Managing Change  Pauline Hall
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Managing Change Pauline Hall






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Managing Change  Pauline Hall Managing Change Pauline Hall Presentation Transcript

  • Managing change Pauline Hall
  • Seminar
    • Strategies for dealing with change
    • Stakeholder management
    • Handling resistance
    • Effective communications
  • Useful Tools
    • Force-field analysis
    • Change Equation
    • Zigarnick Effect
    • Stakeholder Analysis
    • VICRA
  • Change
    • What words come to mind when you think of change ?
  • Building blocks for successful change - ADKAR
    • Awareness
      • of why the change is needed
    • Desire
      • to support and participate in the change
    • Knowledge
      • of how to change
    • Ability
      • to implement new skills and behaviours
    • Reinforcement
      • to sustain the change
  • Why organisations fail to transform using projects
    • Too much complacency
    • Not creating a powerful enough coalition
    • Underestimating the power of vision
    • Not communicating the vision adequately
    • Permitting obstacles to block the vision
    • Failure to create short term wins
    • Declaring victory too soon
    • Neglecting to anchor changes firmly in culture
  • Consequences
    • New strategies not implemented well
    • Change takes too long and costs too much
    • Costs are not controlled
    • Quality programmes don’t deliver results
  • Success in change management
    • Take account of rational, political and emotional dimensions to change
  • Management vs leadership
      • Lead by example
      • Are visionary
      • Are technically competent
      • Are decisive
      • Are good communicators
      • Are good motivators
      • Stand up to upper management when necessary
      • Have supportive team members
      • Encourage new ideas
      • Credible
      • Creative problem solvers
      • Tolerant of ambiguity
      • Flexible in management style
      • Well organized
      • Effective team builders
      • Effective at coping
      • Enthusiastic about the project
      • Effective change managers
      • Oriented to the customer
  • Kotter’s view
    • Establish a sense of urgency
    • Create a guiding coalition
    • Develop a vision and strategy
    • Communicate the change vision
    • Empower employees for broad-based action
    • Generate short term wins
    • Consolidate gains, produce more change
    • Anchor new approaches in culture
  • Steps (another view)
    • Define goals
    • Establish trust
    • Jointly develop a vision
    • Experiment, facilitate and review
    • Communicate the change to all people affected and explain the reasons why the changes are occurring
    • Provide support to employees as they deal with the change
    • Consistently monitor and review for effectiveness
  • Stakeholder management
  • Stakeholder management
    • Stakeholder Analysis
      • Discover who your stakeholders are
      • Map them: work out their power, influence, interest and impact
      • Understand : develop a good understanding of the most important stakeholders
    • Plan based on what you learned
  • Who are your stakeholders?
    • Think of all the people who are affected by your work, who have influence or power over it, or have an interest in its successful or unsuccessful conclusion.
    • Some of the people who might be stakeholders in your job or in your projects:
    Your family The community Future recruits Prospective customers The public Analysts Customers Interest groups Lenders Your team The press Suppliers Your co-workers Trades associations Alliance partners Senior executives Government Suppliers Your boss
  • Stakeholder influence wheel
  • Discover: Identify your own stakeholders
  • Map: Support Impact Grid SUPPORT IMPACT
  • Understand: Position on the grid
    • High support, High impact people
      • these are the people you must fully engage and make the greatest efforts to satisfy.
    • High support, low impact people
      • put enough work in with these people to keep them satisfied, but not so much that they become bored with your message.
    • Low support, high impact people
      • keep these people adequately informed, and talk to them to ensure that no major issues are arising. These people can often be very helpful with the detail of your project.
    • Low support, low impact people
      • again, monitor these people, but do not bore them with excessive communication.
  • What’s in it for them?
    • What financial or emotional interest do they have in the outcome of your work? Is it positive or negative?
    • What motivates them most of all?
    • What information do they want from you? How do they want to receive information from you? What is the best way of communicating your message to them?
    • What is their current opinion of your work? Is it based on good information?
    • Who influences their opinions generally, and who influences their opinion of you? Do some of these influencers therefore become important stakeholders in their own right?
    • If they are not likely to be positive, what will win them around to support your project?
    • If you don't think you will be able to win them around, how will you manage their opposition?
    • Who else might be influenced by their opinions? Do these people become stakeholders in their own right?
  • Planning table
    • Power
    • Interest
    • Stakeholder Name
    • Key Interests and Issues
    • Current Status - Advocate, supporter, neutral, critic, blocker
    • Desired Support - High, medium or low
    • Desired Project Role (if any)
    • Actions Desired (if any)
    • Messages Needed
    • Actions and Communications
  • Plan
    • Update the planning sheet with support/impact grid information  
    • Plan your approach to stakeholder management   
    • Think through what you want from each stakeholder  
    • Identify the messages you need to convey  
    • Identify actions and communications
  • Benefits
    • Use stakeholders to shape project at early stages
    • Win more resources
    • Understand benefits
    • Anticipate – build in actions to win support
  • Stakeholder Management
  • Handling resistance
  • Sources of conflict
    • Commodities 
    • Principles
    • Territory 
    • Relationships 
  • Components
    • Disagreement
    • Parties involved
    • Perceived threat
    • Needs, interests or concerns
  • Levels of conflict
  • Where are the issues?
  • Iceberg
  • Negotiating
    • Two or more parties
    • Conflict of interests
    • Use of influence to get a better deal
    • Search for agreement is preferable
    • Give and take
    • Tangibles and intangibles
    • Negotiation finishes when the parties accept the new 'balance'
  • What makes a negotiation successful ? options mutual benefit co- operation
  • Successful negotiators AVOID… Irritators Counter proposals Defence/attack spirals Argument dilution
  • Successful negotiators USE… Behaviour labelling Testing understanding/ summarising Seeking information Making feelings explicit
  • The Problem with Soft / Hard approaches
    • Insist on agreement
    • Try to avoid contest of will
    • Yield to pressure
    • Insist on your position
    • Try to win contest of will
    • Apply pressure
    Soft Hard
  • Principled Negotiation
    • all-purpose strategy that avoids the pitfalls of the hard and soft styles
    • approaches negotiating
      • as a means of problem solving
      • based on eliciting information from both parties
      • to facilitate a WIN/WIN solution
  • Four Points: Defining WIN/WIN
    • People
        • Separate the people from the problem
    • Interests
        • Focus on the interests, not positions
    • Options
        • Generate variety of possibilities before deciding what to do
    • Criteria
        • Insist that the result be based on some objective standard
  • First: Separate the people from the problem
    • This responds to the fact that human beings are not computers or machines
    • Emotions typically become entangled in the objective merits of the problem
    • People’s egos become identified with their positions
  • Second: Focus on interests, not positions.
    • Try to overcome the drawback of focusing on people’s stated positions where the objective of a negotiation is to satisfy their underlying interests
    • Compromising between positions is not likely to produce an agreement which will effectively take care of the human need
  • Third: Help Generation of Options
    • Consider a range of possible options
    • Avoid jumping to too early judgement / conclusions
    • Build-upon or ‘re-frame’ possible options
    • Probe benefit / down-side of individual options
    • Help identify priorities for action for mutual gain
  • Fourth: Link to Objective Standard
    • Ensure clarity of negotiated position – the facts
    • Provide link to some objective standard
    • Closure mechanism : ‘sign-off’ by parties
  • Antagonism, Resonance, Invention, Action
    • Create a “safe” environment
    • Vent frustrations
    • Listen to all sides
    • Find out what disputants want and why they care
    • Find out what is most important to each side
    • Determine where responsibility for the conflict is shared
    • Determine which needs and values are threatened
    • Brainstorm for cooperative solutions
    • Encourage participation from all disputants
    • Plan for action
    ARIA: Jay Rothman, 1997
  • Communication
  • The Change Cycle Time Results Management Expectations
  • Sources of power and influence
    • Vision
    • Legitimacy
    • Reward
    • Coercion
    • Information
    • Integrity
    • Expertise
    • Persuasiveness
    • Identification
    • Charisma
  • Strategies credibility reciprocity persuasion
  • Building rapport
    • Harmonious, understanding relationship
    • Feeling at ease with each other
    • Being on the same wavelength
    • Seeing eye to eye with people
    • Showing empathy
  • How do we build rapport?
    • Show Understanding and Interest
    • Build Trust and Credibility
    • Match Actions and Behaviour
    • “ We like people who like us and are like us”
  • Barriers to Building Rapport
    • Lack of trust/ honesty/ openness
    • Positional power
    • Not honouring the confidentiality of the relationship
  • Communication means
    • communicating the need for the change
    • the danger of not being successful
    • the benefits the change promises
    • how the change fits into the overall vision
    • proving to people that change is possible
    • providing resources, information, training, support
    • including people in decision-making
    • having a vehicle for ongoing dialogue
  • Credibility
    • Vision – forward looking
    • Expertise - competent
    • Legitimacy - authority
    • Integrity - honesty
    • Persuasiveness - influence
    • Charisma - inspiring
  • Facilitating Empathetic Understanding
    • To persuade me you must be relevant. To be relevant you have to understand me.
    • To persuade me, you have to use my words, feel my feelings and think my thoughts.
    • - Cicero
  • Facilitating Beneficial Outcomes: reciprocity
    • Give and take :
      • Reward Coercion Information
    • Some examples :
      • Provide support
      • Create contacts
      • Help with deadlines
      • Support initiatives
      • Provide resources or co-operation
      • Be flexible
  • Personal Effectiveness
    • Be fully prepared and committed
    • Understand and develop rapport
    • Build credibility in negotiator and process
    • Facilitate mutual understanding
    • Consolidate the agreement through beneficial outcomes
  • Audience types
    • Supporters
    • Opponents
    Neutrals The undecided The uninformed
  • Audiences + - Enthusiasts Supporters Uninformed Undecided Passives Opponents Moaners Mutineers
  • Another view of the world…
  • Communication
    • Telling: This is what I want. You follow me or better leave
    • Selling: This is the change we want, and we want you to come on board. This stage involves techniques that are mainly related to classical public relations tools.
    • Testing: This is what we propose. Please check whether it works. Consulting: We know the direction but we need your advice. At this stage, different forms of consultation are employed, such as stakeholder workshops.
    • Co-Creating: We need to change. We don't know the way. Let's create the future together.
  • What does this mean for you?
    • Recognise that you’re also reacting to change
    • How are your team responding?
    • Help them understand that it is OK to react to change
    • Then help them to move to a more positive place ( relative certainty )
    • Ensure that you are communicating and listening effectively
  • Lessons learned
    • Importance of focus on people, “buy-in”
    • Teamwork and team building
    • Change management
    • Continuous planning
    • Resistance to change
    • Seeing the Big Picture
    • Project management
    • Joint problem solving
    • Conflict resolution
    • Communication (including a plan)
  • The iceberg again…