Teachers – It would be a good idea to have more than one group to read each component of the treaty (political, military, reparation) and Germany’s response. The wording of the document is difficult, but not impossible. The activity is intended to be more rigorous. However, students are not expected to understand everything in their section. The students only need to get an idea of the types of requirements made by the Treaty of Versailles. If you have multiple groups do the same topic, it would probably be a good idea to let these groups share before they share with the group. This part of the lesson can be cut short or extended depending on how the teacher wants to share the information.
Students write information on the Major Developments in Europe After WWI sheet
Do a Word Splash with students brainstorming what they think the world was like after World War I. This discussion should lead to soldiers coming back with no jobs available; European cities damaged because of war; nations had war debt to repay. Ask questions such as what about Germany and their economy; what about other countries that lost land, did this impact them; what happened to cities during the war and how would this impact them after the war ended
After discussing how soldiers returned but they could not find jobs, play the 1900’s song “Stony Broke in No Man’s Land” for a few minutes and have the students describe the issues
Students should add important information to Major Developments sheet. You may want to do the Germany After World War I handouts before moving to the rise of Nazism.
Students should add important information to their Major Developments sheet
Causes of world war i
Essential Question: How did World War I (WWI) change Europe and the world? (SS6H7a)
Standard: SS6H7a Describe major developments following World War I: the Russian Revolution, the Treaty of Versailles, worldwide depression, and the rise of Nazism
Activating Strategy: Watch and listen to the clip about Europe after World War I and discuss the questions below. http://www.the-map-as-history.com/demos/tome03/index.php Why do you think Russia signed a treaty to get out of World War I early? How did the map of Europe change after World War I? How do you think these changes affected people in Europe?
Causes of World War "The Great War was without precedent ... never had so many nations taken up arms at a single time. Never had the battlefield been so vast…never had the fighting been so gruesome..."
Causes of World War I (Take notes on graphic organizer) <ul><li>M ilitarism – building up armed forces, getting ready for war </li></ul><ul><li>A lliances – agreements or promises to defend and help another country </li></ul><ul><li>I mperialism – trying to build up an empire (powerful country that controls several less powerful countries </li></ul><ul><li>N ationalism – having pride in your country, willing to defend it </li></ul>
M ilitarism <ul><li>There was fierce competition over land in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Armies and navies were greatly expanded. The standing armies of France and Germany doubled in size between 1870 and 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>Naval expansion was also extremely competitive, particularly between Germany and Great Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia wanted to expand its land and gain access to warm water ports. These ports would give the Russian navy the Mediterranean Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Germany began a military buildup and increased its navy </li></ul>
Distributed Summarizing With a seat partner, discuss a time in your life when an alliance (with a friend, family member, or someone else) has caused problems.
I mperialism <ul><li>Great Britain, Germany and France needed foreign markets after the increase in manufacturing caused by the Industrial Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>These countries competed for economic expansion in Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Although Britain and France resolved their differences in Africa, several crises foreshadowing the war involved the clash of Germany against Britain and France in North Africa. </li></ul>
N ationalism <ul><li>Pride in one’s country; nations sought their own interests over others </li></ul><ul><li>In the 19 th century, nationalism took the form of people struggling for independence </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia was at the center of the nationalist movement in an area of Europe known as the Balkans </li></ul><ul><li>What happened in the Balkans was a spark that started the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia considered Austria-Hungary as an enemy because Serbs in Austria-Hungary wanted to unite with Serbia and create a larger Serbian state </li></ul>
The events that followed… <ul><li>Because of the assignation of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June of 1914 by a member of a nationalistic secret Serbian society, the emperor of Austria-Hungary declared war of Serbia. </li></ul>
The events that followed… <ul><li>Russia sent troops to defend Serbia because Russia had a separate treaty with Serbia. Russia supported Serbia because they were both of a similar ethnic backgrounds. </li></ul>
The events that followed… <ul><li>Since Germany had a treaty with Austria- </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary (the Triple Alliance), Germany declared war on Russia. </li></ul>
The events that followed… <ul><li>France had a treaty with Russia (the Triple </li></ul><ul><li>Entente) so Germany declared war against France. </li></ul>
Things changed during the war <ul><li>The Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente turned into these two WWI alliances. </li></ul>The Triple Entente plus more formed the Allied Powers The Triple Alliance plus more formed the Center Powers
Statistics from WWI Nation Total Number of servicemen in the war. Number of deaths Number of soldiers wounded Number of men taken prisoner or reported missing Austria 7,800,000 1,200,000 3,620,000 2,200,000 Britain 8,904,467 908,371 2,090,212 191,652 France 8,410,000 1,357,800 4,266,000 537,000 Germany 11,000,000 17,737,000 4,216,058 1,152,800 Italy 5,615,000 650,000 947,000 600,000 Russia 12,000,000 1,700,000 4,950,000 2,500,000 Turkey 2,850,000 325,000 400,000 250,000 U.S. 4,355,000 126,000 234,300 4,500
Some of the Technological Advances from WWI <ul><li>Tank </li></ul><ul><li>Aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Machine Gun </li></ul><ul><li>Gas used as a weapon </li></ul><ul><li>Flamethrower </li></ul>
Distributed Summarizing Could World War I have been prevented? Why or why not? Would we have had the technological advances without WWI?
Russia: A Background <ul><li>Nicholas II – autocratic and ineffective </li></ul><ul><li>He ruled a country covering one-sixth of the earth’s total land surface </li></ul><ul><li>He had massive personal wealth </li></ul><ul><li>He was backed by an army of 1 million and secret police </li></ul><ul><li>Political parties banned – critics ended up in prison or exile </li></ul><ul><li>Press was censored </li></ul>
Russia: A Background <ul><li>Many Russians worshipped the Tsar and peasants typically had a picture of the Tsar on a wall of their hut. </li></ul><ul><li>His word was law </li></ul><ul><li>He appointed his ministers </li></ul><ul><li>But did not have to listen to them </li></ul><ul><li>AND could ‘hire and fire’ them at will </li></ul><ul><li>He was a true autocrat. </li></ul>
Russia was… <ul><li>Only 40% ethnic Russians </li></ul><ul><li>80% were peasants – subsistence farmers </li></ul><ul><li>60%+ = illiterate </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy = 40 </li></ul><ul><li>Low tech and low investment </li></ul><ul><li>Land ownership rare </li></ul><ul><li>Land owned by the Commune </li></ul><ul><li>It also organized taxes and allotted strips of land to each household </li></ul>
Distributed Summarizing During the time described, Russia was like ____________ because _________________________. Share your answer with a partner.
Watch the United Streaming video clip: Russian Revolution (Time - 9:31; the first few minutes link to previous video clips) http://player.discoveryeducation.com/?blnPreviewOnly=1&guidAssetId=ac3fe43d-f94f-494b-916e-c53c22ac7185
Russian Revolution <ul><li>Russian revolution started in 1917 and had two parts. </li></ul><ul><li>The first part was the February Revolution in which the czar (Tsar, national ruler) was overthrown. </li></ul><ul><li>People were unhappy about how the czar and his government were running the country. People were starving while the aristocracy was living in luxury. </li></ul><ul><li>People were also upset about their participation in the war. </li></ul>
Russian Revolution <ul><li>The Russian army was big but poorly equipped; the army lost battles which lowered civilian and military morale </li></ul><ul><li>The czar was seen as a poor military and political leader while his German wife (tsarina) was left in charge of the government and was influenced by a man many thought was crazy (Rasputin) </li></ul><ul><li>There were not enough workers in the factories and farms which caused shortages of food and materials </li></ul><ul><li>The railway system was weak; therefore, troops nor towns could get supplies </li></ul>
Russian Revolution <ul><li>The second part of the Russian Revolution was the October Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution) </li></ul><ul><li>The October Revolution was led by Vladimir Lenin </li></ul><ul><li>After two years of civil war, the communist forces gained control </li></ul><ul><li>Russia became the communist country of the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Communism continued in Russia until nearly the end of the century </li></ul>
Distributed Summarizing With a partner, discuss why the Russian Revolution occurred and what happened to Russia because of the revolution. Write your answers on the Major Developments in Europe After WWI sheet.
The War is Over! Leaders come together to decide the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
Treaty of Versailles Simulation In small groups, students will represent a main character from the Treaty of Versailles. Students will simulate debates during the signing of the treaty and make decisions based on their character’s viewpoints.
Examining the Treaty of Versailles After simulating discussions from the Treaty of Versailles, in small groups, students will examine components of the real treaty to determine the actual decisions that were made. Other groups will examine Germany’s response to the treaty.
Examining the Treaty Questions <ul><li>Which aspect of the treaty did you examine? (political, military, reparations, or Germany’s response) </li></ul><ul><li>Those examining the treaty: Describe the types of requirements or restrictions placed on Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Those examining the treaty: How might these requirements or restrictions impact Germany? </li></ul><ul><li>Those examining Germany’s response: Do you agree or disagree with the Treaty of Versailles? </li></ul><ul><li>Those examining Germany’s response: How will the treaty impact you and your country? </li></ul>
The Treaty of Versailles (add requirements of the treaty to Major Developments sheet) <ul><li>The Treaty of Versailles officially ended WWI </li></ul><ul><li>It forced Germany to accept responsibility for causing the war </li></ul><ul><li>It required Germany to pay reparations (payments) to other countries for their losses and damage </li></ul><ul><li>It required Germany to give up 1 million square miles of land (size of Alaska and Texas combined) much of which was rich in natural resources (Why does this matter?) </li></ul><ul><li>It required Germany to limit its armed forces </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. did not sign the Treaty of Versailles </li></ul>
Listen to the National Public Radio story about Germany making its last reparation payment in September 2010. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=130232809
Treaty of Versailles Copy & Continue Writing Assignment
After WWI and worldwide depression <ul><li>WWI affected the European economy because nations had war debt to repay </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers came home needing jobs, but there were not enough. Unemployment skyrocketed. (Listen to “Stony Broke in No Man’s Land”) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1929, the stock market crash led to depression in the U.S. but also all over the world </li></ul><ul><li>Countries experienced Inflation (a condition where prices rise and money loses value; therefore, you cannot buy as much as you used to with the same amount of money) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Industry, shipping, and trade between countries were affected </li></ul><ul><li>Around the world, unrest and nationalism grew, people wanted strong leadership to make their countries rich and powerful again </li></ul><ul><li>However, the Great Depression weakened many countries when they needed to be strong. Why is this significant? </li></ul>After WWI and worldwide depression
Image you are living in Germany after World War I. The world is in the middle of a depression. You do not have enough food, you do not have a job, and you do not believe the leaders of your country can improve the situation. On top of that, your country, the place where you were born and have lived all of your life is being blamed and punished for World War I. Now, read Adolf Hitler’s speech on the Treaty of Versailles in 1923. Then, watch a video clip of Hitler delivering a speech years later. http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=7205F2A8-797E-4971-AEF4-6604694FC04E&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US Why do you think the German people followed Hitler?
Rise of Nazism <ul><li>The democratic government in Germany after World War I (Weimar Republic) faced major problems </li></ul><ul><li>A political party called the Nazi Party attracted the attention of dissatisfied Germans </li></ul><ul><li>The Nazi Party’s leader, Adolf Hitler, described ideas to strengthen Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler also believed that Aryans (Germans) were the “master race”; he had racist feelings about Jews, Slavs, gypsies, and blacks </li></ul><ul><li>The Nazi Party believed in fascism (where a strong central government is controlled by the military and run by a dictator) </li></ul>
Why Nazism grew <ul><li>Nazis offered solutions for Germany’s economic problems </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis appealed to German nationalism by calling for a larger military and an increase in German territory (violation of Treaty of Versailles) </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis united Germans against Jews by blaming them for the problems </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis assured Germans they could protect them from enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis organized groups to threaten anyone who opposed them so few spoke out </li></ul>
Summarizing Strategy Imagine that you are living in Europe during the 1900s, but you have other family members living on another continent. Write a postcard to your relatives describing the events that you have witnessed from 1913 to 1920. Include World War I and its MAIN causes, the Russian Revolution, economic depression, and the rise of Nazism.