Managing Change Pauline Hall


Published on

Published in: Business, Education
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Managing Change Pauline Hall

    1. 1. Managing change Pauline Hall
    2. 2. Seminar <ul><li>Strategies for dealing with change </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder management </li></ul><ul><li>Handling resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Effective communications </li></ul>
    3. 3. Useful Tools <ul><li>Force-field analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Change Equation </li></ul><ul><li>Zigarnick Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>VICRA </li></ul>
    4. 4. Change <ul><li>What words come to mind when you think of change ? </li></ul>
    5. 5. Building blocks for successful change - ADKAR <ul><li>Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>of why the change is needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to support and participate in the change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>of how to change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to implement new skills and behaviours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to sustain the change </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Why organisations fail to transform using projects <ul><li>Too much complacency </li></ul><ul><li>Not creating a powerful enough coalition </li></ul><ul><li>Underestimating the power of vision </li></ul><ul><li>Not communicating the vision adequately </li></ul><ul><li>Permitting obstacles to block the vision </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to create short term wins </li></ul><ul><li>Declaring victory too soon </li></ul><ul><li>Neglecting to anchor changes firmly in culture </li></ul>
    7. 7. Consequences <ul><li>New strategies not implemented well </li></ul><ul><li>Change takes too long and costs too much </li></ul><ul><li>Costs are not controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Quality programmes don’t deliver results </li></ul>
    8. 8. Success in change management <ul><li>Take account of rational, political and emotional dimensions to change </li></ul>
    9. 9. Management vs leadership <ul><ul><li>Lead by example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are visionary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are technically competent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are decisive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are good communicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are good motivators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand up to upper management when necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have supportive team members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage new ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative problem solvers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerant of ambiguity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible in management style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well organized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective team builders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective at coping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enthusiastic about the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective change managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oriented to the customer </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Kotter’s view <ul><li>Establish a sense of urgency </li></ul><ul><li>Create a guiding coalition </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a vision and strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate the change vision </li></ul><ul><li>Empower employees for broad-based action </li></ul><ul><li>Generate short term wins </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidate gains, produce more change </li></ul><ul><li>Anchor new approaches in culture </li></ul>
    11. 11. Steps (another view) <ul><li>Define goals </li></ul><ul><li>Establish trust </li></ul><ul><li>Jointly develop a vision </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment, facilitate and review </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate the change to all people affected and explain the reasons why the changes are occurring </li></ul><ul><li>Provide support to employees as they deal with the change </li></ul><ul><li>Consistently monitor and review for effectiveness </li></ul>
    12. 12. Stakeholder management
    13. 13. Stakeholder management <ul><li>Stakeholder Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discover who your stakeholders are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Map them: work out their power, influence, interest and impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand : develop a good understanding of the most important stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plan based on what you learned </li></ul>
    14. 14. Who are your stakeholders? <ul><li>Think of all the people who are affected by your work, who have influence or power over it, or have an interest in its successful or unsuccessful conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the people who might be stakeholders in your job or in your projects: </li></ul>Your family The community Future recruits Prospective customers The public Analysts Customers Interest groups Lenders Your team The press Suppliers Your co-workers Trades associations Alliance partners Senior executives Government Suppliers Your boss
    15. 15. Stakeholder influence wheel
    16. 16. Discover: Identify your own stakeholders
    17. 17. Map: Support Impact Grid SUPPORT IMPACT
    18. 18. Understand: Position on the grid <ul><li>High support, High impact people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>these are the people you must fully engage and make the greatest efforts to satisfy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High support, low impact people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>put enough work in with these people to keep them satisfied, but not so much that they become bored with your message. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low support, high impact people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>keep these people adequately informed, and talk to them to ensure that no major issues are arising. These people can often be very helpful with the detail of your project. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low support, low impact people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>again, monitor these people, but do not bore them with excessive communication. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. What’s in it for them? <ul><li>What financial or emotional interest do they have in the outcome of your work? Is it positive or negative? </li></ul><ul><li>What motivates them most of all? </li></ul><ul><li>What information do they want from you? How do they want to receive information from you? What is the best way of communicating your message to them? </li></ul><ul><li>What is their current opinion of your work? Is it based on good information? </li></ul><ul><li>Who influences their opinions generally, and who influences their opinion of you? Do some of these influencers therefore become important stakeholders in their own right? </li></ul><ul><li>If they are not likely to be positive, what will win them around to support your project? </li></ul><ul><li>If you don't think you will be able to win them around, how will you manage their opposition? </li></ul><ul><li>Who else might be influenced by their opinions? Do these people become stakeholders in their own right? </li></ul>
    20. 20. Planning table <ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder Name </li></ul><ul><li>Key Interests and Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Current Status - Advocate, supporter, neutral, critic, blocker </li></ul><ul><li>Desired Support - High, medium or low </li></ul><ul><li>Desired Project Role (if any) </li></ul><ul><li>Actions Desired (if any) </li></ul><ul><li>Messages Needed </li></ul><ul><li>Actions and Communications </li></ul>
    21. 21. Plan <ul><li>Update the planning sheet with support/impact grid information   </li></ul><ul><li>Plan your approach to stakeholder management    </li></ul><ul><li>Think through what you want from each stakeholder   </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the messages you need to convey   </li></ul><ul><li>Identify actions and communications </li></ul>
    22. 22. Benefits <ul><li>Use stakeholders to shape project at early stages </li></ul><ul><li>Win more resources </li></ul><ul><li>Understand benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate – build in actions to win support </li></ul>
    23. 23. Stakeholder Management
    24. 24. Handling resistance
    25. 25. Sources of conflict <ul><li>Commodities  </li></ul><ul><li>Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Territory  </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships  </li></ul>
    26. 26. Components <ul><li>Disagreement </li></ul><ul><li>Parties involved </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived threat </li></ul><ul><li>Needs, interests or concerns </li></ul>
    27. 27. Levels of conflict
    28. 28. Where are the issues?
    29. 29. Iceberg
    30. 30. Negotiating <ul><li>Two or more parties </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict of interests </li></ul><ul><li>Use of influence to get a better deal </li></ul><ul><li>Search for agreement is preferable </li></ul><ul><li>Give and take </li></ul><ul><li>Tangibles and intangibles </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation finishes when the parties accept the new 'balance' </li></ul>
    31. 31. What makes a negotiation successful ? options mutual benefit co- operation
    32. 32. Successful negotiators AVOID… Irritators Counter proposals Defence/attack spirals Argument dilution
    33. 33. Successful negotiators USE… Behaviour labelling Testing understanding/ summarising Seeking information Making feelings explicit
    34. 34. The Problem with Soft / Hard approaches <ul><li>Insist on agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Try to avoid contest of will </li></ul><ul><li>Yield to pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Insist on your position </li></ul><ul><li>Try to win contest of will </li></ul><ul><li>Apply pressure </li></ul>Soft Hard
    35. 35. Principled Negotiation <ul><li>all-purpose strategy that avoids the pitfalls of the hard and soft styles </li></ul><ul><li>approaches negotiating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as a means of problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on eliciting information from both parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to facilitate a WIN/WIN solution </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Four Points: Defining WIN/WIN <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separate the people from the problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Interests </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the interests, not positions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Options </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generate variety of possibilities before deciding what to do </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insist that the result be based on some objective standard </li></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 37. First: Separate the people from the problem <ul><li>This responds to the fact that human beings are not computers or machines </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions typically become entangled in the objective merits of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>People’s egos become identified with their positions </li></ul>
    38. 38. Second: Focus on interests, not positions. <ul><li>Try to overcome the drawback of focusing on people’s stated positions where the objective of a negotiation is to satisfy their underlying interests </li></ul><ul><li>Compromising between positions is not likely to produce an agreement which will effectively take care of the human need </li></ul>
    39. 39. Third: Help Generation of Options <ul><li>Consider a range of possible options </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid jumping to too early judgement / conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Build-upon or ‘re-frame’ possible options </li></ul><ul><li>Probe benefit / down-side of individual options </li></ul><ul><li>Help identify priorities for action for mutual gain </li></ul>
    40. 40. Fourth: Link to Objective Standard <ul><li>Ensure clarity of negotiated position – the facts </li></ul><ul><li>Provide link to some objective standard </li></ul><ul><li>Closure mechanism : ‘sign-off’ by parties </li></ul>
    41. 41. Antagonism, Resonance, Invention, Action <ul><li>Create a “safe” environment </li></ul><ul><li>Vent frustrations </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to all sides </li></ul><ul><li>Find out what disputants want and why they care </li></ul><ul><li>Find out what is most important to each side </li></ul><ul><li>Determine where responsibility for the conflict is shared </li></ul><ul><li>Determine which needs and values are threatened </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm for cooperative solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage participation from all disputants </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for action </li></ul>ARIA: Jay Rothman, 1997
    42. 42. Communication
    43. 43. The Change Cycle Time Results Management Expectations
    44. 44. Sources of power and influence <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimacy </li></ul><ul><li>Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Coercion </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Charisma </li></ul>
    45. 45. Strategies credibility reciprocity persuasion
    46. 46. Building rapport <ul><li>Harmonious, understanding relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling at ease with each other </li></ul><ul><li>Being on the same wavelength </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing eye to eye with people </li></ul><ul><li>Showing empathy </li></ul>
    47. 47. How do we build rapport? <ul><li>Show Understanding and Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Build Trust and Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Match Actions and Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>“ We like people who like us and are like us” </li></ul>
    48. 48. Barriers to Building Rapport <ul><li>Lack of trust/ honesty/ openness </li></ul><ul><li>Positional power </li></ul><ul><li>Not honouring the confidentiality of the relationship </li></ul>
    49. 49. Communication means <ul><li>communicating the need for the change </li></ul><ul><li>the danger of not being successful </li></ul><ul><li>the benefits the change promises </li></ul><ul><li>how the change fits into the overall vision </li></ul><ul><li>proving to people that change is possible </li></ul><ul><li>providing resources, information, training, support </li></ul><ul><li>including people in decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>having a vehicle for ongoing dialogue </li></ul>
    50. 50. Credibility <ul><li>Vision – forward looking </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise - competent </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimacy - authority </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity - honesty </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasiveness - influence </li></ul><ul><li>Charisma - inspiring </li></ul>
    51. 51. Facilitating Empathetic Understanding <ul><li>To persuade me you must be relevant. To be relevant you have to understand me. </li></ul><ul><li>To persuade me, you have to use my words, feel my feelings and think my thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>- Cicero </li></ul>
    52. 52. Facilitating Beneficial Outcomes: reciprocity
    53. 53. <ul><li>Give and take : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward Coercion Information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some examples : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create contacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help with deadlines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide resources or co-operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be flexible </li></ul></ul>Reciprocity
    54. 54. Personal Effectiveness <ul><li>Be fully prepared and committed </li></ul><ul><li>Understand and develop rapport </li></ul><ul><li>Build credibility in negotiator and process </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate mutual understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidate the agreement through beneficial outcomes </li></ul>
    55. 55. Audience types <ul><li>Supporters </li></ul><ul><li>Opponents </li></ul>Neutrals The undecided The uninformed
    56. 56. Audiences + - Enthusiasts Supporters Uninformed Undecided Passives Opponents Moaners Mutineers
    57. 57. Another view of the world…
    58. 58. Communication <ul><li>Telling: This is what I want. You follow me or better leave </li></ul><ul><li>Selling: This is the change we want, and we want you to come on board. This stage involves techniques that are mainly related to classical public relations tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Testing: This is what we propose. Please check whether it works. Consulting: We know the direction but we need your advice. At this stage, different forms of consultation are employed, such as stakeholder workshops. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-Creating: We need to change. We don't know the way. Let's create the future together. </li></ul>
    59. 59. What does this mean for you? <ul><li>Recognise that you’re also reacting to change </li></ul><ul><li>How are your team responding? </li></ul><ul><li>Help them understand that it is OK to react to change </li></ul><ul><li>Then help them to move to a more positive place ( relative certainty ) </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that you are communicating and listening effectively </li></ul>
    60. 60. Lessons learned <ul><li>Importance of focus on people, “buy-in” </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork and team building </li></ul><ul><li>Change management </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous planning </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to change </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing the Big Picture </li></ul><ul><li>Project management </li></ul><ul><li>Joint problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Communication (including a plan) </li></ul>
    61. 61. The iceberg again…