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Motivation and Achievement motivation

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  • 1. Motivation & Achievement Motivation
  • 2.  Define motivation and describe types of motivation and give examples in sport List 4 main motives as to why people participate in sport Explain achievement motivation List traits of a Nach and NAF person Explain terms approach behaviour and avoidance behaviour Explain factors that determine Nach and Naf behaviour Explains benefits of goal setting linked to motivation Set a SMART target
  • 3.  Write 5 things on the board that motivate you? Motivation concerns our inner drives to achieve a Yes now! goal and external pressures and Get out of your seat and write! reward
  • 4. Draw backs to extrinsic rewards? Addictive Extrinsic principal – extrinsic used to boost intrinsic Tangible or intangible rewards e.g. medals badges, prizes or praise and statusMost successful when linked toperformance improvements e.g. Contigentswimming badges, karate belts rewards
  • 5. More important as get olderAssertiveaccomplishment More males than females i.e. accomplishments of personal challenges
  • 6. „A person who has high levels of achievement motivation would have a tendency to strive for success, persist in the face of failure and experience pride a accomplishments.‟ (D.Gill) DO YOU KNOW ANYONE LIKE THIS?
  • 7.  Murray (1938) first used the term achievement motivation and indentified a performers need for achievement as being linked to their personality.  Competition is described as a ‘achievement situation’; in other words a the performer is putting themselves in a situation where they have the potential to succeed or fail, but still a situation whereby achievement can be measured. Achievement can still take place in non – competitive situations.  In either situation; there are still people that are more willing to put themselves into the ‘achievement situations’ and can be labelled as ‘achievement orientated’.
  • 8.  Where have we heard the term Interactionist before? What do you expect Atkinsons approach to be?
  • 9. You have been playing tennis for four years at your local club.Your next league match is tomorrow… YOU vs. Serena Williams
  • 10. Atkinson recognises just as a performers personality (made up of trait characteristics) will effect performance; so will the situation the performer finds themselves in (Interactionist).He claims that a performer will weigh up: The probability of success The incentive value of that successIf you were playing a singles match against Rafael Nadal: What is the probability of success? What is the incentive value of that success?
  • 11. There are two parts to this approach:Personality SituationalNeed to achieve (N.Ach) Probability of successNeed to avoid failure (n.Af) Incentive value of success
  • 12. n.Ach n.Af
  • 13. n.Ach n.AfSeeks challenges Avoids challenge – takes easyStandards are important optionPersists for longer Dislikes 50 – 50 situationValues feedback Gives up easilyEnjoys evaluation situation (likes Does not like feedbackto be tested) Dislikes evaluation situationsNot afraid of failure Performs worse in evaluationTakes responsibility for own situationsactions Avoids personal responsibilityOptimistic Blames failure on externalConfident factors e.g. “The rain is effectingTask goal – orientated my vision” or “I dont play well on this surface”Attributes performance to Pessimisticinternal factors e.g. Success = Low confidenceeffort failure = lack of effort Takes a long time over a task Outcome goal orientated
  • 14. n.Ach n.Af• accepts challenges •AVOID RESPONSIBILITY•Task persistent •TAKE AN EASY OPTION•Quick and efficient •GIVE UP AFTER FAILURE•Take risks •AVOID EVALUATIVE•Welcome feedback and SITUATIONSevaluation•Take responsibility forown actions•Try harder after failure• attribute successinternally•Approach behaviour
  • 15. If a performer displays a high motive to achieve (n.Ach) they will tend to have „approach behaviour‟ Approach behaviour: the performer is motivated to attempt challenging situations even if they may fail.If a performer has a low motive to achieve and is concerned about being evaluated (n.Af) they may have „avoidance behaviour‟. Avoidance behaviour: the performer is motivated to protect their self – esteem and will avoid situations where they may be evaluated. WHY IS IT IMPORTANT FOR A COACH TO ENCOURAGE APPROACH BEHAVIOUR?
  • 16. Achievement motivation is a measurement of what drives us to succeed or hang back/play safe.Achievement strives to answer questions such as: Why is it that some performers achieve and some do not? Why are certain performers driven to be more successful than others?
  • 17.  Can you think of a performer who you would describe as having that n.Ach characteristic‟s? OR Can you think of a situation in sport which would display whether you are a risk taker (n.Ach) or you hang back/take the easy option? (n.Af)
  • 18. GolfYou are teeing off and there is a water between your tee and the green.Do you play the ball short and sacrifice a shot? Play it safeORDo you attempt to drive the ball over the water to the green?
  • 19. Areyou a n.Ach or an.Af?
  • 20.  In sport motivation to succeed not always present. Approach may differ to different sports Therefore Naf or Nach depends on: Past success Importance and possibility experience of task of future success Motivation Confidence Personality Competitive trait anxiety levels
  • 21.  Allow early success Raise self-efficacy (sport specific self-confidence) Attribute success internally and failure externally Use rewards and reinforcement Promote intrinsic motivation with personal goals Show successful, attainable role models Redefine failure Control arousal with relaxation techniques
  • 22. http://192.168.0.4:8080
  • 23. Alleviate anxiety and stressIncrease confidenceMotivate!
  • 24.  Directing attention – learning focused Regulate effort Sustain effort Motivate Provide feedback
  • 25.  S – Specific to situation and performer M – Measurable A – AGREED between coach & performer/ACHIEVABLE R – Realistic (achieveable) T – Timed E – Evaluated R – Recorded
  • 26.  Use of SMART. Marks are only to be awarded if the answer is directly linked to a target within the chosen activity. - Target must be specific - improve shooting X - run for longer X - more accurate passes a. Specific - Directly related to their sport/activity/outcome they want to achieve b. Measurable - Objective aspect that can be measured e.g. KGs, seconds etc. c. Achievable - Within reach/attainable d. Relevant - At the correct level for the performer, challenging e. Time-Phased - Set time to achieve the goal including short and long term objectives f. Evaluated - Self assessment and review of goals either during or at the end of the time agreed g. Recorded - Records kept of training to monitor goals, enables accountability h. Agreed - Shared with other parties e.g. coach, other team members i. Positive - Motivational/exciting and not negative in any way 3 x 1 marks * must have example
  • 27.  a. Improve motivation b. Improve self confidence / s elf esteem c. Help control arousal levels d. Focus on specific aspects of performance e.g. weaker areas e. Specific technical/tactical/physical aspects can be focussed upon f. Feeling of success/achievement can be experienced g. Can regulate effort on specific aspects of performance h. Comparisons with previous goals be made. i. Monitor performance.  4 x 1 or max of 2 x 2 for amplification
  • 28.  Define motivation and describe types of motivation and give examples in sport List 4 main motives as to why people participate in sport Explain achievement motivation List traits of a Nach and NAF person Explain terms approach behaviour and avoidance behaviour Explain factors that determine Nach and Naf behaviour Explains benefits of goal setting linked to motivation Set a SMART target