Specialised Training
Topics to cover• Plyometrics• PNF stretching• Altitude training• Glycogen Loading• Periodisation• Thermoregulation• Lactat...
Learning Objectives• Explain plyometrics• Explain PNF stretching………..
Plyometrics• This is a method of training for powerthat uses rebounding techniques andworks on the principle that more pow...
• As an athlete lands from a jump. hop or bound, their quadriceps(thigh) muscle contracts eccentrically therefore pre-load...
Topics to cover• Plyometrics• PNF stretching• Altitude training• Glycogen Loading• Periodisation• Thermoregulation• Lactat...
PNF• Proprioceptive NeuromuscularFacilitation• One of most effective methods offlexibility training• One method – Contract...
PNF – how it works• Works by autogenic inhibition• Initially stretch reflex prevents overstretch but....• Golgi tendon org...
Topics to cover• Plyometrics• PNF stretching• Altitude training• Glycogen Loading• Periodisation• Thermoregulation• Lactat...
A2 PEAltitudeTraining
Learning Outcomes• Define altitude and explain how altitudeaffects the gas balance of the air.• Discuss and explain the ef...
What is Altitude?• Anywhere more than 1’500metres above sea level isclassed as high altitude.• Burnley is 118M above seale...
Partial Pressure• The pressure exerted by a single gas in a mixture ofgases.• (The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and...
Drop in PartialPressureIncrease in PartialIncrease in PartialPressurePressure
Effects of Altitude1. Decrease in pO2 inalveoli = Hypoxiadue to decrease inpO2 inatmosphericpressure2. Decrease in thepO2 ...
Heamoglobin•Athletes that live high and compete low (atsea level where there is normal O2 in theair) have increased carryi...
Effects of Altitude• Colder air increases water loss, as airwarms & moistens in the lungs, leading todehydration• Decrease...
The Pressure Gradient• At rest the pO2 of arterial blood is approx 100mmHgwhile in the resting muscles and tissues is 40 m...
Adaptation to Altitude• Many endurance athletes often undertake aperiod of altitude training before a majorevent.• This is...
Methods of Training• Any training at a higher altitude thanyour body is used to.• Restricting the amount of air the bodyca...
The Oxygen Tent, hyperbaricchamber & Hypoxia Training
The Cardiovascularand respiratorysystem becomesmore efficient in theway it utilises O2and Haemoglobin.Adaptations
Stages of Adaptation• Acclimatisation – 3-10 days. The athlete’sbody is beginning to adjust and the athleteneeds longer re...
Stages of Adaptation• Recovery – 2-5 days. Training isgradually decreased to allow theathlete to return to sea level witho...
Secondary Stages ofAdaptation• Positive phase – during the first 1-4 daysafter returning to sea level. Huge increase inthe...
Secondary Stages ofAdaptation• Fitness peak – 15-20 days after thereturn to sea level.• This is the optimal time for compe...
– Speed, power, endurance and recovery• Optimally: Live HIGH, train LOW– This is tough because it’s a long way up anddown ...
Spanner in the works• Contradictory researchhas shown that it ismore beneficial to trainat sea level if you are apermanent...
Advantages and Disadvantages• Improves enduranceperformance.• Causes adaptationof the cardio-respiratory systemto fuel wor...
Legal/Fair Methods?
Topics to cover• Plyometrics• PNF stretching• Altitude training• Glycogen Loading• Periodisation• Thermoregulation• Lactat...
Respiratory Exchange Ratio• The RER is a method of measuring whichfuel is being used by the body duringexercise – the resp...
Respiratory Exchange Ratio• RER at rest – 0.8• RER whilst fat is the energy source –0.7• RER whilst fat and carbohydrate a...
Lactate Sampling
Topics to cover• Plyometrics• PNF stretching• Altitude training• Glycogen Loading• Periodisation• Thermoregulation• Lactat...
Task• Which athletes would benefit from altitudetraining?• Try to think of what competitions they couldtake part in and wh...
Exam question• Discuss the suggestion that altitudetraining always improves performancein endurance events and explain the...
Exam Question• Elite athletes must develop and maintain extremelyhigh levels of fitness to maximise their chances ofwinnin...
Learning Outcomes• Define altitude and explain how altitudeaffects the gas balance of the air.• Discuss and explain the ef...
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Altitude training - PNF - RER - Plyometrics

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Altitude training - PNF - RER - Plyometrics

  1. 1. Specialised Training
  2. 2. Topics to cover• Plyometrics• PNF stretching• Altitude training• Glycogen Loading• Periodisation• Thermoregulation• Lactate sampling• RER
  3. 3. Learning Objectives• Explain plyometrics• Explain PNF stretching………..
  4. 4. Plyometrics• This is a method of training for powerthat uses rebounding techniques andworks on the principle that more poweris generated following a pre-loading orpre-stretching of a muscle.• Imagine pre-stretching an elasticband before letting it go!
  5. 5. • As an athlete lands from a jump. hop or bound, their quadriceps(thigh) muscle contracts eccentrically therefore pre-loading or pre-stretching the muscle. If they immediately take off from this landing,a greater force can be generated by the muscle.• In theory………..• A greater height can be jumped from a drop-jump• Than from a normal 2 footed take off
  6. 6. Topics to cover• Plyometrics• PNF stretching• Altitude training• Glycogen Loading• Periodisation• Thermoregulation• Lactate sampling• RER
  7. 7. PNF• Proprioceptive NeuromuscularFacilitation• One of most effective methods offlexibility training• One method – Contract-relax,antagonist contract (CRAC)
  8. 8. PNF – how it works• Works by autogenic inhibition• Initially stretch reflex prevents overstretch but....• Golgi tendon organ in muscle tendon isalso stimulated and this overrides thestretch reflexes and relaxes the muscle
  9. 9. Topics to cover• Plyometrics• PNF stretching• Altitude training• Glycogen Loading• Periodisation• Thermoregulation• Lactate sampling• RER
  10. 10. A2 PEAltitudeTraining
  11. 11. Learning Outcomes• Define altitude and explain how altitudeaffects the gas balance of the air.• Discuss and explain the effects of trainingat altitude on athletes.• Discuss methods of altitude training andhow these can affect athletes positively andnegatively.• Define and explain Respiratory ExchangeRatio
  12. 12. What is Altitude?• Anywhere more than 1’500metres above sea level isclassed as high altitude.• Burnley is 118M above sealevel• The higher you go thethinner the air because themolecules of air are less.• The % of gasses within theair remains constant(20.93% O2 0.03% CO2,79.04% N)• Additional oxygen requiredthe higher you go.
  13. 13. Partial Pressure• The pressure exerted by a single gas in a mixture ofgases.• (The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine)• pO2 = partial pressure of oxygen• The normal pressure of the atmospheric gases:• 760mmHg and there is 21 percent oxygen,• Partial pressure of oxygen is 760 x 0.21= 160 mmHg.
  14. 14. Drop in PartialPressureIncrease in PartialIncrease in PartialPressurePressure
  15. 15. Effects of Altitude1. Decrease in pO2 inalveoli = Hypoxiadue to decrease inpO2 inatmosphericpressure2. Decrease in thepO2 causes areduction in thediffusion gradient3. Decrease in O2and Hb association4. Resulting in decreaseO2 transport in theblood5. Causing a reduction inoxygen available tomuscle6. Leads to - DecreasedVO2 max, reduceaerobic capacity,decrease aerobicperformance andincrease onset ofmuscle fatigue
  16. 16. Heamoglobin•Athletes that live high and compete low (atsea level where there is normal O2 in theair) have increased carrying capacity of O2and consequently greater O2 delivery totissues. This increases aerobic performanceand speeds up the recovery process,because…………
  17. 17. Effects of Altitude• Colder air increases water loss, as airwarms & moistens in the lungs, leading todehydration• Decrease in muscle O2 chemoreceptorsstimulating respiratory centre to increasebreathing rate = hyperventilation• Long term effect – decrease pO2 increasedHb and RBC production which increasesexternal respiration and O2 transport
  18. 18. The Pressure Gradient• At rest the pO2 of arterial blood is approx 100mmHgwhile in the resting muscles and tissues is 40 mmHg.- The difference indicates the pressure gradient andensures the efficient movement of oxygen from theblood to the muscle.• At altitude the pO2 of arterial blood drops significantlyis approx 60mmHg while that in the muscle remainsconstant at 40mmHg.• This reduction in the pressure gradient reduces themovement of oxygen into the body’s muscles andthe performance decreases.
  19. 19. Adaptation to Altitude• Many endurance athletes often undertake aperiod of altitude training before a majorevent.• This is because the body adapts byincreasing red blood cell mass andhaemoglobin levels which will cope withlower pO2.• The return to sea level brings with them theenhanced oxygen carrying capacity whichmeans that because the pO2 has increased,the body can utilise more oxygen givingimproved endurance performance.
  20. 20. Methods of Training• Any training at a higher altitude thanyour body is used to.• Restricting the amount of air the bodycan take in whilst training.• Performance enhancing drugs• And………………..
  21. 21. The Oxygen Tent, hyperbaricchamber & Hypoxia Training
  22. 22. The Cardiovascularand respiratorysystem becomesmore efficient in theway it utilises O2and Haemoglobin.Adaptations
  23. 23. Stages of Adaptation• Acclimatisation – 3-10 days. The athlete’sbody is beginning to adjust and the athleteneeds longer rest between work outs andmust not take part in too much exhaustivework.• Primary Training – 1-3 weeks. Over thisperiod the athlete steadily increases theirtraining intensity and frequency until it is atthe same point as at sea level.
  24. 24. Stages of Adaptation• Recovery – 2-5 days. Training isgradually decreased to allow theathlete to return to sea level without thefatigue associated with altitude training.• There are also three distinct stages tothe adaptations once the athlete hadreturned to seas level.
  25. 25. Secondary Stages ofAdaptation• Positive phase – during the first 1-4 daysafter returning to sea level. Huge increase inthe amount of haemoglobin in the blood.• Return phase – the athlete steadily returns tothe intensity and frequency of their normalsea level training. Performance will be poorat first and then increase greatly over thenext several days.
  26. 26. Secondary Stages ofAdaptation• Fitness peak – 15-20 days after thereturn to sea level.• This is the optimal time for competition.The body’s adaptations are at theoptimal level and the athlete will haveadjusted to these changes allowing thebest possible performance.
  27. 27. – Speed, power, endurance and recovery• Optimally: Live HIGH, train LOW– This is tough because it’s a long way up anddown the mountain to get 8000ft down andback up.• More Common: Live HIGH, train HIGH– Also tough because training intensity isimpaired by the altitude. Athletes are also at-risk for altitude sickness.Many studies have shown thebenefit of altitude training on:
  28. 28. Spanner in the works• Contradictory researchhas shown that it ismore beneficial to trainat sea level if you are apermanent resident of ahigh altitude area.• The higher the pO2, thehigher the oxygencarrying capacity of theblood, up to 150% sowhen you return toaltitude you have moreoxygen in your body toperform better.
  29. 29. Advantages and Disadvantages• Improves enduranceperformance.• Causes adaptationof the cardio-respiratory systemto fuel workingmuscles.• Expensive• Can cause altitudesickness• May hinder the amountof training ability.• Problems may cause ade-training effect.• Unfair advantage topeople with access tothese facilities• Stressful constanttravelling and beingaway from home.
  30. 30. Legal/Fair Methods?
  31. 31. Topics to cover• Plyometrics• PNF stretching• Altitude training• Glycogen Loading• Periodisation• Thermoregulation• Lactate sampling• RER
  32. 32. Respiratory Exchange Ratio• The RER is a method of measuring whichfuel is being used by the body duringexercise – the respiratory quotient (RQ).• Gives a value of the ratio between theamount of oxygen used by the body andcarbon dioxide produced.• The higher the number the more cO2 isbeing exhaled.
  33. 33. Respiratory Exchange Ratio• RER at rest – 0.8• RER whilst fat is the energy source –0.7• RER whilst fat and carbohydrate arethe energy source – 0.85• RER whilst carbohydrate is the primaryenergy source – 1.0 and above.• RER when the body is nearingexhaustion – 1.1
  34. 34. Lactate Sampling
  35. 35. Topics to cover• Plyometrics• PNF stretching• Altitude training• Glycogen Loading• Periodisation• Thermoregulation• Lactate sampling• RER
  36. 36. Task• Which athletes would benefit from altitudetraining?• Try to think of what competitions they couldtake part in and where they would take place.• Try to think of ways that an athlete who livesat low altitude could train to compete at highaltitude.• What are the supposed benefits of altitudetraining? (4 marks)• Why is altitude training not always aseffective as it should be? (3 marks)
  37. 37. Exam question• Discuss the suggestion that altitudetraining always improves performancein endurance events and explain thefactors that contribute to aperformer’s VO2 max. (14 marks)
  38. 38. Exam Question• Elite athletes must develop and maintain extremelyhigh levels of fitness to maximise their chances ofwinning. Elite athletes may use the results fromlactate sampling and the respiratory exchange ratio(RER) to ensure that their training is effective.• Explain the terms lactate sampling and respiratoryexchange ratio. (4 marks)• How may hyperbaric chambers aid injuryrehabilitation? (3 marks)
  39. 39. Learning Outcomes• Define altitude and explain how altitudeaffects the gas balance of the air.• Discuss and explain the effects of trainingat altitude on athletes.• Discuss methods of altitude training andhow these can affect athletes positively andnegatively.• Define and explain Respiratory ExchangeRatio
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