derby/high tension between rival fans • Pre-match media hype • Poor officiating • Diminished responsibility within a large crowd/depersonalisation • The team being supported is losing • Poor crowd control/poor policing – crowd confinement • Religion Solutions: • Control alcohol sales • All seater stadiums • Improve policing (numbers increase)/segregation of fans • Stewards • Increase family concept • CCTV • Penalties/bans • More responsible media reporting • Kick racism out of football campaign
    • Hooliganism - Causes Ritualised behaviour – expression of masculinity – a rite of passage ……..may be some explanation but goes beyond this A form of tribal behaviour? Membership granted if prove yourself. Group perceive protecting their local area/patch ……Not always locals, supporters of fans in other sports don’t do this Tension on pitch – violence between players – or poor ref decision can all trigger passionate fans ………………………may be but doesn’t affect all fans or in all sports An outlet for young working class males – feel restricted by the constraints of an increasingly ‘safe’ society ………counterargument – not all hooligans are working class, not all young men feel need to engage in this behaviour Some football groups infiltrated by extreme political groups …….true of a minority but cannot account for all Change in fan base from just working class to include middle class (bourgeoisification) and increased unemployment, loss of trad W/C jobs, boredom – a reaction to this? …..may be but although balance has changed…all hooligans not working class
    • Hooliganism - Causes Ritualised behaviour – expression of masculinity – a rite of passage ……..may be some explanation but goes beyond this A form of tribal behaviour? Membership granted if prove yourself. Group perceive protecting their local area/patch ……Not always locals, supporters of fans in other sports don’t do this Tension on pitch – violence between players – or poor ref decision can all trigger passionate fans ………………………may be but doesn’t affect all fans or in all sports An outlet for young working class males – feel restricted by the constraints of an increasingly ‘safe’ society ………counterargument – not all hooligans are working class, not all young men feel need to engage in this behaviour Some football groups infiltrated by extreme political groups …….true of a minority but cannot account for all Change in fan base from just working class to include middle class (bourgeoisification) and increased unemployment, loss of trad W/C jobs, boredom – a reaction to this? …..may be but although balance has changed…all hooligans not working class Close rivalry between fans – local derbies can inflame fans passion – particularly when sensationalised by media …….may be but other sports have rivalries and some of these fans sit together to enjoy the match ULTIMATELY…….. Impossible to identify just one cause Seen as multi-causal – each reason adds to over overall understanding
    • Effectofviolenceonindividuals, sportandwidersociety 1. Violence brings a sport in to disrepute 2. Damages ability to encourage children, young people and families to participate 3. Parents will not allow their children to be involved in a sport where their well-being will be put at risk 4. A similar reaction is going to happen if poor behaviour occurs at local matches Effects:  Fan violence leads to poor treatment of legitimate fans and supporters  i.e. held in grounds until home fans gone, herded through streets with suspicion and distrust (particularly abroad)  Career ending tackles as a result of deliberate fouls  Individual players may miss chance for international recognition if team restricted from playing in some competitions  Huge cost – FA/Club pays some – local police pay rest – tax money spent on this instead of other issues Reputation of country damaged – poor behaviour abroad can effect national morale effect of achieving international success (just as easily as the lift this can bring)
    • Strategiestocombat hooliganism: Prevention of known hooligans travelling to matches – banning orders – having to report to police stations during match time Control of alcohol – bans in grounds, on terraces, local pubs shut Segregation of fans – travelling and within grounds All-seater stadiums – better control of movement within ground and control of ticket sales Improved levels of police and stewards (and training) CCTV with face-recognition software Sharing police intelligence/UK officers travel abroad to share knowledge Not allowing players to make gestures to crowd or take any action Responding to poor behaviour by banning or removal from competitions, fines, playing matches away or behind closed doors Use by FA of high profile role models to appeal for better supporter behaviour (‘Kick racism out of football’)
    • Lesson Obs: 1. Describe at least 3 causes of hooliganism and 3 methods used to combat it 2. Explain the impact of hooliganism and player violence has on those involved, on sport and on wider society 3. Explain why violence between players may occur and how it is dealt with by managers/coaching staff/NGBs