Politics shaping the American Identity By Desiree Klemenz
The Federalist Party Beliefs/wants: Important Federalists• Gov. ruled by the “best people” • George Washington• Powerful central gov. • Alexander Hamilton• Loose interpretation of Constitution • John Jay• Gov. helping businesses • John Adams• Tariff• National debt not states debts• Powerful central bank• Restricted free speech & press• Strong navy
George Washington• Contributions as Pres.:• kept America out of war (Jay’s treaty & neutrality Proc.)• Expanded the nation West• Created first political cabinet• Created Judiciary Act of 1789• J.A. created: supreme court, federal district, circuit court & office of attorney general• Two term presidency
John Jay• Agreements of his treaty:• British leaves U.S. SOIL• British pay damages for captured American ships• American’s pay British pre-Rev. War debts• Signed convention of 1800 with France• (treaty with France, they pay claims from American Shippers)
Alexander Hamilton• Made Gov. assume all state’s debts ( new state debt= 21.5 million)+ pay back all bonds( in full, with interest)• Gave fed District of Potomac to Virginia (for a vote)• Created:• Bank of U.S. ( keep money circulating, print money in time of need)• Tariff (tax on imports)• Excise tax (tax on few U.S goods)this created whiskey rebellion
John Adams• Contributions:• Kept up Washington’s peace mission• Created: the Navy, Marine corps, & 3 ship navy grew• Sedition act= limited freedom of press+ speech• Alien act= harder to become citizen• Passed judiciary act of 1801 this let him appointMany fed. judges before he leftoffice
Overall changes to American Identity• Less diversity• More fighting/more soldiers (Jay’s treaty + neutrality Proc. Angered the French)• Results of Hamilton’s actions:• Strong gov. with huge debt.• New taxes + tariff (becoming more like Britain)• More people in jail for opinion’s or can’t pay taxes• Rich get richer• former slaves forced back into slavery• money prints stop
Republicans aka Democratic- Republicans Beliefs/wants Fathers of Republicanism• Gov. ruled by many informed citizens • Thomas Jefferson• Weak gov. better state rights • James Madison• Strict interpretation of constitution• Farming based economy• Very small navy• No national debt
Thomas Jefferson• Created party in 1790• Wrote Dec. of ind.• Hamilton’s rival• Believed fed. were crossing constitution• Convinced stated to reclaim rights• “ I hold it that little rebellion now and then is a good thing…. The tree of Liberty must be refreshed from time to time with blood of patriots and tyrants( zinn,pg95)
Thomas Jefferson as Pres.• Let victims of sedition act out of jail• Naturalization law of 1802= live in U.S. for 5 years to become citizen, instead of 14• Got rid of excise tax , cost gov. a million$ a year in revenue• Federalism declared defiance of people’s wishes• New congress elected• Judiciary Act of 1789 declared unconstitutional• Embargo Act= stopped all foreign trade (replaced in1809)• Non-Intercourse Act= can trade with anyone except France + Britain• Louisiana purchase = more land
James Madison• Wrote bill of rights: gave fed. More supporters• Helped Jefferson create party and bring back states rights• Involved in famous court case• Brought back embargo against Britain when he was pres. , caused war of 1812• During pres. He also took westFlorida from Spain
Marbury vs. Madison• Adams appointed many judges at last min• Jefferson told Madison not to deliver their commission• Madison didn’t and William Marbury sued• Court ruling:• Judiciary Act of 1789 declared unconstitutional• it gave supreme court a power that it was deniedin the constitution(the act of giving commissionbefore you can be a judge)• It’s funny how the act was declared illegal yet everything that was set up under it is not.
Overall changes to American Identity• More diversity in citizens• Less people in jail• Less rebellion and taxes• National debt increasing• Alliances dissolved• Little money coming in (non at one point- more people are poor and more classes are seeing some hardship)• Adams stunt created Judicial review• Two party system gave them their democracy
Sources• The American Pageant by D. Kennedy, L. Cohen, T. Bailey• People’s History of the United States by Howard Zinn• Southern Planter Handout• Marbury vs. Madison (law class handout- case study)• http://www.virginia.edu/pjm/biography1.htm
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