The ruins of Berlin's Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church. It was bombed by the Allies and is preserved today as World War II monument. As Europe enters the 20th century, powerful forces such as nationalism, colonialism, and industrialization plunge the continent into two world wars. NEXT Unit 4 Europe: War and Change
What caused the creation of European Empires? NEXT Section 1 European Empires
The Spread of Nationalism New Ideas Sweep Europe • Late 1800s rise in nationalism —strong pride in nation, ethnic group occurs. — ethnic people share languages, & traditions European Empires Constitutional Monarchies • Nationalism is fueled by people’s ability to vote - citizens strongly support, defend governments they elect • By 1900, many nations are constitutional monarchies - have monarch whose power is limited by an elected ruling body
The Defense of Colonial Empires • Early 1900s is period of colonialism - many Western European countries have Asian , African colonies. - Colonies supply raw materials for production, markets for goods - Nations spend money on armies, navies to defend colonies, borders The Spread of Nationalism NEXT Map
Austria-Hungary • Most Western, Northern European nations are industrialized by 1900 • Austria-Hungary is largest Eastern European empire in 1900 - dual monarchy —one ruler governs two nations - includes parts of Romania, Czech Republic, & Poland The Spread of Nationalism
During the first half of the 20th century, European countries fight each other over land, wealth, and ideals. NEXT Section 2 Europe at War
The World at War World War I Alliances • To defend themselves, countries join alliances - agreements among people, nations to unite for a common cause - members promise to defend each other if any of them are attacked Europe at War NEXT Continued . . . What is the PROBLEM with Alliances ? One event could drag all countries involved… …
World War I Alliances
• World War I begins when Archduke Franz Ferdinand is murdered in 1914
U.S. enters war when German submarines sink its merchant ships
Outcome of WWI:
• Allies (France, U.K., Italy, & U.S.) win
22 million die
Europe is devastated
The World at War NEXT
In 1917, Russia monarchy was overthrown by Russian Revolutionaries led by Lennon. Why?
They were upset over food shortages and being involved in the war.
Russia had suffered great losses fighting Germany.
NEXT A Costly War • Allies blame Germany for much of killing, damage of war • In 1919, Germany, Allies sign Treaty of Versailles - forces Germany to pay for damage to Allies, give up valuable territory Europe After World War I: Outcomes
• In 1930s, Germany is still paying damages, economy is ruined • In 1933, Adolf Hitler, is elected through the National Socialist (Nazi) Party • Nazi Party believes in fascism: - strong, central government controlled by military & led by dictator - extreme patriotism, nationalism, racist beliefs World War II How did Hitler Rises to Power?
Hitler and the Nazi Party • Hitler blames Jewish Germans and other ethnic minorities for the nation’s problems. - Nazis send Jews, & others to concentration camps= Holocaust millions are deliberately killed. • Hitler invades Poland in 1939, beginning World War II - invades: Belgium, Netherlands, France, Denmark, Norway, USSR (June 1941) WWII Alliances • U.S. enters war when Japan bombs Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in late 1941
Allies emerged victorious but at a horrible price.
Fifty million lives lost.
European landscape devastated.
Bombs laid waste to large portion of continent.
The Marshall Plan: to help rebuild Europe after WWII in 1948
It provided financial aid to Western Europe
Ruler of Steel: Communist leader • Joseph Stalin rules after 1924 East Against West NEXT Soviet Control of Eastern Europe • Puppet governments do what they’re told by an outside force • Eastern Europeans vote, but have one-party system - all parties other than Communist Party are outlawed - citizens can be jailed for stating views their leaders don’t like
The Five-Year Plans • Under Stalin, government controls every aspect of life • Five-year plans are economic goals - government decides what goods to produce Soviet Agriculture • In 1930s, peasants are moved to government-owned collective farms • Workers, families face food shortages NEXT
East vs. West
The Strongest Nation in Europe
• Political differences creates invisible Iron Curtain between EAST vs. WEST
The USA/Western Europe are mainly: constitutional monarchies and democratic governments.
The USSR (Soviet Union) are mainly: command economy with communism government.
Both wanted to be the most powerful nation in the world.
Europe After World War II
The Birth of NATO
NATO is formed as a defensive alliance in 1949 to prevent Eastern bloc countries from expanding into Western Europe
In response to NATO, the Soviet Union protects against invasion of the West by forming the Warsaw Pact.
-a military alliance between Eastern bloc countries.
The Cold War
Four-Decade (40 years) Standoff:
• After WWII, NATO and Warsaw nations no longer trade, or cooperate
U.S., Western Europe fear spread of communism and form NATO .
Both East and West develop nuclear weapons, but did not use them for fear of global destruction.