A level PE Info processing, memory and reaction time
A Level PE Information Processing
Information Processing Describe how information is transmitted through the peripheral and central nervous system. Use a HIP model to analyse sports performance. Use of memory and different memory stores.
Human Information Processing Being skilled is not always enough. Need to be able to select the appropriate skill. Task – In pairs time each other to read the lists and note down the time. Were there any differences? Why What information did you need to process?
Task In pairs using the sport of your choice, give a practical example of what is happening at each stage of Whiting’s or Welford’s model. Compare your example with another pair to check your analysis
MEMORY Memory is important for information processing, particularly when we rely on our previous experiences It is important in determining the motor programme chosen to send information to the muscles Memory can be divided into three components:
Short Term Sensory Store All stimuli enter the STSS but remain for a very short time; 0.25 – 1 second The STSS has a very large capacity It acts as a filter The perceptual mechanism determines which information is relevant and attention is focused towards this. This is the recognition aspect of perception Irrelevant information is filtered out, leaves the STSS and is quickly replaced by new information The filtering process is known as selective attention The process of focussing on the important and ignoring the irrelevant also helps us to react quickly It is, therefore, very important to be able to recognise relevant cues
SSTS-improving efficiency EXPERIENCE – an experienced volleyballer knows which cues to look for when blocking AROUSAL – the more alert you are the more likely you are to select relevant cues, e.g.. In tennis an alert player is more likely to notice the speed, spin and direction of the ball QUALITY OF INSTRUCTION – beginners do not know which cues are relevant. Teachers/ coaches can direct attention to the correct cues INTENSITY OF STIMULUS – the effectiveness of the senses when detecting speed, sound, size, shape, colour etc.
Short term memory Referred to as the ‘work place’ Incoming information is compared to that stored in the ltm Has a limited capacity: 5 – 9 pieces of information for approximately 30 seconds The number of items can be increased by ‘chunking’ The period of time can be extended by repeating/ rehearsing the information Information considered important is rehearsed or practised and passed to the long term memory – this process is known as ‘encoding’
LONG TERM MEMORY Holds information that has been well learned and practised Its capacity is thought to be limitless Information is held for a long time – perhaps permanently Motor programmes are stored in the LTM as a result of practice – this is why you never forget how to swim or ride a bike even if you have not done so for a long time. The LTM is the recognition part of the perceptual process when the stored information in the LTM is retrieved and compared to the new information which is then recognised
Strategies to improve retention andretrieval REHEARSAL/ PRACTICE –carries the skill to and fro between the STM and LTM establishing MEANINGFUL – if the learner considers a memory trace. Elite performers practice their information relevant it is more likely to be skills until they have been ‘over learned’ / remembered ‘grooved’ and become automatic CHUNKING – items of information are more ASSOCIATION/ LINKING – new information easily remembered if grouped together should be linked with that previously learned UNIQUENESS – if information is presented e.g. Sports specific skills linked with in an unusual or different way it is more fundamental motor skills – javelin throw linked likely to be remembered with overarm throw ENJOYMENT – if the learner is having fun SIMPLICITY – new information should be kept simple, more complex information can be added the experience is more likely to be later. Avoid teaching similar skills at the same remembered time as may interfere with each other. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT – praise and ORGANISATION – A trampoline sequence encouragement when learning can aid should be learned in the order movements will retention. This can also be motivational and be performed includes rewards such as badges and IMAGERY –mental picture aids memory. certificates Demonstrating skills allows a performer to create an image of the movement
Reaction Time Reaction Time Movement Time Response Time How are they linked? REACTION TIME + MOVEMENT TIME = RESPONSE TIME
100m race• 0.2 seconds to react to the gun,• 12 seconds to run the race,• Total response time of 12.2 secondsTennis Serve• See serve going to your left and deciding to go that way takes about 0.2seconds,• Moving to intercept and play the return shot takes a further 0.3 seconds• Total response time of 0.5 seconds
Little experiment…….. Time your partner organising the cards in to the following sets: Colours (Red and black) In to suites (Diamonds, Clubs, Hearts, Spades) In to suites and in order (Ace, 2, 3…..Jack, King, Queen) Discuss why there was difference in response time.
Types of Reaction Time Simple - One stimulus with only one correct response e.g. reacting to a starters gun by beginning to run down the track towards the finish Choice - Either, several stimuli, which may have any number of possible responses Or, one stimuli with a number of possible responses
Hick’s Law The more stimuli that there are, the longer it will take to choose the correct response Hick’s Law (1952) “Choice reaction time is related to the amount of information that must be processed to resolve uncertainty about the various possible stimulus response alternatives”
Strategies – shortages of time Anticipation Fake – how does this work? Door thing……