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Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013
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Achievement motivation and motivation a2 2013

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PDF Doc of presentation for WJEC A Level PE on Achievement Motivation including the Cognitve Evaluation Theory

PDF Doc of presentation for WJEC A Level PE on Achievement Motivation including the Cognitve Evaluation Theory

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  • 1. A2 Physical Education Motivation and Achievement Motivation
  • 2. Remind ourselves of the definitions:  Drive and desire needed for continued effort.  External stimuli and internal mechanisms that arouse and direct behaviour Two parts:  Inner drive – comes from our own satisfaction and need to do task  External rewards – what we want to win Types of Motivation  Intrinsic – comes from within – pride satisfaction – can be promoted by achieving personal goals.  Extrinsic – outside source – tangible and intangible Definitions of Motivation
  • 3.  Early research suggested that intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are addictive so more the merrier.  However some research suggested that extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation.  We need to look at one particular theory on this…………………. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
  • 4.  CDT suggests that anything that effects a persons perception of competence and self- determination will ultimately effect their intrinsic motivation. (Deci 1975) Cognitive evaluation theory A theory developed by Deci according to which extrinsic rewards are perceived to be either informational or controlling
  • 5.  CDT suggests that anything that effects a persons perception of and will ultimately effect their intrinsic motivation. Keywords explained To function effectively or be effective or have a level of skill Being in control - autonomy
  • 6. Perceived locus of causality (external) Cause of behaviour lies outside the person Intrinsic motivation decreases Positive Information of competence Increased perceived competence Intrinsic motivation increases Negative information of competence Decreased perceived competence Intrinsic motivation decreases Perceived locus Of causality (internal) Cause of behaviour lies inside the person Intrinsic motivation increases Informational aspect of a reward Controlling aspect of a reward
  • 7. Perceived locus of causality (external) Cause of behaviour lies outside the person Intrinsic motivation decreases Perceived locus Of causality (internal) Cause of behaviour lies inside the person Intrinsic motivation increases Controlling aspect of a reward Cognitive evaluation theory L of C – what causes a person’s behaviour
  • 8.  If reward outside and controlling behaviour then this reduces intrinsic motivation. I.e. controlled by pressure to win or only playing for the money, to conform to coaches demands and expectations.  Athlete becomes in the position of a pawn who is acted upon.  People who are intrinsically motivated feel they do something for themselves - they are self-determined. - increases intrinsic motivation. Control aspects of reward
  • 9.  A 10 year old boy agrees to run 5 mile race with his Dad.  As a further incentive to training – Dad promises him a sum of money  Boy refuses a second go at the race with his father the following year – because he says “what’s in it for me?”  Why did the boy lose interest? Because he perceived that the primary reason for running was the money – money controls his behaviour.  Not doing it for intrinsic fun factors Example……..
  • 10. 6 controls used by coaches that undermine intrinsic motivation: 1. Tangible rewards 2. Controlling feedback e.g. A coach who only gives negative feedback and not positive 3. Excessive personal control e.g. A coach who interacts with athletes in an authoritative manner, commanding them to do things 4. Intimidation behaviours e.g. Coaches who uses the threat of punishments to push athletes to work harder 5. Promoting ego-involvement e.g. Coach evaluation an athlete's performance in front of their peers 6. Conditional regard e.g. A coach who says things to make a athletes feel guilt - you let me down Research suggests……..
  • 11. Positive Information of competence Increased perceived competence Intrinsic motivation increases Negative information of competence Decreased perceived competence Intrinsic motivation decreases Informational aspect of a reward
  • 12. If an external reward provides feedback that increases a person’s sense of competence and self- determination – this leads to an increase in intrinsic motivation Informational Aspects
  • 13.  A 13 year old girl competed in a singles tennis competition and won an award for accomplishment  The certificate stated – “in recognition of your placing in the top ten of the City Tournament”  This is positive feedback about her performance giving the girl a feeling of competence and self- determination  Increased intrinsic motivation – goes on to play several more tournaments. Example……
  • 14.  That every external reward has two aspects – o Controlling aspect and informational aspect  A change in locus of control from internal to external is associated with a loss of self-determination and control  Not the actual strength of the reward but the perceived strength of the controlling or informational aspect that makes the difference  The theory indicates the potential danger of rewards but also highlights the information value they give – rewards that give positive feedback on ability often lead to greater intrinsic motivation C.E. Theory – Key points Links to reinforcement
  • 15.  If an athlete perceives the locus of causality as internal then this promotes intrinsic motivation e.g. Sport and exercise programmes that provide individuals with opportunities for input about choice of activities, personal goals, team objectives - results in higher intrinsic motivation.  Informational aspects of rewards - information that effects how competent we feel. E.g. Receiving most valuable player award reinforces someone's opinion on their competency.  In summary for a reward to be successful they need to be about specific levels of performance or behaviour.
  • 16.  If a coach is always negative in their approach an athlete can internalise this negativity as negatives about their value and worth and this can lower intrinsic motivation.  Third major element of CET is whether an athlete perceives a reward as controlling or informational e.g. Giving trophies to recognise a reams or individuals achieves may seem good but depends in whether an athlete perceives this as information on their competency or controlling their behaviour. In general perceived choice ads positive feedback bring out informational aspects whereas rewards deadlines and surveillance make the controlling aspect more noticeable.  Example of wrestling student performer who was given lots of control and positive feedback but still lacked intrinsic motivation because father had forces him to join team.
  • 17.  “an individual’s motivation to strive for success, which enables the individual to persist even when he or she meets obstacles and perhaps failure” (Woods, 1998, P2)  Motive to achieve success defined as: “the capacity to experience pride in accomplishments”  Motive to avoid failure defined as:”the capacity to experience shame in failure” (Gill, 2000, p104) Achievement Motivation
  • 18. Personality Factors Motive to achieve success Motive to avoid failure Situational Factors Probability of success Incentive value of success Resultant Tendency Approach success Avoid failure Emotional Reactions Focus on pride of success Focus on shame of failure Achievement Behaviour Seek out achievement situations Look for challenges Enhanced performance Avoid achievement situations Avoid risk (Challenges) Perform poorly = =
  • 19. High achiever Low achiever Motivational orientation High motivation to achieve success Low motivation to avoid failure Focuses on the pride of success Low motivation to achieve success High motivation to avoid failure Focuses on shame and worry that may result from failure Attributions Ascribes success to stable and internal factors Ascribes failure to unstable and external factors Ascribes success to unstable and external factors Ascribes failure to stable and internal factors within one’s control Goals adopted Usually adopts task goals Usually adopts outcome goals Perceived competence and control Has high perceived competence and believes that achievement is within own control Has low perceived competence and believes that achievement is outside own control Task Choice Seeks out challenges and able competitors and tasks Avoids challenges; seeks out very difficult or very easy tasks and competitors Performance conditions Perform well in evaluative conditions Performs badly in evaluative conditions Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Weinberg, Daniel Gould
  • 20. n.Ach n.Af Seeks challenges Standards are important Persists for longer Values feedback Enjoys evaluation situation (likes to be tested) Not afraid of failure Takes responsibility for own actions Optimistic Confident Task goal – orientated Attributes performance to internal factors e.g. Success = effort failure = lack of effort Avoids challenge – takes easy option Dislikes 50 – 50 situation Gives up easily Does not like feedback Dislikes evaluation situations Performs worse in evaluation situations Avoids personal responsibility Blames failure on external factors e.g. “The rain is effecting my vision” or “I don't play well on this surface” Pessimistic Low confidence Takes a long time over a task Outcome goal orientated Personality component: Comparison of a n.Ach & n.Af
  • 21. Development of AM (Veroff, 1969) Autonomous Competence Stage Social Comparison Stage Integrated Stage
  • 22.  Begins around Age 5-6.  A child focuses directly on comparing directly his performance with others  Who is faster, bigger, smarter and stronger? Veroff, 1969
  • 23. Before age of 4 Child focuses on mastering their environment and on self-testing Veroff 1969
  • 24.  Integrates previous 2 stages  Person who fully masters this stage knows when it is appropriate to compete and compare and when to adopt self-referenced standards  No typical age for entering this stage Veroff 1969
  • 25.  If we can recognise the stage a child is in – the better we understand the child  We must aim for all to develop to an integrated stage  Must teach young people when to compete and when not to.  Coaches and parents must make sure young people are not confronted with repeated failure  Importance of winning is de-emphasized  Success is viewed in terms of effort and improvement Implications for coaching young children
  • 26.  encourage independence and reinforce a child’s efforts at becoming independent  Be warm and encouraging to their children  Comfort and support their children when setbacks, fear and discouragement occur  Expect their children to be able, competent and responsible  Demonstrate confidence in their children’s ability by resisting the urge to take charge  Allow and expect many trials for a child to master a task – appreciate the small steps  Applaud success  Pay attention to their child’s efforts. Listen to problems. Pay attention Parental role (Summary of research) Parents should:
  • 27.  Allow early success  Raise self-efficacy (sport specific self-confidence)  Attribute success internally and failure externally  Use rewards and reinforcement  Promote intrinsic motivation with personal goals  Show successful, attainable role models  Redefine failure  Control arousal with relaxation techniques Developing AM
  • 28.  Martens suggested that the motive to success combined with the motive to avoid failure leads to a measure of competitiveness.  Competitiveness made of 3 parts:  Competitiveness (working towards success)  Win orientation (working to win competitions between individuals)  Goal orientation (Desire to reach personal goals)  Gill (1986) defines competitiveness as a sport-specific form of achievement motivation. It is linked with an athlete's win orientation (the desire to win interpersonal competitive sporting events) and goal orientation (the desire to reach personal goals in sport).  Males score higher on competitiveness  Females score higher on goal orientation Competitiveness (Martens, 1976)
  • 29. Defined as the motive to avoid failure within a sporting context Competitive Trait Anxiety
  • 30.  Clearly the more confident you are and specifically the more self-efficacy you have in a particular situation the more likely you are to show approach behaviour  Therefore display a Nach personality  Confidence and Self-efficacy is our next topic Link to Self-confidence and Self-efficacy
  • 31.  Define achievement motivation and competitiveness and explain fully, using examples, different motives that athletes may hold Exam Q – June 2011
  • 32.  Q.1 (a)Define achievement motivation and competitiveness and explain fully, using examples, the different motives that athletes may hold. [4]  Achievement motivation can be defined as an individual's drive to strive for success. It is viewed as an aspect of personality (and therefore, stable) and also situation-specific (Atkinson, 1964).  Athletes are fuelled by this achievement motive to seek out success and avoid failure and are prepared to defeat others in pursuit of reaching their individual goals.  Gill (1986) defines competitiveness as a sport-specific form of achievement motivation. It is linked with an athlete's win orientation (the desire to win interpersonal competitive sporting events) and goal orientation (the desire to reach personal goals in sport).  McClelland and Atkinson (1953) model of achievement motivation proposes that athletes hold two different motives: the motive to achieve success (NAch) and the motive to avoid failure (NaF).  Athletes with a high motive to achieve success will seek out challenges, show high levels of persistence, value feedback (both positive and negative) from others and enjoy performing in situations where they may be evaluated by others. They will not be afraid of failure. Attacking players tend to be NAch whilst defenders tend to be NaF although this is very generalised.  Athletes with a strong motive to avoid failure tend to worry about their performance, avoid risk and tend to avoid situations in which they may be judged. They prefer to play against opponents that they know they can beat easily (and thus guarantee success) or where defeat is inevitable (and so failure cannot be attributed to them and their ego can be protected).  Appropriate examples of each motive will need to be offered and explained.  Some candidates may discuss extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and ego and task orientations. Credit should be given for this providing the response is discussed in detail.  [1+1+2 for discussing motives]

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