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Topic 1Physics and Physical   Measurement
Part ISI system of fundamental and        derived units
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units•   State the fundamental units in the SI s...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units•   State the fundamental units in the SI s...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units•   State the fundamental units in the SI s...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units•   State the fundamental units in the SI s...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units•   State the fundamental units in the SI s...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units•   State the fundamental units in the SI s...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   State the fundamental units in the SI system
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties •   State the fundamental units in the SI system      Quantity           SI unit        ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties •   State the fundamental units in the SI system      Quantity           SI unit        ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties •   State the fundamental units in the SI system      Quantity           SI unit        ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties •   State the fundamental units in the SI system      Quantity           SI unit        ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties •   State the fundamental units in the SI system      Quantity           SI unit        ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties •   State the fundamental units in the SI system      Quantity           SI unit        ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties •   State the fundamental units in the SI system      Quantity           SI unit        ...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units•   State the fundamental units in the SI s...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Distinguish between fundamental and derived units    and give examples of derived units
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Distinguish between fundamental and derived units    and give examples of derived units
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties     •   Distinguish between fundamental and derived units         and give examples of d...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Distinguish between fundamental and derived units    and give examples of derived units
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Distinguish between fundamental and derived units    and give examples of derived uni...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Distinguish between fundamental and derived units    and give examples of derived uni...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Distinguish between fundamental and derived units    and give examples of derived uni...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Distinguish between fundamental and derived units    and give examples of derived uni...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units•   State the fundamental units in the SI s...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Convert between different units of quantities
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Convert between different units of quantities
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Convert between different units of quantities1 kWh = 103 Wh = 103 Js−1 x 3600s = 3.6 ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Convert between different units of quantities1 kWh = 103 Wh = 103 Js−1 x 3600s = 3.6 ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Convert between different units of quantities1 kWh = 103 Wh = 103 Js−1 x 3600s = 3.6 ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Convert between different units of quantities1 kWh = 103 Wh = 103 Js−1 x 3600s = 3.6 ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Convert between different units of quantities1 kWh = 103 Wh = 103 Js−1 x 3600s = 3.6 ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Convert between different units of quantities1 kWh = 103 Wh = 103 Js−1 x 3600s = 3.6 ...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units•   State the fundamental units in the SI s...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   State units in the accepted SI format
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   State units in the accepted SI format
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   State units in the accepted SI format                     m/s     ms−1               ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   State units in the accepted SI format                     m/s     ms−1               ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   State units in the accepted SI format                      m/s     ms−1              ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   State units in the accepted SI format                     m/s      ms−1              ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   State units in the accepted SI format                     m/s      ms−1              ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   State units in the accepted SI format                     m/s      ms−1              ...
Part IIUncertainty and error in    measurement
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty and error in measurement
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty and error in measurement•   Describe and give examples of random and    syste...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty and error in measurement•   Describe and give examples of random and    syste...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty and error in measurement•   Describe and give examples of random and    syste...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty and error in measurement•   Describe and give examples of random and    syste...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty and error in measurement•   Describe and give examples of random and    syste...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Describe and give examples of random and    systematic errors
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Describe and give examples of random and    systematic errors
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties  •   Describe and give examples of random and      systematic errors           Random Er...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties  •   Describe and give examples of random and      systematic errors           Random Er...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties  •   Describe and give examples of random and      systematic errors           Random Er...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties  •   Describe and give examples of random and      systematic errors           Random Er...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty and error in measurement•   Describe and give examples of random and    syste...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Distinguish between precision and accuracy
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Distinguish between precision and accuracy
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties     •   Distinguish between precision and accuracy An accurate experiment is one that ha...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties     •   Distinguish between precision and accuracy An accurate experiment is one that ha...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty and error in measurement•   Describe and give examples of random and    syste...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Explain how the effects of random errors may be    reduced
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Explain how the effects of random errors may be    reduced
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties      •   Explain how the effects of random errors may be          reducedRandom error ca...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty and error in measurement•   Describe and give examples of random and    syste...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Calculate quantities and results of calculations to    the appropriate number of sign...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Calculate quantities and results of calculations to    the appropriate number of sign...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties      •   Calculate quantities and results of calculations to          the appropriate nu...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties      •   Calculate quantities and results of calculations to          the appropriate nu...
Part IIIUncertainty in calculated        results
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in calculated results
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in calculated results•   State uncertainties as absolute, fractional and    p...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in calculated results•   State uncertainties as absolute, fractional and    p...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in calculated results•   State uncertainties as absolute, fractional and    p...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   State uncertainties as absolute, fractional and    percentage uncertainties.
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   State uncertainties as absolute, fractional and    percentage uncertainties.
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   State uncertainties as absolute, fractional and    percentage uncertainties.         ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   State uncertainties as absolute, fractional and    percentage uncertainties.         ...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in calculated results•   State uncertainties as absolute, fractional and    p...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Determine the uncertainties in results.
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Determine the uncertainties in results.
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties  •   Determine the uncertainties in results.For addition and subtraction, absolute uncer...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties  •   Determine the uncertainties in results.For addition and subtraction, absolute uncer...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties  •   Determine the uncertainties in results.For addition and subtraction, absolute uncer...
Part IVUncertainty in graphs
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in graphs
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in graphs•   Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in graphs•   Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.•   State random ...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in graphs•   Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.•   State random ...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in graphs•   Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.•   State random ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties     •   Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.Where relevant, uncertainties sho...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties     •   Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.Where relevant, uncertainties sho...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in graphs•   Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.•   State random ...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in graphs•   Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.•   State random ...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Determine the uncertainties in the gradient and    intercepts of a straight line graph.
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Determine the uncertainties in the gradient and    intercepts of a straight line graph.
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties•   Determine the uncertainties in the gradient and    intercepts of a straight line grap...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties  •    Determine the uncertainties in the gradient and       intercepts of a straight lin...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties  •    Determine the uncertainties in the gradient and       intercepts of a straight lin...
1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties  •    Determine the uncertainties in the gradient and       intercepts of a straight lin...
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1I
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1I
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1I
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1I
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1I
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1I
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample III
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample III
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample III
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample III
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample III
1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample III
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Measurement and uncertainties

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IB Physics Topic 1 - Physical measurement and uncertainty.

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  • Transcript of "Measurement and uncertainties"

    1. 1. Topic 1Physics and Physical Measurement
    2. 2. Part ISI system of fundamental and derived units
    3. 3. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units
    4. 4. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units• State the fundamental units in the SI system
    5. 5. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units• State the fundamental units in the SI system• Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples of derived units
    6. 6. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units• State the fundamental units in the SI system• Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples of derived units• Convert between different units of quantities
    7. 7. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units• State the fundamental units in the SI system• Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples of derived units• Convert between different units of quantities• State units in the accepted SI format
    8. 8. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units• State the fundamental units in the SI system• Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples of derived units• Convert between different units of quantities• State units in the accepted SI format• State values in scientific notation and in multiples of units with appropriate prefixes
    9. 9. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units• State the fundamental units in the SI system• Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples of derived units• Convert between different units of quantities• State units in the accepted SI format• State values in scientific notation and in multiples of units with appropriate prefixes
    10. 10. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• State the fundamental units in the SI system
    11. 11. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • State the fundamental units in the SI system Quantity SI unit Symbol Mass kilogram kg Length meter m Time seconds s Electric Current ampere AAmount of substance mole mol Temperature kelvin K
    12. 12. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • State the fundamental units in the SI system Quantity SI unit Symbol Mass kilogram kg Length meter m Time seconds s Electric Current ampere AAmount of substance mole mol Temperature kelvin K
    13. 13. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • State the fundamental units in the SI system Quantity SI unit Symbol Mass kilogram kg Length meter m Time seconds s Electric Current ampere AAmount of substance mole mol Temperature kelvin K
    14. 14. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • State the fundamental units in the SI system Quantity SI unit Symbol Mass kilogram kg Length meter m Time seconds s Electric Current ampere AAmount of substance mole mol Temperature kelvin K
    15. 15. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • State the fundamental units in the SI system Quantity SI unit Symbol Mass kilogram kg Length meter m Time seconds s Electric Current ampere AAmount of substance mole mol Temperature kelvin K
    16. 16. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • State the fundamental units in the SI system Quantity SI unit Symbol Mass kilogram kg Length meter m Time seconds s Electric Current ampere AAmount of substance mole mol Temperature kelvin K
    17. 17. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • State the fundamental units in the SI system Quantity SI unit Symbol Mass kilogram kg Length meter m Time seconds s Electric Current ampere AAmount of substance mole mol Temperature kelvin K
    18. 18. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units• State the fundamental units in the SI system• Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples of derived units• Convert between different units of quantities• State units in the accepted SI format• State values in scientific notation and in multiples of units with appropriate prefixes
    19. 19. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples of derived units
    20. 20. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples of derived units
    21. 21. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples of derived unitsAll other SI units used in this course are derived units. They are based on fundamental units.
    22. 22. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples of derived units
    23. 23. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples of derived units Quantity Symbol Base units Volume m3 mxmxm Speed ms−1 m/s Force N kg x m/s2
    24. 24. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples of derived units Quantity Symbol Base units Volume m3 mxmxm Speed ms−1 m/s Force N kg x m/s2
    25. 25. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples of derived units Quantity Symbol Base units Volume m3 mxmxm Speed ms−1 m/s Force N kg x m/s2
    26. 26. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples of derived units Quantity Symbol Base units Volume m3 mxmxm Speed ms−1 m/s Force N kg x m/s2
    27. 27. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units• State the fundamental units in the SI system• Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples of derived units• Convert between different units of quantities• State units in the accepted SI format• State values in scientific notation and in multiples of units with appropriate prefixes
    28. 28. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Convert between different units of quantities
    29. 29. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Convert between different units of quantities
    30. 30. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Convert between different units of quantities1 kWh = 103 Wh = 103 Js−1 x 3600s = 3.6 x 106 J
    31. 31. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Convert between different units of quantities1 kWh = 103 Wh = 103 Js−1 x 3600s = 3.6 x 106 J 1 kWh = 3.6 x 106 J
    32. 32. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Convert between different units of quantities1 kWh = 103 Wh = 103 Js−1 x 3600s = 3.6 x 106 J 1 kWh = 3.6 x 106 J 1eV = 1.6 x 10−19 C x JC−1 = 1.6 x 10−19 J
    33. 33. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Convert between different units of quantities1 kWh = 103 Wh = 103 Js−1 x 3600s = 3.6 x 106 J 1 kWh = 3.6 x 106 J 1eV = 1.6 x 10−19 C x JC−1 = 1.6 x 10−19 J 1 eV = 1.6 x 10−19 J
    34. 34. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Convert between different units of quantities1 kWh = 103 Wh = 103 Js−1 x 3600s = 3.6 x 106 J 1 kWh = 3.6 x 106 J 1eV = 1.6 x 10−19 C x JC−1 = 1.6 x 10−19 J 1 eV = 1.6 x 10−19 J
    35. 35. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Convert between different units of quantities1 kWh = 103 Wh = 103 Js−1 x 3600s = 3.6 x 106 J 1 kWh = 3.6 x 106 J 1eV = 1.6 x 10−19 C x JC−1 = 1.6 x 10−19 J 1 eV = 1.6 x 10−19 J
    36. 36. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesThe SI system of fundamental and derived units• State the fundamental units in the SI system• Distinguish between fundamental and derived units and give examples of derived units• Convert between different units of quantities• State units in the accepted SI format• State values in scientific notation and in multiples of units with appropriate prefixes
    37. 37. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• State units in the accepted SI format
    38. 38. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• State units in the accepted SI format
    39. 39. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• State units in the accepted SI format m/s ms−1 m/s2 ms−2
    40. 40. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• State units in the accepted SI format m/s ms−1 m/s2 ms−2
    41. 41. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• State units in the accepted SI format m/s ms−1 m/s2 ms−2• State values in scientific notation and in multiples of units with appropriate prefixes
    42. 42. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• State units in the accepted SI format m/s ms−1 m/s2 ms−2• State values in scientific notation and in multiples of units with appropriate prefixes
    43. 43. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• State units in the accepted SI format m/s ms−1 m/s2 ms−2• State values in scientific notation and in multiples of units with appropriate prefixesSpeed of Light = 300000000 ms−1 = 3.0 x 108 ms−1
    44. 44. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• State units in the accepted SI format m/s ms−1 m/s2 ms−2• State values in scientific notation and in multiples of units with appropriate prefixesSpeed of Light = 300000000 ms−1 = 3.0 x 108 ms−1Wavelegth of blue light = 4.5 x 10−7 m = 450 nm
    45. 45. Part IIUncertainty and error in measurement
    46. 46. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty and error in measurement
    47. 47. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty and error in measurement• Describe and give examples of random and systematic errors
    48. 48. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty and error in measurement• Describe and give examples of random and systematic errors• Distinguish between precision and accuracy
    49. 49. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty and error in measurement• Describe and give examples of random and systematic errors• Distinguish between precision and accuracy• Explain how the effects of random errors may be reduced
    50. 50. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty and error in measurement• Describe and give examples of random and systematic errors• Distinguish between precision and accuracy• Explain how the effects of random errors may be reduced• Calculate quantities and results of calculations to the appropriate number of significant figures
    51. 51. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty and error in measurement• Describe and give examples of random and systematic errors• Distinguish between precision and accuracy• Explain how the effects of random errors may be reduced• Calculate quantities and results of calculations to the appropriate number of significant figures
    52. 52. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Describe and give examples of random and systematic errors
    53. 53. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Describe and give examples of random and systematic errors
    54. 54. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • Describe and give examples of random and systematic errors Random Error Systematic Error It is a random error if you get lots of It is a systematic error if there isslightly different readings when making a something wrong with equipment of measurement method when taking a measurementYou can reduce the error by repeating the Error can not be reduced by repeating measurement the measurement Not easy to spot right away but it may It is easy to spot random error when become evident when a linear graph that collecting data by the variance of the should cross the origin has a relevant readings y-intercept
    55. 55. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • Describe and give examples of random and systematic errors Random Error Systematic Error It is a random error if you get lots of It is a systematic error if there isslightly different readings when making a something wrong with equipment of measurement method when taking a measurementYou can reduce the error by repeating the Error can not be reduced by repeating measurement the measurement Not easy to spot right away but it may It is easy to spot random error when become evident when a linear graph that collecting data by the variance of the should cross the origin has a relevant readings y-intercept
    56. 56. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • Describe and give examples of random and systematic errors Random Error Systematic Error It is a random error if you get lots of It is a systematic error if there isslightly different readings when making a something wrong with equipment of measurement method when taking a measurementYou can reduce the error by repeating the Error can not be reduced by repeating measurement the measurement Not easy to spot right away but it may It is easy to spot random error when become evident when a linear graph that collecting data by the variance of the should cross the origin has a relevant readings y-intercept
    57. 57. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • Describe and give examples of random and systematic errors Random Error Systematic Error It is a random error if you get lots of It is a systematic error if there isslightly different readings when making a something wrong with equipment of measurement method when taking a measurementYou can reduce the error by repeating the Error can not be reduced by repeating measurement the measurement Not easy to spot right away but it may It is easy to spot random error when become evident when a linear graph that collecting data by the variance of the should cross the origin has a relevant readings y-intercept
    58. 58. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty and error in measurement• Describe and give examples of random and systematic errors• Distinguish between precision and accuracy• Explain how the effects of random errors may be reduced• Calculate quantities and results of calculations to the appropriate number of significant figures
    59. 59. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Distinguish between precision and accuracy
    60. 60. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Distinguish between precision and accuracy
    61. 61. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • Distinguish between precision and accuracy An accurate experiment is one that has small systematicerror, whereas a precise experiment is one that has a small random error
    62. 62. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • Distinguish between precision and accuracy An accurate experiment is one that has small systematicerror, whereas a precise experiment is one that has a small random errorAn experiment may have great precision but be inaccurate
    63. 63. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty and error in measurement• Describe and give examples of random and systematic errors• Distinguish between precision and accuracy• Explain how the effects of random errors may be reduced• Calculate quantities and results of calculations to the appropriate number of significant figures
    64. 64. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Explain how the effects of random errors may be reduced
    65. 65. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Explain how the effects of random errors may be reduced
    66. 66. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • Explain how the effects of random errors may be reducedRandom error can be reduced by taking repeated reading of a measurement. Systematic error can not be reduced this way
    67. 67. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty and error in measurement• Describe and give examples of random and systematic errors• Distinguish between precision and accuracy• Explain how the effects of random errors may be reduced• Calculate quantities and results of calculations to the appropriate number of significant figures
    68. 68. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Calculate quantities and results of calculations to the appropriate number of significant figures
    69. 69. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Calculate quantities and results of calculations to the appropriate number of significant figures
    70. 70. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • Calculate quantities and results of calculations to the appropriate number of significant figuresThe number of significant figures should reflect the precisionof the value of the input data. The number of significant digits in a result should not exceed that of the least precise value upon which it depends.
    71. 71. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • Calculate quantities and results of calculations to the appropriate number of significant figuresThe number of significant figures should reflect the precisionof the value of the input data. The number of significant digits in a result should not exceed that of the least precise value upon which it depends. e.g. 9.8 x 13.45 = 131.81 but the answer should be expressed in 2 significant figures: 1.3 x 102
    72. 72. Part IIIUncertainty in calculated results
    73. 73. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in calculated results
    74. 74. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in calculated results• State uncertainties as absolute, fractional and percentage uncertainties.
    75. 75. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in calculated results• State uncertainties as absolute, fractional and percentage uncertainties.• Determine the uncertainties in results.
    76. 76. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in calculated results• State uncertainties as absolute, fractional and percentage uncertainties.• Determine the uncertainties in results.
    77. 77. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• State uncertainties as absolute, fractional and percentage uncertainties.
    78. 78. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• State uncertainties as absolute, fractional and percentage uncertainties.
    79. 79. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• State uncertainties as absolute, fractional and percentage uncertainties. Absolute Uncertainty Room temperature = 22.5ºC ± 0.5
    80. 80. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• State uncertainties as absolute, fractional and percentage uncertainties. Absolute Uncertainty Room temperature = 22.5ºC ± 0.5 Percent Uncertainty Room temperature = 22.5ºC ± 2.2%
    81. 81. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in calculated results• State uncertainties as absolute, fractional and percentage uncertainties.• Determine the uncertainties in results.
    82. 82. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Determine the uncertainties in results.
    83. 83. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Determine the uncertainties in results.
    84. 84. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • Determine the uncertainties in results.For addition and subtraction, absolute uncertainties maybe added.
    85. 85. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • Determine the uncertainties in results.For addition and subtraction, absolute uncertainties maybe added.For multiplication, division and powers, percentageuncertainties may be added.
    86. 86. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • Determine the uncertainties in results.For addition and subtraction, absolute uncertainties maybe added.For multiplication, division and powers, percentageuncertainties may be added.For other functions (trigonometric, logarithmic), themean highest and lowest possible answers may becalculated to obtain the uncertainty range.
    87. 87. Part IVUncertainty in graphs
    88. 88. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in graphs
    89. 89. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in graphs• Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.
    90. 90. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in graphs• Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.• State random uncertainty as an uncertainty range (±) and represent it graphically as an “error bar”
    91. 91. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in graphs• Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.• State random uncertainty as an uncertainty range (±) and represent it graphically as an “error bar”• Determine the uncertainties in the gradient and intercepts of a straight line graph.
    92. 92. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in graphs• Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.• State random uncertainty as an uncertainty range (±) and represent it graphically as an “error bar”• Determine the uncertainties in the gradient and intercepts of a straight line graph.
    93. 93. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.
    94. 94. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.
    95. 95. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.Where relevant, uncertainties should be identified as errorbars in plotted quantities. No error bars are expected for trigonometric or logarithmic functions.
    96. 96. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.Where relevant, uncertainties should be identified as errorbars in plotted quantities. No error bars are expected for trigonometric or logarithmic functions.
    97. 97. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in graphs• Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.• State random uncertainty as an uncertainty range (±) and represent it graphically as an “error bar”• Determine the uncertainties in the gradient and intercepts of a straight line graph.
    98. 98. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesUncertainty in graphs• Identify uncertainties as error bars in graphs.• State random uncertainty as an uncertainty range (±) and represent it graphically as an “error bar”• Determine the uncertainties in the gradient and intercepts of a straight line graph.
    99. 99. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Determine the uncertainties in the gradient and intercepts of a straight line graph.
    100. 100. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Determine the uncertainties in the gradient and intercepts of a straight line graph.
    101. 101. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties• Determine the uncertainties in the gradient and intercepts of a straight line graph. y x
    102. 102. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • Determine the uncertainties in the gradient and intercepts of a straight line graph. yBest Fit x
    103. 103. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • Determine the uncertainties in the gradient and intercepts of a straight line graph. yBest FitMax Gradient x
    104. 104. 1.2 Measurement and Uncertainties • Determine the uncertainties in the gradient and intercepts of a straight line graph. yBest FitMax GradientMin Gradient x
    105. 105. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1
    106. 106. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1
    107. 107. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1
    108. 108. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1
    109. 109. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1
    110. 110. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1
    111. 111. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1I
    112. 112. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1I
    113. 113. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1I
    114. 114. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1I
    115. 115. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1I
    116. 116. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample 1I
    117. 117. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample III
    118. 118. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample III
    119. 119. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample III
    120. 120. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample III
    121. 121. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample III
    122. 122. 1.2 Measurement and UncertaintiesExample III
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