Instructional Design Project - We the People Training

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An instructional design project on training student volunteers to work at a We the People practice session. We the People is a high school academic team that participates in competitive simulated …

An instructional design project on training student volunteers to work at a We the People practice session. We the People is a high school academic team that participates in competitive simulated congressional hearings on the U.S. Constitution, politics, policy, and government.

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  • 1. Running Head: INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 1 Instructional Design We the People Alumni Expert Training Kathleen Gordon Purdue University Calumet EDCI 572 May 14, 2010 Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 2. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 2 Executive SummaryThe instructor of the We the People (WTP) team at Munster High School recruited teamalumni to serve as experts for team practices, during which team members read speeches thatanswered a preprinted set of questions on the U.S. Constitution and received feedback fromthe experts. Experts would then ask follow-up questions to determine how well the teammembers understood the issues presented in the questions. The alumni experts did notperform these tasks very effectively; they conducted unfocused practice sessions and gavefeedback that was not helpful. As a result, the team members did not sufficiently improvebefore their competitions. The purpose of this instructional design is to give alumni expertsthe training that will give them the knowledge and confidence to perform their roles moreeffectively.A needs assessment revealed that the learners and the team members felt that the learners’performance was adequate, but that the instructor did not agree. A training session wouldallow the instructor to communicate his expectations to the learners, who lacked awarenessthat they needed improvement. The needs assessment also revealed a desire for instruction onevaluating the team’s performance on follow-up questions. The task analysis revealed thatthe cognitive tasks involved in serving as an alumni expert were more complex than theinstructor had realized. Consequently, the final design of the instructional materials, whichconsisted of an instructor guide and a learner guide with an accompanying PowerPoint,contained detailed information on how to approach each task. The learner guide includedtips for breaking down the unit questions into component parts and determining whether thespeeches contained answers to the questions, successfully incorporated relevant sources, anddefined key terms. The guide also included tips for evaluating answers to follow-upquestions and giving feedback to team members. The SME (the instructor) respondedpositively to the instructional materials, and he conducted a relatively smooth trainingsession with the two adult experts who participated in trials. The participants were able tocomplete all of the individual learning modules and had positive affective responses on theTraining Evaluation Questionnaire. They each expressed either “much confidence” or“complete confidence” in executing the various tasks of training session. It was decided that Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 3. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 3the training would be conducted in two separate sessions and that up to eight participantswould attend each session. TABLE OF CONTENTSSTATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 4INTRODUCTIONSTATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMNEEDS ASSESSMENT (NEEDS ANALYSIS) 6PURPOSE 6PROCESS 6RESULTS 8IMPLICATIONS 11LEARNER ANALYSIS 12CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS 12TASK ANALYSIS 15INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES 21INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PLANNING GRIDDESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT 27INSTRUCTIONAL PRODUCTSINSTRUCTOR 27STUDENT 47FORMATIVE EVALUATION 82PURPOSE OF EVALUATION 82METHODOLOGY 83RESULTS 85CONCLUSIONS 86PLAN FOR SMALL GROUP 88APPENDICES 89A – SURVEY OF ALUMNI EXPERTS 89B – SURVEY OF WE THE PEOPLE TEAM MEMBERS 90C – RESPONSES TO SURVEY QUESTIONS 91D – TRAINING EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE 92E - TRAINING ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST 93 Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 4. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 4 Statement of the ProblemIntroductionMunster High School had a We the People team that competed in official competitionssponsored by the Center for Civic Education (CCE). Each year, the team competed at thedistrict and state competitions; teams participated in the national competition about everyother year. The format for each level of competition was the same: The team was broken upinto six smaller units; each unit studied a different aspect of the U.S. Constitution; the CCEposted questions that each unit would answer in a six minute speech; at the competition, theunit delivered its speech to a panel of expert judges that asked follow-up questions todetermine the depth of their knowledge of the topic. To help students prepare forcompetitions, the instructor scheduled team practices during Monday nights. During thesepractices, “experts” (adult professionals and program alumni) worked with the units toevaluate their progress. The alumni experts had failed to identify instances where the unitspeeches did not address all questions posed by the CCE. They failed to differentiatebetween statements that directly answered the questions and statements that merely dealtwith the same issues posed by the questions. In addition, they failed to give useful feedbackfor improving follow-up answers. Consequently, the team members ended their practiceswithout setting goals for improvement. This hurt them at competitions.Possible CausesThe alumni experts had not been trained in how to conduct unit practices. They did not knowhow to differentiate between speeches that directly answered questions and those that merely Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 5. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 5addressed the same topics addressed by the questions. The instructor should have providedtraining materials to help them identify these differences, as well as materials outlining theproper format for follow-up answers. The alumni experts did not know when to give toughcriticism on follow-up answers. The positive reinforcement they gave early in the seasonmight not have been appropriate for later in the season.Symptoms • Unfocused Monday practices • Loss of valuable practice time • Team members became complacent with subpar speeches and answers • Team members received conflicting information about the quality of their work • Instructor became frustrated and spent time reteaching instead of moving on to further goals • Team could not progress beyond certain levels in competitions Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 6. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 6 Needs AssessmentPurposeThe purpose of conducting a needs assessment of the performance of the We the Peoplealumni experts at Monday night practices was to determine these learners’ training needs. Inorder to determine how to structure their training, information was gathered concerning theirproficiency at various tasks performed at practices, their self-assessment of their owncompetencies regarding these tasks, third-party assessments of their competencies regardingthese tasks, and their level of desire for training in each of these tasks.ProcessIn addition to the target audience that will receive instructional intervention—the alumniexperts who attended Munster High School at the time of the needs assessment (the learners)—the instructor and a sample of We the People team members (team members) participatedin the study. The instructor identified the characteristics of the learners and providedqualitative information regarding the gaps between their actual performance and the desiredperformance. This qualitative information was used to construct surveys for the learners andthe team members, who, as direct observers of the learners’ performances provided importantinformation regarding those performances. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 7. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 7Data, which focused on felt needs and expressed needs, was collected in three ways: theinstructor was interviewed, a survey was distributed to a sample of learners, another surveywas distributed to a sample of team members.The instructor was interviewed to identify the knowledge and skills needed to conduct theunit practices, to assess the knowledge levels and skill levels of the learners, and to determinewhether learners would need to spend additional time preparing for unit practices in order tomake improvements. If additional time were needed, learners would need to be asked if theywere willing to volunteer that time.The survey targeting the learners was designed to obtain information on how theyapproached their jobs and which aspects of their jobs they would like to see covered in atraining session. Because the learners were volunteers, the questions were worded in a waythat indicated a willingness to offer training if the learners would like it, rather than anobserved need for training on the part of the instructor, who did not want to offend hisvolunteers.The survey that was given to a sample of team members was designed to ascertain theirperceptions of the learners’ helpfulness and their own responsiveness to the learners’performance. The sample included equal numbers of junior (11th grade) members and senior(12th grade) members, girls and boys, and strong team members and weak team members. Itwas important to get feedback from each of these subgroups, as their age, gender, and abilitylevels might have affected the expectations and/or needs they had for the experts. Younger Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 8. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 8members and lower-ability members might have depended more on their instructor than oldermembers and higher ability members.ResultsMy interview with the instructor allowed me to identify the skills needed to conduct effectiveunit practices and discover his perceptions regarding his learners’ effectiveness. I used thisinformation to generate surveys for the learners and the team members. The surveys focusedon the learners’ skill and knowledge in several categories: skills/knowledge used to assessspeeches (speech skills), skills/knowledge used to assess follow-up answers (follow-upskills), and general pedagogical skills. Since learners must apply pedagogy when usingspeech skills and follow-up skills, in this report, the term “general pedagogical skills” refersto the learners’ methods for pacing practices, the learners’ ability to stay on task, and thelearners’ initiative in tasks such as record-keeping and independent follow-up with teammembers outside of practices. The charts and tables in this report and the surveys, which canbe found in the appendices, make these distinctions clear.The chart below illustrates the results of both surveys:Table 1. Perceptions of Learner EffectivenessRating Scale: 1 = Good 2 = Adequate 3 = Unsatisfactory Learners Team members Instructor Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 9. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 9 Speech Skills1 2 2 3 Follow-up Skills2 2 2 3General Pedagogical 1 2 3 SkillsA majority of the learners indicated that they had some difficulty evaluating the speeches inpractices, which they would be hearing for the first time during practice and a majority of thelearners indicated that they were either very familiar or somewhat familiar with the contentdeveloped in the speeches. Similarly, a majority of the team members indicated that thelearners were either somewhat helpful or very helpful with regard to the speeches. Only 17%of the team members stated that the learners were not helpful in this regard. However, theinstructor indicated that the learners were not effective at evaluating speeches, that they didnot closely attend to whether the speeches actually answered each question posed by the CCEin a thoughtful manner. The instructor did not feel that it was necessary for the learners toread the speeches before practice, but indicated that organizational devices (such as a chartlisting each question posed by the CCE, with blank spaces for record-keeping duringpractices) might allow learners to selectively attend to all subquestions.All of the learners indicated that they had some difficulty giving negative feedback onfollow-up answers, which the instructor identified as a crucial skill. In addition, 75% of thelearners relied on pre-existing follow-up questions, and only 25% asked their own questions.Because the competition judges use the content of the speeches to generate follow-up1 See Appendix C: Table 32 See Appendix C: Table 4 Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 10. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 10questions, it would be ideal for the learners to use a combination of both types of questions.The instructor indicated, however, that the learners, while having a broad knowledge of thecontent, might not have a deep enough knowledge base to generate their own questions.Nevertheless, the majority of the team members indicated that learners were either somewhathelpful or very helpful with follow-up questions. The instructor, however, considered thelearners’ follow-up skills to be unsatisfactory. He explained that they generally accepted theteam members’ initial responses to follow-up questions and needed to prod members byasking them further questions that would allow them to revise and refine their answers. Inaddition, the instructor stated that when the learners did give negative feedback, they neededto distinguish whether their feedback was based on a difference of opinion with the teammember or on an error in reasoning. Finally, the instructor indicated that the learners’negative feedback could be more skillfully delivered, so that it did not hurt the feelings of theteam members.All of the learners indicated that they were “very comfortable” with the existing structure ofthe unit practices, in which they received a general outline of tasks to complete and managedprocedures and pacing on their own. Half of the team members indicated that the learnersdid not often stray off-topic, while 33% indicated that they strayed off-topic somewhat oftenand 17% indicated that the learners strayed off-topic very often.Table 2 Rankings – Desired Training Topics for Learners 1 2 3 4 (Least Desired) (Most Desired) Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 11. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 11 Learners FA PRAC S PA Team members FA S PRAC PAFA = Follow-up answers S = Speeches PRAC = Follow-up outside of Practice PA =PacingTable 2 illustrates how each group ranked the topics that they thought should be covered inan expert orientation. Both learners and team members ranked “guidelines for givingfeedback on follow-up answers” the highest and “guidelines for pacing” the lowest. Thelearners rated “guidelines for independent follow-up” the second highest, while the teammembers rated “guidelines for giving feedback on speeches” the second highest.On Question 6 of the Survey of Alumni Experts, the last three answer choices state a strategyfor conducting unit practices. Answers d and e were not selected at all, and answer c wasselected by 50% of the learners. However, the wording of the selection was somewhatmisleading; it is possible that the learners saved drafts of speeches without having apedagogical reason to do so.ImplicationsThe implications of this needs assessment was that instruction was needed for the We thePeople alumni experts (the learners), and that mere past participation and success in theprogram had not prepared the learners to be effective experts. According to both the learnersand the team members, the learners were doing an adequate job, (except in the case ofstaying on topic, where the team members gave the learners a low rating) but the instructordisagreed. A training session would be a valuable opportunity for the instructor to Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 12. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 12communicate his expectations to the learners, who lack awareness of the effectiveness oftheir coaching. Because the instructor preferred to have complete control over every aspectof the program, the training would take place in person, though a training manual orPowerPoint presentation would allow the learners to review information on their own time.To create awareness of the difference between an effective an ineffective unit practice,videos of each type would be useful training tools for the learners.Because the learners were volunteers, there was some concern over whether they wouldinvest additional time helping the team members. However, they did express an interest inreceiving guidelines for following up with team members outside of practice (rated 2nd out of4 topics). Furthermore, the instructor reported that all alumni experts loved the We thePeople program, which was a significant factor affecting their motivation.Learner Analysis General characteristics. The learners were suburban high school seniors enrolled in college-prep and honors courses. Specific Entry Competencies The learners should have above-average academic abilities. They should have already succeeded as participants in the We the People program, which means that they have been judged by professionals at the district and state competitions and analyzed tapes of their performances. They need to be motivated students who love the We the People program and continue to show interest in topics studied in the program. They should have the ability and willingness to follow directions, the Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 13. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 13 willingness to volunteer, and the time available to volunteer during the We the People season.Contextual Analysis Orienting context. The learners did not feel pressure to be accountable for their work with the team members. Consequently, they might not feel accountable for their training. The instructor might seek approval from the National Honor Society (NHS) advisor for the unit practices to count as tutoring service hours. Almost all of the learners were NHS members, and requiring all alumni experts to attend a training session in order to be eligible for an activity that allows them to obtain service hours might improve their accountability. Even though the learners lacked accountability, they volunteered their time as alumni experts because it allowed them to retain a sense of belonging to a community. In addition, they were proud of their own past performance as team members. This sense of community and pride, combined with their respect for the instructor, would probably motivate them to attend training in order to do a better job. Ultimately, they enjoyed pleasing the instructor. Instructional context. At the time of the needs assessment, it was decided that instruction for We the People expert training would take place in the Munster High School library after school. The instructor would use an LCD projector to display PowerPoint notes that would Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 14. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 14 accompany the training manual he has created. He would also use this projector to show the learners a training video. This multimedia equipment is readily available to him from the school. The training would take place with small groups over the course of two or three sessions, as the learners are busy with various extracurricular activities and would not be able to assemble for a single session. Transfer context. The transfer of learning would be encouraged by providing the learners with access to the training video and the documentation used during training so they may return to this documentation as needed. The instructor might also arrange for the learners to coach the middle school We the People team at self-assessment, which would give them further opportunities to practice the skills they learned in training. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 15. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 15 Task AnalysisInstructional GoalLearners will be able to correctly use a set of CCE unit questions and give effective feedbackto We the People team members’ answers.Introduction to TaskAt Monday night practices for the Munster High School We the People team, the alumniexperts (the learners) needed to make sure they had analyzed a set of questions from theCenter of Civic Education (CCE) correctly so that they could give the team membersappropriate feedback on their speeches. They needed to ensure that they had identified allsubquestions in each set of questions, which can be difficult if one traditional questionactually contains two or more subquestions. In addition to making sure all subquestions hadbeen answered, they needed to ensure that the speeches defined or explained all key terms,used sources to support each argument, use clear, precise, grammatically correct language,and adhered to a four-minute time limit when read aloud. If the learners could give theteam members effective feedback and provide suggestions to help the team memberaccomplish their goals, the speeches would be more likely to impress the judges atcompetitions.Task Analysis I. Analyzing Unit Questions A. Locate page of questions corresponding to correct unit number on the CCE handout. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 16. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 16 B. Locate set of questions corresponding to the number of the speech that is being evaluated. C. Correctly identify all subquestions that comprise the set of questions. 1. Subquestions can be set up like regular questions, which begin with interrogative pronouns (who, what, when, where, why, how, how much, to what extent, etc.) and end with a question mark. 2. Subquestions can be components of one traditional question that combines two or more interrogative pronouns. a. Example: “How and why were written guarantees of basic rights important in the development of Americans’ ideas about government” contains one subquestion beginning with how another subquestion beginning with why) 3. Subquestions can be components of one traditional question that contains groups of words joined by the coordinating conjunctions and & or. a. Example: “In what ways were colonial legislatures more representative and independent than the British parliament?” contains two subquestions, one dealing with representativeness and one dealing with independence. 4. Put brackets around each subquestion (or keywords that identify the subquestion in the case of b and c above). 5. Number all the subquestions sequentially. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 17. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 17 D. As the team member reads his/her speech aloud, listen to make sure all subquestions are answered. 1. Answers should restate key parts of the question. a. Example: The question “Can limitations on the will of the majority be justified in a democracy” can be answered by stating “In a democracy, limitations on the will of a majority are rarely justified”. 2. Cross off numbers to subquestions after answers are read. E. If a subquestion is not answered, ask team members to locate the answer. 1. If the team member cannot locate the answer, have them write down “find answer to question [identify question] on the list of tasks. 2. If the team member locates a passage that relates to the question, but does not directly answer it, illustrate steps D1 and D2 to them. II. Key terms in unit questions. A. Key terms include: 1. Proper nouns 2. Theories 3. Words ending with “ism” 4. Subject matter terms – e.g. sovereignty 5. italicized words and phrases 6. phrases in quotes B. Key terms do not include words that most laypersons can define – e.g. social class C. Write list of key terms in a vertical column next to the set of questions. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 18. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 18 D. While listening to the speech, cross out terms that have been defined or explained. 1. For each word that has not been crossed out, tell team member to write down “define or explain term” on list of tasks. III. Sources A. Sources should be used to support key points in speech. B. Sources include: 1. Political scientists 2. Philosophers 3. Scholars 4. Public figures 5. Historical figures 6. Court cases 7. Current events C. If the source is familiar, check to see that it’s used correctly. D. If the source is unfamiliar, ask team member to explain it orally to see if it makes sense. E. If the source is used incorrectly, tell team member to write “further research” (on source) on list of tasks. F. For each numbered subquestion, make a checkmark by the number when the speech refers to a source to answer the subquestion. IV. Mechanics Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 19. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 19 A. While speech is read aloud, make notations on hard copy of speech correcting grammar and spelling errors. 1. If there are more than five grammar and spelling errors (combined), have team members arrange for peer proofreading. 2. If there are fewer than five grammar and spelling errors (combined), point them out to team members. B. Mark passages that are awkward or wordy. 1. Awkward passages lack parallel structure and use the passive voice 2. Point out to team members. 3. If time permits, suggest appropriate changes. V. Length A. At the beginning of speech, start timer. B. At the end of speech, stop timer. C. Announce duration of speech. D. If the duration is shorter than three minutes, 50 seconds, suggest additions. 1. Check for answers to subquestions that are shorter than answers to other subquestions. 2. Suggest additional sources to extend answers. 3. Ask other team members for possible sources. 4. Have team member write suggestions on list of tasks. E. If the duration is longer than four minutes, suggest deletions. 1. Refer to wordy passages, suggest deletions. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 20. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 20 2. Check for multiple sources supporting one argument, suggest deleting least relevant source. 3. Check answers to subquestions: mark particularly lengthy answers as possible sites for deletions. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 21. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 21 INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGYTasks Instructional Objectives Performance- Initial Presentation Generative Assessment Item(s) Content Matrix Strategy Learning StrategyFrom taskanalysis;listed in How will you know theyinstructional cell reference What the instructor have accomplished thesequence Use 4-part form (i.e., concept-apply) does What the learners do objective?1Identify Given one set of We the Application/Analysis Review types of In pairs, identify and Successfully identify allsubquestions People unit questions, subquestions and list label subquestions subquestions and keyand key terms learners will correctly of interrogative and key terms on terms within time limit identify and label all pronouns three sample sets of on the sample sets subquestions and key questions within 15 terms within 5 minutes. Review types of key minutes terms Demonstrate how to identify and label subquestions and key terms using a sample set of questions on an overhead projector Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 22. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 222Identify Given one set of labeled Analysis/Evaluation Review format for In pairs:answers to We the People unit incorporating part ofsubquestions questions and a hard copy the subquestion in of a student speech, answers learners will listen to a team member read the Present examples and Identify examples of Successfully identify speech and correctly nonexamples of good answers to examples of good determine whether the answers to subquestions from answers to subquestions speech contains answers subquestions from sample speech to all subquestions. sample speech passage Suggest improvements Demonstrate how to Improve weak for passages from change a speech passages from sample speech so that passage that merely sample speech so they effectively answer deals with the same that they answer the the subquestions information as the subquestions more subquestion to a effectively direct answer3 Identify Given one set of labeled Analysis/Evaluation Review types of key In pairs, use labeled Successfully identify allreferences to We the People unit terms set of questions to references to key termskey terms questions and a hard copy identify references to in sample speech and of a student speech, Review definitions key terms in sample keep records of learners will listen to a and explanations of speech; cross off key references team member read the key terms in sample terms on labeled set speech and correctly speech passage identify whether the speech defines or explains all key terms Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 23. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 234Evaluate use Given one set of labeled Evaluation Review types of In small groups:of sources We the People unit sources questions and a hard copy of a student speech, Explain what makes Identify ineffective Successfully identify learners will listen to a the use of a source use of sources in ineffective use of team member read the effective sample speech sources speech and evaluate how well it incorporates Review examples of Discuss methods for Correctly describe relevant sources effective and improving methods for improving ineffective use of ineffective use of ineffective use of sources from sample sources sources speech passage5Share After listening to team Analysis Give examples of In small groups, Correctly give criticalfeedback to members read a We the how to give critical practice giving feedback on sampleteam People unit speech, feedback and how critical advice after speechmembers on learners will, using their not to give critical sample speech iscontent of hard copy of the speech, feedback read aloudspeech effectively convey to team members how well Demonstrate how to the following tasks were give feedback in completed: subquestions mock practice were answered, key terms were explained or defined, and sources supported the arguments Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 24. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 246. Edit speech While listening to team Application Review proofreading In pairs, one partner Corrects grammar,for mechanics members read a We the marks corrects hard copy of punctuation, and spelling People unit speech, sample speech as errors on hard copy of learners will detect Review parallel other partner reads it sample speech, provided grammar and stylistic structure aloud that the speech contains flaws and spelling and less than ten mechanical punctuation errors using a Show samples of errors combined hard copy of the speech. awkward sentences and discuss strategies for revision Formulates effective strategies for revising awkward sentences7. Edit While listening to team Synthesis Review parallel In pairs, condense Effectively condensespeech for members read a We the structure and active sample speeches sample speeches usinglength People unit speech, voice using parallel parallel structure, lists, learners will time the structure and active active voice, and speech and formulate Demonstrate how to voice and discuss subordinate clauses methods for extending or condense passages which techniques condensing the speech to using parallel were used Successfully identify four minutes in length structure and active methods used to voice. condense passages in sample speech Using a passage from a sample speech, In pairs, discuss how Successfully devise explain how to to extend sample methods for extending extend a speech with short speeches with sample speeches with additional content additional content additional content Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 25. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 258. Ask After giving feedback on Analysis/Synthesis Using a sample Read a sample Successfully create listfollow-up a We the People unit speech passage, speech and create of follow-up questionsquestions speech, learners will use demonstrate types of list of follow-up using content from the content of the speech questions that can be questions based on sample speech and a handout of pre- generated from the the speech written questions to content of the speech generate appropriate follow-up questions Conduct a mock follow-up question- In small groups, and-answer session conduct mock using handout and follow-up question- sample speech and-answer sessions.9. Evaluating After listening to answers Comprehension/ Review source- Describe source- Correctly describefollow-up to follow-up questions, Evaluation analysis-example- analysis-example- source-analysis-answers. learners will evaluate answer method of answer method of example-answer method answer’s adherence to the answering follow-up answering questions of answering questions source-analysis-example- questions answer method of answering questions Conduct brief mock In small groups, Effectively evaluate question & follow-up while conducting follow-up answers in answer session and mock follow-up practice evaluate follow-up question and answer answers sessions, practice orally evaluating follow-up answers Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 26. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 2610. Share After listening to answers Evaluation Review guidelines Watch videotape of Effectively sharefeedback on to follow-up questions, for giving sample competition feedback on follow-upfollow-up We the People unit constructive criticism and discuss feedback answersanswers speech, learners will, (objective 5) to give to team using their hard copy of members the speech, effectively convey to team members Review guidelines Give feedback how well they executed for eliciting answers during simulations of the following: from reticent team follow-up sessions. members and 1.) Used the source- discouraging analysis-example-answer excessive answers method of answering from talkative team questions members 2.) Balanced answers among all members of the Demonstrate how to team give feedback in mock practice Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 27. Instructor Guide forWe the People Alumni Expert Training Instructor Materials Included We the People Alumni Alumni Expert Training Session
  • 28. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 28 Through Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction1.) Gaining attention (reception) • Describe memories of Monday night practices. • Reflect: What kind of feedback did you want when you were a student at Monday night practices? What kind did you need?2.) Activating motivation (expectancy) • Pretest (See PowerPoint slide): Open-ended questions on what distinguishes a good We the People speech from a mediocre one, and on the characteristics of a good follow-up answer. • Review objectives orally (ten total, divided into two categories). • Emphasize membership in the broader program, civic virtue, and republicanism, mention possibility of receiving National Honor Society tutoring service hours.3.) Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning (retrieval) • Remember when: As a large group, learners synthesize the answers to the pretest to create a master list • Show learners current unit questions and ask them to discuss how they would go about answering those questions (they should generate sources, examples of current or historical events, etc., come up with 3-5 sources that could be used to answer the first question).4.) Presenting the stimulus material (selective perception) a. Demonstrate how to number subquestions and list key terms (Using PowerPoint). Present Power Point slides that identify types of subquestions and key terms, as well as examples of each. b. Using PowerPoint slides, present example of passage from speech that answers subquestion; present nonexample passage from speech; and show how a direct answer refers back to keywords in the question. c. Present examples of sample speech that does a good job explaining or defining key terms d. Using PowerPoint slides, present list of types of sources and use sample speech passages that a.) use sources effectively and b.) use sources ineffectively. e. Using PowerPoint slides, present ideal and nonideal ways of giving critical feedback. Compare giving effective vs. ineffective feedback to teachers giving effective vs. ineffective feedback. f. Using PowerPoint slides, present information on parallel structure. g. Using PowerPoint slides, present information on active voice. h. Using PowerPoint slides, discuss how to generate follow-up questions with passages from sample speech. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 29. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 29 i. Using PowerPoint slides, review Source-Analysis-Answer-Example (SAAE) method of answering follow-up questions. j. Refer back to “e” above, apply method to giving effective feedback on follow-up answers5.) Provide learning guidance (semantic encoding) a. Request that learners identify and label subquestions (using example on learner handout, p. 5) and key terms (using example on learner handout, p. 6). b. Request that learners label and number the subquestions in the example (on learner handout, p. 1). c. Request that learners to rewrite sample passage (on learner handout, p.9) so that it directly answers the question. d. Role play giving feedback with one learner on Unit 1.1 Nationals speech (1st four paragraphs), ask learners to identify what was effective or ineffective about the feedback. e. Practice/rehearse using proofing marks when editing Unit 1.1 Nationals speech (1st four paragraphs). f. Ask learners to review parallel structure in Pledge of Allegiance, review with whole class. g. Using PowerPoint slide, present effective example of SAAE method of answering follow-up questions (also in learner handout, p. 22).6.) Eliciting the performance (responding) a. Request that learners review Unit 1.1 Nationals speech (Appendix B in learner handout). b. Arrange for learners to work in pairs—one person reads Unit 1.1 Nationals speech aloud while the other looks for answers to subquestions and references to key terms, keeping track when possible by crossing off identification marks (numbered subquestions, list of key terms). c. Request that learners discuss strategies for condensing or extending the speech (in pairs). d. Arrange for learners to discuss in small groups how to change indirect answers to direct answers, share briefly with large group. e. Arrange for learners to discuss key terms that need further defining. f. Request learners to explain what makes the use of a source effective. g. Request that learners practice giving oral feedback on speeches (in small groups). h. Ask volunteer learners to generate follow-up questions from sample speech (in large group). i. Arrange for small group of volunteer learners to model answering follow-up questions using the SAAE method and giving feedback on answers (to large group).7.) Providing feedback about performance correctness (reinforcement) Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 30. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 30 a. Provide feedback during large group instruction. b. While circulating the room and observing small groups work, offer corrective suggestions. c. Offer praise and suggestions where appropriate.8.) Assessing the performance (retrieval) a. Summarize what was observed in small groups to the large group, provide feedback.9.) Enhancing retention and transfer (generalization) a. Administer follow-up self-evaluation check-list after first practice session with WTP members. b. Discuss progress with learners throughout the WTP season, reinforcing key points when necessary (discreetly). Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 31. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 31We the People Alumni Expert Training Session Objectives Speech Objectives 1. Given one set of We the People unit questions, learners will correctly identify and label all subquestions and key terms within 5 minutes. 2. Given one set of labeled We the People unit questions and a hard copy of a student speech, learners will listen to a team member read the speech and correctly determine whether the speech contains answers to all subquestions. 3. Given one set of labeled We the People questions and a hard copy of a student speech, learners will listen to a team member read the speech and correctly identify whether the speech defines or explains all key terms. 4. Given one set of labeled We the People unit questions and a hard copy of a student speech, learners will listen to a team member read the speech and evaluate how well it incorporates relevant sources. 5. After listening to team members read a We the People unit speech, learners will, using their hard copy of the speech, effectively convey to team members how well the following tasks were completed: subquestions were answered, key terms were explained or defined, and sources supported the arguments. 6. While listening to team members read a We the People unit speech, learners will detect grammar and stylistic flaws and spelling and punctuation errors using a hard copy of the speech. 7. While listening to team members read a We the People unit speech, learners will time the speech and formulate methods for extending or condensing the speech to four minutes in length. Follow-up Objectives 8. After giving feedback on a We the People unit speech, learners will use the content of the speech and a handout of pre-written questions to generate appropriate follow-up questions. 9. After listening to answers to follow-up questions, learners will evaluate answer’s adherence to the source-analysis-answer-example method of answering questions. 10. After listening to answers to follow-up questions, We the People unit speech, learners will, using their hard copy of the speech, effectively convey to team members how well they executed the following: a. Used the source-analysis-example-answer method of answering questions. b. Balanced answers among all members of the team. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 32. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 32We the People Alumni Expert Pre-Test (Small-Group Discussion)1.) Think about your experiences as a We the People student and, in particular, of the Monday nightpractices. Which aspects of the practices were the most productive? Which were the least productive?2.) Of the various speeches you wrote (districts, state, etc.), which was the most successful? Think aboutboth the writing process and the components of that speech. Why did it turn out so well?3.) When answering follow-up questions, which members of your team had the most growth? What werethe reasons for this growth? How can we foster this growth?4.) Who (among last year’s alumni) gave the most helpful feedback? Consider the substance and mannerof the feedback. Why was it so helpful? Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 33. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 33Transparency 1 – Identifying Subquestions Sample Unit Question 1An American scholar argues that Americans’ religious faithis not itself a source of deep division; the division is over therole that religious values should play in political choices.*Do you agree or disagree? What evidence can you offer tosupport your position?• Under what circumstances is protecting the health of thecommunity more important than the religious beliefs or valueof particular sects?• What are the advantages and disadvantages of religiousdiversity in society? Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 34. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 34Transparency 2 – Identifying Subquestions Sample Unit Question 2Although the First Amendment is expressed in absoluteterms, under what circumstances, if any, are limitations onfreedom of expression justifiable? Why?•Is it preferable to have a single standard that applies to allforms of expression or should there be a separate standard forso-called “hate speech”? Why or why not?• What are the benefits of freedom of expression to individualsand to society? The costs? Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 35. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 35Transparency 3 – Identifying Key Terms Sample Unit Question 3 Why was the history of the Roman Republic both an example and a warning to America’s founding generation? • Why do you think the Founders chose a republican or representative government rather than other known forms of government? • In Federalist 39, Madison argues that “It is essential to such a [republican] government that it be derived from the great body of the society, not from an inconsiderable proportion, or a favored class of it.” Do you agree or disagree? Why? Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 36. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 36TRANSPARENCY 4 - GRAPHIC ORGANIZERWrite the subquestions in the boxes below. Use the smaller boxes if a subquestion canbe broken down even further into additional subquestions. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 37. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 37 Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 38. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 38Transparency 5 – Identifying Answers to SubquestionsWhy was the history of the Roman Republic both an exampleand a warning to the founding generation?Indirect Answer The principal conquests of the Romans were achievedunder the republic, and the emperors, for the most part weresatisfied with preserving those dominions. From the initiationof Publius Valerus to the defeat of Carthage, the prosperousconditions were never better. However the narcissism of a fewmen instigated its decline and fall. With the collapse of the Roman Republic, CaesarAugustus used his newly gained power by creating numerouspolitical positions throughout his empire. . . Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 39. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 39 Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 40. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 40Appendix A Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 41. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 41 Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 42. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 42 Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 43. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 43 Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 44. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 44 Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 45. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 45Appendix BUnit 1.1 Nationals Speech The principal conquests of the Romans were achieved under the republic, and the emperors, forthe most part, were satisfied with preserving those dominions. From the initiation of Publius Valerius tothe defeat of Carthage, the prosperous conditions were never better. However, the narcissism of a fewmen instigated its decline and fall: a hallowed revolution that should serve as a warning for Americatoday. With the collapse of the Roman Republic, Caesar Augustus used his newly gained power bycreating numerous political positions throughout his empire. The most common were magistrates, both inRome and in the provinces. As the appointees took their positions, constitutional freedom diminishedthroughout the Roman world. Thus began the decline and fall of the Roman Republic, as Edward Gibbon, a contemporary of theFounding Fathers, stated in 1776. As more officials became corrupt, so too did the entire Senate majority,and eventually Caesar himself. Adam Smith wrote that luxury destroys republics, and as the fate of theRoman world hung in the balance between civic virtue and self-interest, the latter became more successfulfor Roman senators. John Adams, in a letter written to his wife while at the second continental congress on the eve ofthe approval of the Declaration of Independence, wrote, “It is the will of God that these two nations besundered forever,” so that “…the people will have unbounded power.” Just as Roman citizens usurpedthe Tarquin kings, the founders regarded taxation without a vote in parliament as slavery, so they wishedto eliminate virtual representation and create a system based on popular sovereignty. However, Plato believed that, in order for republicanism to succeed, citizens must have sharedvalues and civic virtue. Only then can people and governors put society before self. If this is not the case,he warns us, much like Aristotle, “Democracy passes to despotism.” The Romans fascinated the Greek historian Polybius. He discovered that Rome functioned as amix of autocracy, oligarchy, and republic; and he credited this mixed government with the success of thecivilization. In times of crisis that required action, the senate would temporarily hand its power to an dictator,creating a strong executive. One man would be expected to lead his country through the plight only todevolve his power back to the representatives when he was done. The most famous example isCincinnatus. The immense landmass which America encompassed made a republic, like that of Rome, theobvious choice, for any other choice would create dispute among the already existing states. Withrepresentative democracy and enfranchisement offered to both Rome and its conquered dominions, Romesucceeded in creating the largest and most successful civilization the founders could have studied. What Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 46. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 46the founders learned from Rome can be seen in Federalist 10, where Madison said that a Republic is thebest way to expand the vote to the people of a large nation and prevent the iron law of oligarchy. Rome, with the office of the Tribune, created a way for the lowest classes of society to berepresented in government. However, those with the highest standing in society primarily governed theRoman Republic. To become a citizen, and thus to be able to hold office or vote, one had to be Latin,male, and a land owner. Consequently, voters were educated. Early founders agreed with David Hume, saying that publicopinion must be refined and passion must be separated from reason. They believed that the uneducatedmasses could not be trusted with the success of government, so they created institutions that helped toremove government from their control. The early senate and the Electoral College are two examples.However, they also created a judiciary that would serve to protect the people from true oligarchy, muchlike the Tribunes of Rome. Madison’s argument in Federalist 39 is ideal, but the issue is that he contradicts himself. In fact,he and many founders believed in keeping the power to vote from certain classes and races. We agree in expanding suffrage, and so did the Romans, who offered a place in society to theirvanquished enemies. In A Theory of Justice, political philosopher John Rawls said that we must expandenfranchisement to guarantee fairness. Only then can our government “establish justice” and “promotethe general welfare.” The founders wished to emulate the successes of the Roman republic. With large population andland, they knew that a republic could afford rights to citizens while ensuring protection from mobdemocracy because popular sovereignty with limits ensured a successful state. While the successes of theearly Rome were a paragon of republicanism, its fall is a grim warning of what it can become. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 47. We the People Participant Guide for Alumni Expert Training
  • 48. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 48Welcome, We the People Alumni Expert!Thank you very much for volunteering as an alumni expert for the Munster High SchoolWe the People program. The We the People programs were created in 1987 by an act ofCongress, with Chief Justice Warren E. Burger serving as first chairman, in order to fostergreater citizenship in our youth. The program allows young people an in-depth examinationof our founding documents as well as the history and philosophy surrounding them. Studentsget to study our legal and governmental systems and see their role within them. Your work inhelping them explore the material and prepare for competition is very much appreciated.The course is divided into six units with 3-4 students assigned specifically to a unit. While theclass as a whole will study the entire text and accompanying materials, students will beasked to specialize in one particular unit. Each unit will have two or three experts assigned totheir group to serve as a resource and guide. (That’s you). On Monday evenings, starting onOctober 9, 2011, we will work from 5-7:30 p.m. The students will have examined the questionsand already have a pretty good idea of how they wish to answer them from our work inclass. Your job will be to challenge their ideas, point them in the right direction for additionalmaterials, and help them develop expertise in their unit. As the Mondays progress, you canhelp students find ways to articulate their ideas and use the supporting content for follow-upquestions.Training sessions for alumni experts will take place in two separate sessions, each lasting anhour and a half. This training booklet is designed for you to refer to throughout the We thePeople season. I hope you have as much fun serving as an alumni expert as you did as amember of the We the People team. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 49. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 49We the People Expert Pre-Test (Small-Group Discussion)1.) Think about your experiences as a We the People student and, in particular, of theMonday night practices. Which aspects of the practices were the most productive? Whichwere the least productive?2.) Of the various speeches you wrote (districts, state, etc.), which was the most successful?Think about both the writing process and the components of that speech. Why did it turnout so well?3.) When answering follow-up questions, which members of your team had the mostgrowth? What were the reasons for this growth? How can we foster this growth?4.) Who (among last year’s alumni) gave the most helpful feedback? Consider thesubstance and manner of the feedback. Why was it so helpful? Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 50. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 50We the People Expert Training ObjectivesBy the end of this training session, you will be able to accomplish the followingduring a team practice: Speech Objectives 1. Correctly identify and label all subquestions and key terms in a unit within 5-10 minutes. 2. Correctly determine whether the speech contains answers to all subquestions. 3. Correctly identify whether the speech defines or explains all key terms. 4. Evaluate how well a speech incorporates relevant sources. 5. Effectively convey to team members how well the following tasks were completed: subquestions were answered, key terms were explained or defined, and sources supported the arguments. 6. During practice, detect grammar and stylistic flaws and spelling and punctuation errors. 7. Time the speech and formulate methods for extending or condensing the speech to four minutes in length. Follow-up Objectives 1. Use the content of the speech and a handout of pre-written questions to generate appropriate follow-up questions. 2. Evaluate the answer’s adherence to the source-analysis-example-answer method of answering questions. 3. After listening to answers to follow-up questions, We the People unit speech, learners will, using their hard copy of the speech, effectively convey to team members how well they executed the following: a. Used the source-analysis-example-answer method of answering questions. b. Balanced answers among all members of the team. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 51. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 51SECTION 1The first section of this guide will deal with how to use the unit handout. This is the handoutcontaining all the questions that are assigned for a district, state, or national competition.Breaking Down Unit QuestionsAs a former We the People student, you are familiar with how the unit questions look. Eachunit question contains multiple subquestions that the speech must answer:When you are working as an expert, you need to identify each subquestion so that while youare listening to the students read the speech, you can quickly discern whether or not eachsubquestion has been answered.Consider the example below (this is a Unit 5 question). An American scholar argues that Americans’ religious faith is not itself a source of deep division; the division is Quote that serves as The question’s focus over the role that religious values should play in political choices.* Do you agree or disagree? What evidence can you offer to support your position? 2. 1. 4. • Under what circumstances is protecting the health of the community more important than the religious beliefs or values 3. of particular sects? 6. 5,As you can see, there are six parts to the question, or six subquestions that the speech mustanswer. The following pages will give you an example of a labeled subquestion and tips onidentifying subquestions. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 52. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 52Labeling subquestions is helpful because, when you are listening to the students read aspeech, you can quickly identify whether each subquestion is answered. It is a good idea to cross off subquestions as they are answered. This way, you can direct students to the subquestions that have not been answered as soon as they aredone reading the speech. In addition, underlining key terms in the question can focus your attention on key features of the question.Sample Labeled Unit Question: An American scholar argues that Americans’ religious faith is not itself a source of deep division; the division is over the role that religious values should play in political choices.* 1[Do you agree or disagree?] 2[What evidence can you offer to support your position?] • Under what circumstances is protecting the health of the community more important than the 3[religious beliefs] or 4[values] of particular sects? • What are the 5[advantages] and 6[disadvantages] of religious diversity in society?This sample uses brackets, numbering, and underlining to highlight the different subquestions,as well as key features of the subquestion.Try this yourself with the example below: Although the First Amendment is expressed in absolute terms, under what circumstances, if any, are limitations on freedom of expression justifiable? Why? • Is it preferable to have a single standard that applies to all forms of expression or should there be a separate standard for so-called “hate speech”? Why or why not? • What are the benefits of freedom of expression to individuals and to society? The costs? Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 53. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 53You may want to take a few minutes before you meet with the students to label yoursubquestions. Here are some tips to help you identify the subquestions: 1.) The first thing you want to do is look for question marks: What are the benefits of freedom of expression to individuals and to society? The costs? 2.) The next thing you want to do is look for multiple interrogative pronouns in one question. Interrogative pronouns include: What Which Who Whom Whose How* Why* *(While not strictly interrogative pronouns, for our purposes, we can include these in o list as well) If you don’t look carefully for multiple interrogative pronouns, you can overlook the fact that what appears to be one question actually contains two separate questions: 1 E.g. How and 2why were written guarantees of basic rights important in the development of Americans’ ideas about government? 3.) You also want to look for groups of words joined by the coordinating conjunctions and or or. Consider the two examples below: 1. In what ways were colonial legislatures more 1representative and 2 independent than the British parliament? 2. What are the 5advantages and 6disadvantages of religious diversity in society? In the first example, the two subquestions focus on two standards of comparison, one focusing on representativeness and the other focusing on independence, In the second example, the two subquestions focus on opposing sides of one issue. These types of questions are quite common (they are what make researching for We the People so wonderfully complex!) Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 54. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 54Identifying Key TermsKey terms are usually significant features of the unit question, and defining or explainingthem sets parameters for arguments in speeches and lets the judges know that teammembers have a correct understanding of those terms. As the students read their speeches at practice, you should check to make sure thatall key terms have been defined or explained. Key terms include:Proper Nouns – Magna Carta, Words ending with “ism” –Alexis de Tocqueville, the republicanism, constitutionalismReformationTheories – social contract theory, Subject-specific terms (jargon) –unitary theory sovereignty, divided government, bully pulpitKey terms also included any words or phrases in the unit handout that are italicized or set off inquotes. Unless those terms are the focus of the question, (see First Amendment in the example Keyterms do not include words or phrases that most laypersons can identify, such as social class orexecutive branchJust as you highlighted the subquestions on your unit handout, you should list key terms nextto the unit question, and, while the students are reading the speeches, cross off those thathave been defined. This way, you can quickly identify which terms students will need todefine when giving them feedback. Consider the example below: First Amendment absolute terms freedom of expression “hate speech” Although the First Amendment is expressed in absolute terms, under what circumstances, if any, are limitations on freedom of expression justifiable? Why? Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 55. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 55Now it’s your turn! Identify and list key terms for the example below. The first has beencompleted for you: Roman Republic Why was the history of the Roman Republic both an example and a warning to America’s founding generation? • Why do you think the Founders chose a republican or representative government rather than other known forms of government? • In Federalist 39, Madison argues that “It is essential to such a [republican] government that it be derived from the great body of the society, not from an inconsiderable proportion, or a favored class of it.” Do you agree or disagree? Why?SECTION 2Section 1 of this guide covered how to label your unit handout to make it more useful. Section 2 willdeal with how to evaluate the student speeches. The three main questions that you need to ask are:1.) Does the speech answer all the subquestions? 2.) Have all key terms been defined or explained?and 3.) How effective is the use of sources in this speech?Identifying Answers to SubquestionsOne of the common problems that We the People students struggle with when writing their speechesis making sure that all of the subquestions in a unit question have been answered. As an expert, youwant to ensure that the student speech directly answers each subquestion, rather than merelydealing with the same information identified in the subquestion. Here is a subquestion with an answerthat is not direct. SubquestionAnswer (not direct)Tocqueville said Americans sought to rely on their A own efforts to solve problems and “resist the evils and difficulties of life.” Is that still true today? What evidence can you offer?In contemporary America, many Americans prefer a socialist type of government. For example, many of them receive various forms of financial help from the federal government, such as Medicare, Medicaid, unemployment, a and Social Security. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 56. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 56This answer doesn’t directly address the question. It deals with a subject that is parallel to thesubquestion (arguing that Americans prefer a “more socialist government” and receive financial helpfrom the federal government ) rather than informing us whether the same self-sufficiency that deTocqueville observed can be found in America today. A direct answer to the question will restate key parts of the question. Consider the reworked example below: SubquestionAnswer (direct)de Tocqueville said Americans sought to rely on their A own efforts to solve problems and “resist the evils and difficulties of life.” Is that still true today? What evidence can you offer?In contemporary America, Americans rely to some extent on their own efforts to solve problems, but nowhere near to the degree that de Tocqueville observed. For example, during deTocqueville ‘s era, American families would not have considered receiving money from the government, as they do today, when facing financial difficulties. receive various forms of financial help from the federal government, such as Medicare,This is a more direct answer to the subquestion. It uses the same language as the subquestion, asshown in the highlighted phrases above. When you are reviewing the student’s speech, make surethe speech directly answers all subquestions (preferably, in an accurate fashion!)On a separate sheet of paper, rephrase the following indirect answer so that it answers thesubquestion more directly. You may add words, phrases, or sentences. SubquestionAnswer (direct)Why was the history of the Roman Republic both an A example and a warning to the founding generation?The principal conquests of the Romans were achieved under the republic, and the emperors, for the most part were satisfied with preserving those dominions. From the initiation of Publius Valerus to the defeat of Carthage, the prosperous conditions were never better. However the narcissism of a few men instigated its decline and fall. With the collapse of the Roman Republic, Caesar Augustus used his newly gained power by creating numerous political positions throught his empire. . . Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 57. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 57Evaluating The Use of Key TermsYou have already practiced identifying key terms in the unit question. Now let’s look at howkey terms should be defined or explained:Consider the following question: 3.3 “The Due Process Clause is a constitutional guarantee that includes the interests of the whole public, not just defendants.”* Do you agree or disagree with this contention? Why? How would you distinguish between procedural and substantive due process and why are both important? How is the idea of fundamental rights related to natural rights philosophy?The following passages effectively define and explain the term due process.Due process has been effective and has This passage effectively defines thewithstood the trials of time to protect the term due process.innocent from being found guilty, by means ofour right to counsel,which was implemented in Gideon v. This passage begins with source, aWainwright to protect the guilty from landmark case that illustrates oneunneeded abuse, like aspect of due process, THENin Hamdan v. Rumsfeld to make fair processes Continues with a second source, ain order to use the services available to us, like more recent court case that illustratesthe selection of jurors to navigate the another aspect of due processbureaucracy, and ultimately, to live in society.Due process goes beyond the scope of trial law. This passage provides informationIt protects us in many aspects of life, and in beyond the basic definition of the termour day-to-day activities. The Due ProcessClause guarantees more than fair process, andthe "liberty" it protects includes more thanthe absence of physical restraint. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 58. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 58This speech defines and illustrates the concept of due process so extensively because it is thecentral focus of the unit question. The following passage defines the term fundamental right, which isless central to the question but still important.A fundamental right is one that is necessary for This is the only passage in the speech thatfairness or due process. Fundamental rights aren’t defines and explains the key termalways enumerated in the Constitution, but as fundamental right. It effectively provides adecided in Michael v. Gerald, they are so rooted in definition and uses a court case to illustratethe traditions and conscience of our people as to be the concept.ranked fundamental.Let’s evaluate the use of key terms in another example. What suggestions would you make toimprove the definition of the key term democracy in the following passage? SubquestionAnswer “In comparison to other democracies the American political culture still A contains many of the values that make for vibrant democracy, and these may have even increased over the past several decades. Tocqueville would not recognize contemporary America, but he still might conclude that his observations about democracy in America generally hold true today.”* Do you agree or disagree? Why? In the 1830s, De Tocqueville was able to comment upon America. In his book Democracy in America, he writes that America has the characteristics vital to a vibrant democracy which include political equality and discourse, along with opportunity and b equality of condition which will in turn make us into the superpower he predicted we would be.Evaluating the Use of SourcesAs you may recall, using of sources to support arguments is extremely important in both thespeeches and follow-up questions. In order to refresh your memory, a list of types of sources andcorresponding examples is provided below: The Constitution Scholars – V.O. Key Founding Documents - The Public Figures - Chief Justice John Declaration of Independence Roberts Ratification/Debate Documents – News Sources – CNN, Newsweek The Federalist Papers (cont’d) Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 59. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 59 Court Cases – Tinker v. Des Moines Current Events – references to the health care debate Political Scientists – Robert Dahl Statistics Philosophers – John LockeReferences to sources in speeches should be relevant and specific. Consider thissubquestion: de Tocqueville said there was greater opportunity and equality of condition among people in America than anywhere else. Is that still true today? What evidence can you offer?Below are comparisons between effective and ineffective ways of using sources to answerthis subquestion. I Irrelevant Use of SourceRelevant Use of SourceToday, however, education is the new path to success. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor, the average annual salary without a high school GED is 24,000, whereas the average annual salary with a master’s degree is $63,000.Now, education serves as the primary method of social mobility. For example, the GI Bill allows any citizen to serve in the military and receive a college education. According to the Department of Veterans Affairs, 339,742 veterans used their GI Bill Benefits to pay for higher education in 2002.The first example uses a statistic that demonstrates the importance of education in achievinga higher standard living. However, the question asks for evidence that supports or refutes theidea that Americans can receive those educational opportunities and achieve greaterequality of condition. The second example does a much better job demonstrating thatAmericans today have opportunities to rise insocioeconomic status.Selecting relevant sources is probably the most difficult challenge of using sources. As anexpert, you will not be expected to ensure that every single source in a speech is relevant.However, it is a useful standard to be aware of and point out to students. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 60. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 60 Sources should also be specific. if you are citing a statement from a speech by an official, include the context of the speechE.g. “In his inaugural address, John F. Kennedy stated. . .”, or if you are citing an argumentmade by a scholar, include the title of the scholarly work—eg. “In A Revolutionary People atWar, Charles Royster argues. . .”Consider this example: Vague Use of SourceSpecific Use of SourceThe Magna Carta’s stress on property rights S facilitated a return of power to the people. In addition, it exemplifies government by agreement or contract.The Magna Carta’s stress on property rights facilitated a return of power to the people, as Chapters 30 and 31 give the common man the right to his property by limiting what resources the government can claim without the consent of the owner. In addition, it exemplifies government by agreement or contract.Because the Magna Carta is a lengthy document, the specific chapters that refer toproperty rights should be included. When you are reviewing student speeches, this type oferror often stands out—for instance, when reading the first statement on the Magna Cartaabove, you may have wondered “Which part of the Magna Carta does this refer to?” Letstudents know if you think they need a more specific source.SECTION 3Now that we have reviewed the basics for evaluating the content of the speech, we will reviewguidelines for revising speeches for grammar, spelling, clarity and length.Proofreading a SpeechBecause experts have to attend to so many details when evaluating a speech, and becauseWe the People students should know how to proofread, you will probably not do muchproofreading on speeches. If there are more than ten grammar, spelling, or punctuation errors in a speech (combined), chances are that the students did not take the time to proofread it. In thiscase, simply remind students that they should go back and proofread the speech and let theinstructor know. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 61. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 61 If there are less than ten errors, you may wish to make corrections on your copy and give feedback on these errors. Below are some basic proofreading marks that you may wish touse:Understanding Parallel Structure & Active VoiceA good writer uses parallel structure; that is, he or she puts nouns, verbs, phrases, thoughts, and so oninto a similar form. This is done primarily for style: it makes the speech easier for a listener tounderstand. Often, sentences that seem to be correct but just sound wrong have a lack ofparallelism at the core of their problem. In addition, using parallel structure helps condense thespeech to fit the four-minute time limit.Here are some examples of parallel structure: Nonparallel Parallel Students spend their time going to classes,studying, Students spend their time going to working, and they wish they had time for a social life. classes,studying, working, and wishing for a social life. By the end of the quarter theyre exhausted, irritable, and By the end of the quarter theyre exhausted, have learned a lot. irritable and smarter BCC students hope for early registration dates, and BCC students hope for early registration dates and close-in parking spaces are important, too. close-in parking spaces. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 62. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 62The examples on the left give the impression that the writer is undecided or timid--afraid to chooseone form of expression and stick with it. The examples on the right give the impression that the writer isat least confident enough to make a choice and keep to it.Parallelism with PrepositionsSome words require that certain prepositions precede them. When such words appear in parallelstructure, it is important to include all of the appropriate prepositions, since the first one may notapply to the whole series of items. Nonparallel Parallel His speech was marked by disagreement and scorn His speech was marked by disagreement with and scorn for his opponents position for his opponents position.Parallelism with Correlative ExpressionsSentences with correlative expressions (both/and; not/but; not only/but also; either/or; first, second,third) should employ parallel structure as well. Simple rewriting can often remedy errors in these typesof sentences. Nonparallel Parallel A time not for words but action a time not for words but for action Either you must grant her request or incur her ill will You must either grant her request or incur her ill will. My objections are first, the injustice of the measure, My objections are first, that the measure is unjust, and second, that it is unconstitutional. and second, that it is unconstitutional. If excerpts from a speech sound awkward, look to see if parallel structure can be employed.Active & Passive Voice Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 63. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 63Because passive voice sentences necessarily add words and change the normal doer-action-receiver of action direction, they may be more difficult to comprehend than active voice sentences.As the examples below illustrate, a sentence in active voice flows more smoothly and is easier tounderstand than the same sentence in passive voice.It is generally preferable to use the ACTIVE voice.To change a passive voice sentence into an active voice sentence, simply reverse the steps shownabove. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 64. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 64 1. Move the passive sentences subject into the active sentences direct object slot 2. Remove the auxiliary verb be from the main verb and change main verbs form if needed 3. Place the passive sentences object of the preposition by into the subject slot.Because it is more direct, most writers prefer to use the active voice whenever possibleThe passive voice may be a better choice, however, when 1. the doer of the action is unknown, unwanted, or unneeded in the sentence 2. the writer wishes to emphasize the action of the sentence rather than the doer of the actionConsider the following speech excerpts. Where appropriate: 1. Use parallel structure to improve awkward phrasing 2. Change passive verbs to active verbs. (Not all passive verbs should be changed). Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 65. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 65You may wish to use a separate sheet of paper. The Afghanistan Rule of Law Project is seeking to accomplish these 3 goals: a strong judiciary, cooperation between formal and informal justice, and everyone, especially women, having equal access to the justice system. Neither the Afghanistan Constitution nor the United States constitution is where rule of law originated. The history of rule of law dates back to 1200 BC to Hammurabi’s code or the English Magna Carta in 1215. Hammurabi’s code “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth” also included laws stating that the king could not change the law without. getting it approved by his consul. The first Senate debates, which created the Bill of Rights, organized the judiciary, created a financial system, and established peaceful relations with France and commerce with Great Britain, were the most significant in our history because the future of this country was most uncertain.Condensing or Extending a SpeechMany We the People students have difficulty keeping a speech under the four-minute time length.Use these guidelines if students need help condensing a speech: 1.) Check to see if each subquestion was answered in order. Have students underline or highlight answers to each subquestion (preferably in different colors). If one answer is significantly longer than the others, advise students to condense that answer. 2.) Check the number of sources used to support answers to subquestions. If the first answer uses two sources and the second answer uses four sources, advise students to cut two sources from the second answer (and save those sources for follow-up). 3.) Revising : Revising awkward sections of a speech by replacing passive verbs with active ones or using parallel structure can often decrease the length of a speech. Share revising tips with students!On the rare occasion that speeches need to be extended rather than condensed, check to see ifeach subquestion was answered in order. Have students underline answers to each subquestion(preferably in different colors). If one answer is significantly shorter than the others, advise students toextend that answer using the following methods: Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 66. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 66 a.) Look for sources from current events—e.g. use McDonald v. Chicago for questions about the Second Amendment b.) Look for historical examples—e.g. research the social history of America in 1831 to discuss de Tocqueville’s assertion that Americans “relied on their own efforts to resist the evils and difficulties of life) c.) Advise students to do further research on the topic, which will help generate additional content. d.) If all else fails, ask the instructor for possible sources. He will be available to help!SECTION 4After you evaluate the speech for content, style, and mechanical errors, you will sharewhat you have observed with the students. This is more difficult than it sounds.Sharing FeedbackFeedback can be helpful or unhelpful. Even though almost all negative feedback istroublesome at the time it is initially given, some negative feedback is helpful and pushes students toimprove and achieve. In other instances, negative feedback can be harmful and causeresentment, even among good-natured students. How, then, does one go about giving feedback?Follow the Do’s & Don’ts below when sharing feedback with students about their speeches.Do. . . Don’t. . .Sandwich negative comments with positive Use negative comments alone or harshlycomments: E.g. “This education example is dumb”E.g. “While it’s really clear that you guys havebeen working and you’ve answered the firstsubquestion pretty well, you need to reevaluateyour education example because it’s inconsistentwith the focus of the questionGive feedback that points the team in another Give feedback without suggestionsdirection:E.g. E.g.“What dynamics in America (can be education orother) actually further social mobility? “You need to fix this” Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 67. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 67“Let’s consider your own experiences. How are “This doesn’t answer the question!”you planning to improve your economic status inthe future?”Make suggestions: Make demands:E.g. “You might consider researching examples of E.g. “Replace this with an example of how publichow public schooling and the military afford schooling and the military afford upward mobility.”upward mobility”Draw knowledge out of your team: Talk excessively about Well, here’s your own knowledge what I know. . .“How do you think the debate over healthcareapplies to the issue of equality of condition?”It is acceptable and even desirable to share knowledge with students. However, students learn more ifthey have opportunities to discuss what they know. If you think they should know about a concept orevent, explain it briefly and suggest it as a topic for further research.SECTION 5Now that we’ve reviewed the guidelines for analyzing student speeches and sharing feedback,let’s turn to the topic of follow-up questions. The quality of students’ answers to follow-up questionsoften distinguishes good teams from average teams. As an alumni expert, your assistance withhelping student construct effective “follow-up answers” is invaluable to their success. You will not beexpected to know all of the answers to the follow-up questions, but with the knowledge you do have,you can use the following guidelines to conduct a successful practice on follow-up questions.Generating Follow-up Questions from a SpeechAfter you are done evaluating student speeches, it’s time to test their knowledge on follow-upquestions. You may choose to use the packet of follow-up questions provided for you at practice, oryou may choose to create your own follow-up questions. You can generate follow-up questions fairlyquickly using information from the actual questions or from the student speech. For example,consider the question we looked at earlier: Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 68. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 68 de Tocqueville said there was greater opportunity and equality of condition among people in America than anywhere else. Is that still true today? What evidence can you offer?You could use the following strategies to generate follow-up questions: 1. Argue the opposite side of the question: E.g. “How was de Tocqueville’s assertion incorrect, even in his era?” 2. Ask about relevant current events: E.g. “What did the recent healthcare debate suggest about opportunity and equality of condition in America? 3. Ask about historical events: E.g. Would de Tocqueville have altered his statements if he had returned to America in the 1860s?You might also ask students questions that force them to defend what they’ve written in their speech.Consider the following speech excerpt: Now, education serves as the primary method of social mobility. For example, the GI Bill allows any citizen to serve in the military and receive a college education. According to the Department of Veterans Affairs, 339,742 veterans used their GI Bill Benefits to pay for higher education in 2002.You could challenge this statement by asking: “Isn’t it true that most of the veterans that used the GI Bill wouldhave been able to attend college anyway? How, then, does the GI bill provide for social mobility?”Evaluating Follow-up AnswersAnswers to follow-up questions (“follow-up answers”) should include the followingcomponents: 1. Source 2. Analysis 3. Answer and 4. ExampleConsider this follow-up question:Should the Second Amendment be incorporated? 1. Begin with a source: “In D.C. v. Heller. . .” Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 69. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 69 2. Continue with analysis of the source—that is, an explanation of why the source was used: “In Gitlow v. New York, which defines a fundamental right. . .[answer continues with summary of a case]” 3. Answer the question: (state that the Second Amendment is or is not a fundamental right, as defined by D.C. v. Heller) 4. Provide an example that supports the argument: E.g. “In Gitlow v. New York, in 1925, the Supreme Court begins the process of incorporation by declaring that rights necessary for due process must be honored by the states due to the fourteenth amendment’s due process clause. In this particular, case, it was demonstrated that fairness, or due process, was impossible without some protections of free speech. So likewise, the Second Amendment as an individual right is equally necessary for fairness. An individual cannot protect themselves or their homes, which is certainly a fundamental human right, by any other means, when an intruder is already at the door. Even the most competent police cannot protect an individual in this instance Thus, just like the First Amendment was incorporated in Gitlow, I would hope that the Second gets incorporated in McDonald v. Chicago, which is currently on the Supreme Court’s docket.SECTION 6When you give feedback on students’ follow-up answers, you may use the same guidelines wereviewed for giving feedback on speeches. In addition, you will want to encourage students to worktogether to answer the questions so that one student does not monopolize the entire six-minutes offollow-up.Giving Feedback on Follow-up AnswersWhen giving feedback on follow-up answers, follow the “Do’s & Don’ts” outlined in Section 5(Giving Feedback on Speeches). In addition, you should try to elicit answers from reticent team members and dissuade other team members from speaking excessively. Here are some suggestions for how to accomplishthis: 1. Set some parameters before you begin the follow up session—“every student should speak once before any student speaks twice” 2. If some team members still hesitate to answer, gently prod them—“James, what do you think?” In addition, sometimes you will need to point them in the right direction—“How do Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 70. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 70 your own experiences as a We the People student resemble the framers’ experiences at the Convention?” 3. If some team members insist on talking, listen politely for a minute before responding respond “That’s a good idea. Now I want to hear what James thinks.”Thank you for volunteering your time and talents to the Wethe People program! Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 71. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 71WTP Appendix AGRAPHIC ORGANIZER Write the subquestions in the boxes below. Use the smaller boxes if asubquestion can be broken down even further into additional subquestions. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 72. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 72WTP Appendix B Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 73. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 73 Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 74. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 74 Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 75. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 75 Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 76. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 76 Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 77. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 77 Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 78. WTP Appendix CUnit 1.1 Nationals Speech The principal conquests of the Romans were achieved under the republic, and theemperors, for the most part, were satisfied with preserving those dominions. From theinitiation of Publius Valerius to the defeat of Carthage, the prosperous conditions were neverbetter. However, the narcissism of a few men instigated its decline and fall: a hallowedrevolution that should serve as a warning for America today. With the collapse of the Roman Republic, Caesar Augustus used his newly gainedpower by creating numerous political positions throughout his empire. The most commonwere magistrates, both in Rome and in the provinces. As the appointees took their positions,constitutional freedom diminished throughout the Roman world. Thus began the decline and fall of the Roman Republic, as Edward Gibbon, acontemporary of the Founding Fathers, stated in 1776. As more officials became corrupt, sotoo did the entire Senate majority, and eventually Caesar himself. Adam Smith wrote thatluxury destroys republics, and as the fate of the Roman world hung in the balance betweencivic virtue and self-interest, the latter became more successful for Roman senators. John Adams, in a letter written to his wife while at the second continental congress onthe eve of the approval of the Declaration of Independence, wrote, “It is the will of God thatthese two nations be sundered forever,” so that “…the people will have unbounded power.”Just as Roman citizens usurped the Tarquin kings, the founders regarded taxation without avote in parliament as slavery, so they wished to eliminate virtual representation and create asystem based on popular sovereignty. However, Plato believed that, in order for republicanism to succeed, citizens musthave shared values and civic virtue. Only then can people and governors put society beforeself. If this is not the case, he warns us, much like Aristotle, “Democracy passes todespotism.” The Romans fascinated the Greek historian Polybius. He discovered that Romefunctioned as a mix of autocracy, oligarchy, and republic; and he credited this mixedgovernment with the success of the civilization. In times of crisis that required action, the senate would temporarily hand its power toan dictator, creating a strong executive. One man would be expected to lead his countrythrough the plight only to devolve his power back to the representatives when he was done.The most famous example is Cincinnatus. The immense landmass which America encompassed made a republic, like that ofRome, the obvious choice, for any other choice would create dispute among the alreadyexisting states. With representative democracy and enfranchisement offered to both Romeand its conquered dominions, Rome succeeded in creating the largest and most successful
  • 79. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 79civilization the founders could have studied. What the founders learned from Rome can beseen in Federalist 10, where Madison said that a Republic is the best way to expand the voteto the people of a large nation and prevent the iron law of oligarchy. Rome, with the office of the Tribune, created a way for the lowest classes of societyto be represented in government. However, those with the highest standing in societyprimarily governed the Roman Republic. To become a citizen, and thus to be able to holdoffice or vote, one had to be Latin, male, and a land owner. Consequently, voters were educated. Early founders agreed with David Hume,saying that public opinion must be refined and passion must be separated from reason. Theybelieved that the uneducated masses could not be trusted with the success of government, sothey created institutions that helped to remove government from their control. The earlysenate and the Electoral College are two examples. However, they also created a judiciarythat would serve to protect the people from true oligarchy, much like the Tribunes of Rome. Madison’s argument in Federalist 39 is ideal, but the issue is that he contradictshimself. In fact, he and many founders believed in keeping the power to vote from certainclasses and races. We agree in expanding suffrage, and so did the Romans, who offered a place insociety to their vanquished enemies. In A Theory of Justice, political philosopher John Rawlssaid that we must expand enfranchisement to guarantee fairness. Only then can ourgovernment “establish justice” and “promote the general welfare.” The founders wished to emulate the successes of the Roman republic. With largepopulation and land, they knew that a republic could afford rights to citizens while ensuringprotection from mob democracy because popular sovereignty with limits ensured asuccessful state. While the successes of the early Rome were a paragon of republicanism, itsfall is a grim warning of what it can become. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 80. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 80WTP Appendix D We the People Alumni Expert Training EvaluationPlease rate your confidence level in managing the various tasks involved with a Mondaynight We the People practice after completing the training session. 1. Ability to identify all subquestions and key terms in the unit questions. No Confidence Some Confidence Much Confidence CompleteConfidence 2. Ability to determine whether a speech contains answers to each subquestion. No Confidence Some Confidence Much Confidence Complete Confidence 3. Ability to identify whether a speech defines or explains all key terms in a unit question. No Confidence Some Confidence Much Confidence Complete Confidence 4. Ability to evaluate how well a speech uses relevant sources. No Confidence Some Confidence Much Confidence Complete Confidence 5. Ability to recognize mechanical and stylistic flaws in speeches. No Confidence Some Confidence Much Confidence Complete Confidence 6. Ability to suggest methods for condensing or extending a speech Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 81. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 81 No Confidence Some Confidence Much Confidence Complete Confidence 7. Ability to generate questions using the content of a speech. No Confidence Some Confidence Much Confidence Complete Confidence 8. Ability to recognize whether a follow-up answer adheres to the Source-Analysis-Answer- Example method of answering follow-up questions No Confidence Some Confidence Much Confidence Complete Confidence Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 82. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 82 Formative Evaluation of the Instructional Design on We the People Alumni Expert TrainingPurposes of Evaluation The purpose of this evaluation was to test the instructional materials created and to assess the need for changes. The information gathered by this evaluation was used by the instructional designer to “fine tune” the training material. It will also be presented to the SME, the We the People instructor at Munster High School, to review and plan a timeline for implementation. Evaluation of Objectives and /or Affective Response The instructional objectives were reviewed to determine if they were accomplished during the instruction and to assess the need for changes to better aid We the People alumni experts in achieving the training objectives. Responses to the Alumni Expert Training Questionnaire were evaluated to assess the affective responses to the training session. Evaluation of Target Course / Unit The effectiveness of the WTP Alumni Expert Training Session will be determined by the WTP instructor, who will assess the progress (using a rubric) of the 2011 WTP alumni experts on a weekly basis to: 1.) Determine whether their ability to meet the objectives exceeds the ability of the alumni experts of the previous year; AND 2.) Determine whether their ability to meet the objectives improve each week. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 83. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 83Methodology The instructional designer met with the SME to review all training material. The meeting took place in the SME’s classroom, and copies of the Instructor Guide, the Participant Guide, and the Instructor PowerPoint presentation were evaluated. The SME was asked to make written comments on the thoroughness and accuracy of the training material and to determine if any content was missing or incomplete. The instructional designer and the SME also met simultaneously with two adult We the People experts in the school library for trials. The designer observed the SME execute the training program and observed the adult experts identify and label subquestions and key terms, evaluate whether speech passages directly answered the subquestions, evaluate the use of sources, evaluate the use of key, suggest methods for extending and condensing a sample speech, practice using parallel structure and active voice, and practice using proofing marks. The adult experts and SME also discussed methods for sharing feedback on speeches and follow-up questions. The adult experts then reviewed the Participant Guide individually and made written suggestions for improvement. The WTP Alumni Expert Training Session Self- Assessment checklist was use to ensure that all components of the training were complete After the training session was completed, the adult experts were interviewed individually to obtain suggestions for improvement for the instructional material, suggestions for how to pace the training session, and their personal feelings about the instructional material. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 84. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 84 Participants Participants included the SME who is the WTP instructor, and two adult We the People experts. SME The project SME was the WTP instructor. The SME has been a WTP instructor for eight years and a government teacher for twelve years; his collective teams have earned four state championships (and four trips to nationals, two of which resulted in Top 10 finishes) and four second-place state titles. His adult expert program is in its fifth season and the alumni expert program is in its second season. In addition to coordinating expert practice nights for the WTP team, the SME conducts similar sessions with each of the six units on a weekly basis during the WTP season. He has attended seven WTP Summer Institute programs and trained secondary teachers in the basics of launching a program. One-to-One Trials (conducted simultaneously with two adult experts due to time constraints) The instructional designer chose two adult experts to test the instructional material. One expert has been working at Monday night practices for two years and attended district, state, and national competitions. This expert has a political science degree, is working on Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 85. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 85 a secondary social studies teaching license, and would like to be a WTP instructor. The other expert has been working at Monday night practices for several months and holds a B.S. in political science and a J.D. in law. Both experts have positive attitudes towards the WTP program. Instruments The instructional designer used the information gathered from interviews with the SME and the annotated notes in the Instructor Guide and the Instructor PowerPoint presentation to make improvements to the instruction. The instructional designer used the information from the Training Evaluation Questionnaire, the Self-Assessment Checklist, and personal interviews to make improvements on the clarity of the instruction.Results Analyses (description) Qualitative methods were used to analyze the data obtained from the evaluation of the instructional materials. Qualitative analysis was used for the information gathered from the Training Evaluation Questionnaire (Appendix A), Self-Assessment Checklist (Appendix B), and personal interviews. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 86. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 86 Findings (explanation) The findings from the SME were positive. He felt that that the instructional materials were detailed, thorough, and well-designed. He was able to conduct a relative smooth training session with the participants, the two adult experts. The participants were able to complete all of the individual learning modules and understand the participant guide without assistance. In addition, the participants had positive affective responses on the Training Evaluation Questionnaire. They each expressed either “much confidence” or “complete confidence” in executing the various tasks of training session, except for one area in which one participated expressed “some confidence” (detecting mechanical and stylistic flaws in speeches). Because of the length of the training program (2.5 – 3 hours), it was determined that the training could be conducted over the course of two sessions.Conclusions and Recommendations The SME was pleased with the instructional materials, but made several suggestions for improvement. He suggested that the “tips” outlined in the text of the instruction be offset and marked with an icon from the conversational introduction to each component of the instruction. This would allow the participant to focus on the more salient features of instruction, both during the training session and during personal use throughout the WTP season. In addition, the SME suggested that the Participant Guide include an Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 87. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 87 introductory paragraph describing the Monday night program and a concluding thank you note to the participants. He suggested that the instructional designer change references to “the reader” in the instructional components dealing with grammar and style, as the speeches will be judged primarily by “listeners”. In addition, he did not care for the conversational tone of some parts of the Participant Guide, but allowed that the participants would probably not have a problem with it. Finally, the SME offered to compile a list of electronic resources used by WTP members for the adult expert participants at some point in the near future. The participants also liked the instructional materials and noted that they helped clarify expectations for how to proceed with various tasks during Monday night practices. They liked the conversational tone of the participant guide. They did find several typographical errors and an error where the same example was used twice on p. 9 of the participant guide (direct and indirect answers to subquestions). Finally, two suggestions were made: 1.) That the training be conducted in two separate sessions to give the participants time to process the information, and to decrease mental fatigue during the training session, AND 2.) That no more than 8 participants attend each training session so that they could receive adequate attention from the instructor during partner work. In conclusion, the instructional materials designed provided effective training for alumni experts in the We the People program and clarified the expectations Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 88. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 88 of both the SME and the participants for how to proceed on Monday night practices.Plan for Small Group Evaluation Small group implementation of the We the People alumni expert training program will take place at the end of the 2009-2010 school year. The group will consist of 6 current WTP members who will be seniors during the 2010-2011. At the beginning of the 2010-2011 WTP season at the end of September, a full field trial of all 18 alumni experts who participated as juniors during the 2009-2010 season will be implemented. Nine experts will participate in the first of the two-part training sessions, which will each last 1.5 hours. Nine experts will participate in the second of the two-part training sessions, which will each last 1.5 hours. The six members who participated in the small group training will be evenly distributed between the first and second training session so that they can serve as mentors to the other alumni experts. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 89. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 89Appendix A Survey of Alumni Experts1. How comfortable are you with the existing structure of unit practices (receive a generaloutline of tasks to complete, but manage procedures, pacing, etc. on your own)?a. Not comfortableb. Somewhat comfortablec. Very comfortable2. How difficult is it to evaluate speeches that you are hearing for the first time? a. Not difficult b. Somewhat difficult c. Very difficult3. How familiar are you with the information covered by the unit questions? a. Not familiar b. Somewhat familiar c. Very familiar4. Which of the following methods do you prefer to use when asking follow-up questions? a. Using the prepared follow-up questions b. Creating your own follow-up questions5. How comfortable are you giving negative feedback to answers on follow-up questions? a. Not comfortable b. Somewhat comfortable c. Very comfortable6. Circle any of the following that apply: a. I ask a large number of follow-up questions to see what team members know. b. I ask a few follow-up questions and focus on advising members on how to develop their responses. c. I save drafts of unit speeches to see if members made suggested changes. d. I keep some sort of written record of follow-up questions asked. e. I give different types of feedback to speeches and follow-up answers based on howfar into the season the team has progressed. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 90. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 907. Rank the following in terms of what you think should be covered in an expert orientation,with “1” being the topic you are most interested in covering and “4” being the topic you areleast interested in covering.____ Guidelines for pacing____ Guidelines for giving feedback on speeches____ Guidelines for giving feedback on follow-up answers____ Guidelines for following up with team members independentlyAppendix B Survey of Team Members1. How helpful are the alumni experts with regard to evaluating your speeches? a. Very helpful b. Somewhat helpful c. Not helpful2. How helpful are the alumni experts with regard to evaluating follow-up answers? a. Very helpful b. Somewhat helpful c. Not helpful3. How often do the alumni experts stray off topic? a. Not often b. Somewhat often c. Very often4. How often do you make changes in response to experts’ suggestions? a. Every week b. Every other week c. Two times a month or fewer5. How often do you share feedback from the experts with your instructor? a. Frequently b. Sometimes c. Never6. Rank the following in terms of what you would like to see covered in an expertorientation, with “1” being the topic you are most interested in covering and “4” being thetopic you are least interested in covering Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 91. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 91____ Guidelines for pacing____ Guidelines for giving feedback on speeches____ Guidelines for giving feedback on follow-up answers____ Guidelines for following up with team members independentlyAppendix C Responses to Survey QuestionsTable 3. Perceptions of Learner Skill Level - Speeches Difficulty with speeches Not Somewhat Very Learners: 25% 75% 0% Familiarity with content (for Very Somewhat Not speeches) Learners: 50% 50% 0% Helpfulness with speeches Very Somewhat Not Team members 17% 66% 17%Table 4. Perceptions of Learner Skill Level – Follow-up Questions Difficulty with follow-up Not Somewhat Very questions (giving negative feedback) Learners: 0% 100% 0% Preference for follow-up Create Questions Use pre-existing questions questions Learners: 25% 75% Helpfulness with follow-up Very Somewhat Not questions Team member Ratings 17% 66% 17% Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 92. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 92Appendix D We the People Alumni Expert Training Evaluation QuestionnairePlease rate your confidence level on a scale of 1-5 on how confident you feel about managingthe various tasks involved with a Monday night We the People practice after completing thetraining session 9. Ability to identify all subquestions and key terms in the unit questions. No Confidence Some Confidence Much Confidence Complete Confidence 10. Ability to determine whether a speech contains answers to each subquestion. No Confidence Some Confidence Much Confidence Complete Confidence 11. Ability to indentify whether a speech defines or explains all key terms in a unit question. No Confidence Some Confidence Much Confidence Complete Confidence 12. Ability to evaluate how well a speech uses relevant sources. No Confidence Some Confidence Much Confidence Complete Confidence 13. Ability to recognize mechanical and stylistic flaws in speeches. No Confidence Some Confidence Much Confidence Complete Confidence 14. Ability to suggest methods for condensing or extending a speech Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 93. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 93 No Confidence Some Confidence Much Confidence Complete Confidence 15. Ability to generate questions using the content of a speech. No Confidence Some Confidence Much Confidence Complete Confidence Confidence 16. Ability to recognize whether a follow-up answer adheres to the Source-Analysis-Answer- Example method of answering follow-up questions No Confidence Some Confidence Much Confidence Complete Confidence 17. Ability to give effective feedback on speeches and follow-up answers No Confidence Some Confidence Much Confidence Complete ConfidenceAppendix E We the People Alumni Expert Training Assessment ChecklistI have:________ Attended a training session________ Identified and labeled all subquestions for Unit 1 (2009-2010) and identified key terms in those ubquestions within 10 minutes.________ Determined whether the Unit 1.1 Nationals speech contained answers to all corresponding subquestions.________ Evaluated how well the Unit 1.1 Nationals speech incorporated relevant sources Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010
  • 94. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design 94________ Reviewed how to give effective feedback to team members on speeches and follow-up answers.________ Detected grammar, punctuation, and spelling errors, using proofing marks to make corrections.________ Detected stylistic flaws such as use of passive voice and non-parallel structure and made appropriate corrections in sample passages.________ Discussed methods for extending or condensing a speech.________ Generated follow-up questions using the content of the Unit 1.1 Nationals speech.________ Reviewed the SAAE method of answering questions and an effective example of this method. Kathleen Gordon EDCI 172 - Spring 2010