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  • 1. Lesson 2Lab 3: Water is a Polar MoleculeFlorida Marine Science StandardsSC.912.N.1.1Define a problem based on a specific body of knowledge, for example: biology, chemistry, physics, and earth/spacescience, and do the following:SC.912.L.18.12Discuss the special properties of water that contribute to Earths suitability as an environment for life: cohesive behavior,ability to moderate temperature, expansion upon freezing, and versatility as a solvent.Objective:After completing this lab activity you should be able to: 1. Describe the dipolar structure of the water molecule and explain how it relates to hydrogen bonding. 2. Describe the concept of a hydrogen bond using 3-dimensional models as examples. 3. Compare and contrast the differences between water adhesion and cohesion. 4. List examples of how adhesion and cohesion apply to the marine environment. 5. Explain how bubble formation differs in fresh and salt water and how it relates to dissolved oxygen in shoreline breakers. 6. Explain what causes surface tension and explain why it is important to neustonic biological systems. 7. Describe how colligative properties affect surface tension. 8. State in general terms how water density will change based on a given temperature and/or salinity change. 9. Describe how the cohesion and viscosity of water changes with changes in temperature.Vocabulary:Adhesion – the attraction of a molecule to a different molecule.Cohesion – the attraction of a molecule to another of the same type.Colligative property – the changing of a physical property of a fluid due to the addition of dissolved compounds such assalt, sugar, or alcohol.Density – the ratio relationship describing the mass per unit volume of a substance, normally expressed in grams/cm 3.Dipolar – sometimes known as polar, a compound or molecule that has two distinct sides exhibiting two distinct electricalcharges.Halocline – a boundary layer caused by the density differences of varying salinity (salt) concentrations.Hydrogen bonding – the attraction that results from two dipolar molecules in which a relatively weak bond forms to con-nect them together. This is not a very strong bond compared with covalent or ionic bonds, but strong enough to hold thesubstance together.Plankton – organisms that drift in the water environment.Salinity – the relative concentration of dissolved salts per unit volume.Surface tension – a phenomenon caused by the cohesive properties of a liquid in which the surface interface turns inwardinto the liquid resulting in a “skin-like” film at the surface of the fluid.Thermocline – a boundary layer caused by the density differences of water with two different temperatures.Viscosity – the property of a fluid to resist flow, sometimes known as internal resistance. This property is caused by thecohesion of the substance. Page 1 of 11
  • 2. Lesson 2Safety Issues: 1. Cut Hazard: Use care in putting the molecular models together. The toothpicks are sharper than they look. 2. Fume Hazard: Keep room well ventilated when using the isopropyl alcohol. 3. Flammable Material Hazard: Keep alcohol away from open flames. 4. Staining Warning: Food coloring will stain clothing. Wear a lab apron. 5. Poison Hazard: Rubbing alcohol presents a poisoning hazard. Keep away from face. 6. Post-lab: Wash your hands with soap thoroughly after you complete the activities. 7. Glass Hazard: You will be using some large glassware. Handle with care and report any incidents to your teacher immediately.Introduction:What do you think about when you look at the water? Does it make you relax? Does it help you to forget your worries?Most of us have experienced the calming sensation of a lake or the ocean. Normally, we don’t think about water’s unique properties, or that water in liquid form, as found on Earth, seems to berare in the universe. It’s easy to take water for granted. It is available to us most of the time in quantities that make it aneveryday substance. What we do not think about is how water differs from other compounds found in nature. Water is polar in nature andthis polarity gives water many unique physical properties. As you explore water’s properties, keep in mind that its unusualcharacteristics result from how it bonds together. 1. Research Question(s): What are the unique properties of water? How does the structure of water contribute to its unique properties? 2. Literature Review: The unique properties associated with the water molecule come from its unusual shape, which results from unevensharing of electrons between the two hydrogen atoms and the oxygen atom. Because oxygen attracts electrons more strongly than hydrogen, the molecule doesn’t share electrons evenly. Thisgives the oxygen side a partial negative charge and the hydrogen side a partial positive charge. Think of it as an atomic version of tug-of-war. Instead of a rope you have electrons. In this case, the stronger oxygenkeeps the electrons mostly to itself. Due to the arrangement of the electrons, this “tug-of-war” causes the oxygen and thehydrogen to form a Y-shape molecule. The hydrogen side is positive and the oxygen side is negative. This dipolar characteristic allows water molecules to link together. The positive hydrogen side attracts the negativeoxygen side of other water molecules. This linking is known as hydrogen bonding, and gives water a tendency to hold to-gether. This allows water to exist as a liquid under very wide temperature ranges, a property normally found with othercompounds. Two major phenomena resulting from water’s dipolar characteristics are cohesion and adhesion. Cohesion is the at-traction of water molecules to itself. Adhesion is the attraction of water molecules to other substances that also have dipo-lar characteristics. These two phenomena lead to many effects that you will observe during this activity. The cohesion tends to be strongenough that water forms an extra strong skin-like texture to its surface. This is called surface tension, a phenomenonfound with all liquids but rarely as strong as with water. With the exception of mercury, water has one of the strongest sur-face tensions known in nature. Depending on its strength and the influence of other forces, cohesion and surface tension are strong enough to bringa fluid into its smallest 3-dimensional surface area – a sphere. This is the reason why water beads into semi-sphericalshapes. In space with the influence of gravity removed, water forms spherical droplets. When falling through the atmos-phere (like raindrops), the characteristic teardrop shape results from drag with the air altering Page 2 of 11
  • 3. Lesson 2 the sphere. If a liquid has a very weak surface tension, you will observe very little beading. Alternatively, water surface tensioncan be so strong that it supports life forms on its surface. Known as neustonic life, biologists have only begun to study thisunusual habitat and its ecological role. Another physical property associated with cohesion is viscosity. Viscosity is the ability of a fluid to resist flow. A fluid’sviscosity depends upon the cohesion strength of the bonds, as well as temperature. This especially affects smaller marineorganisms by changing how much energy they must expend to move. Most dipolar substances also bond with materials other than water. Sometimes this adhesive polar bond has greaterstrength than the liquid’s cohesive bond. This is the reason why a meniscus forms in a graduated cylinder. The water hasa stronger tendency to “climb” up or adhere to the glass than to cohere. The addition of dissolved substances such as salt or alcohol to water affects cohesion, adhesion, surface tension,viscosity and density. Called a colligative interaction, dissolved substances tend to weaken surface tension and reduceadhesion with other substances.Materials: • Molecular model kit or class-made kit from teacher • Protractor • Masking tape • Indelible pen (Sharpie®) • Wax paper sections (small 5 in. by 5 in. sections) • Food coloring (blue, green, and red) • Eyedroppers (mark some for freshwater and some for alcohol only) • Water (distilled is preferred but regular tap water will do) • 70% rubbing alcohol (isopropyl alcohol) • Two – 150ml beakers (one for the water and one for the alcohol) • Supply of small plastic bathroom cups • Class supply of straws (cafeteria straws will do) • Bubble solution or home-made dish soap bubble solution (30% soap/70% warm water) • A few bubble wands (you can make them with small paper clips if the wands are not available) • Supply of salt (grocery store table salt) • Supply of salt water at 35-40 ‰ (ocean water would do or you can make it up yourself and check it with a hydromter) • 100 ml graduated cylinder • Forceps (tweezers) • Small paper clips (must be clean and dry) • 4 in. strips of filter paper (coffee filters would work and as a last resort paper towels) • Toothpicks (wood, preferably the flat type) • Pennies (a few for each student or group) • Aluminum foil (use the heavy gauge type if available) • Small ruler • Ice water supply (the closer to 0º C the better) • Heated water up to 70º C • Thermometers • Hydrometers • Two - 1000 ml beakers • Two - 1000 ml graduated cylinders (2000 ml graduated cylinders work best, but 1000 ml cylinders will work) Page 3 of 11
  • 4. Lesson 2 • Stopwatch (a clock or watch with a second hand would work, but a stop watch is more accurate) • Wire coat hanger or kitchen straining ladle (used as the retrieval system for the viscosity activity)3. Hypothesis: Based on the research question(s) and the literature review write your hypothesis/prediction(s) below. ( What do youhypothesized that you will observe in the lab experiment?____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________4. Activity:Station 1: Dipolar Structure 1. At this station you will find either a molecular model kit or a kit your teacher has put together. 2. Locate two hydrogen atom models and a single oxygen atom model. 3. Attach them together using the bonding sticks. 4. You will need a protractor to confirm that the angle between the two hydrogen atoms and the oxygen atom is 105 degrees. 5. Sketch the water molecule model in the data collection area for Station 1. 6. Include the angle in your diagram. 7. Mark a (+) sign on the hydrogen side of the water molecule model and a (-) on the oxygen side. 8. Add the charges to your diagram. 9. Build four more water molecule models.10. Place the models together based on how the molecule poles attract each other. Note: When putting the water molecules together, remember that like charges repel themselves as far away from each other as possible.11. Sketch the model in Station 1: Data Collection. Use dashed lines to represent the attraction forces of the hydrogen bonds between individual water molecules. Write down your observations regarding molecular attractions.12. When done, disassemble your water molecule models and replace the pieces where you found them.Station 1: Data Collection Page 4 of 11
  • 5. Lesson 2Observation statement: What do you need to consider when you place the models together based on how the mole-cules poles attract each other?______________________________________________________________________________________________________Station 2: A Study of Cohesion 1. You will need a piece of 5 in. by 5 in. wax paper, a supply of water, a supply of rubbing alcohol, and eyedroppers specific to each solution. 2. Place a small piece of the wax paper in front of you. 3. Fill the water eyedropper with water. 4. Carefully and slowly place three or four drops on top of each other to make a large bead of water on the wax paper. 5. Repeat this with the rubbing alcohol using the wax paper. The alcohol bead can be placed near the water, but make sure the two beads don’t touch. 6. Look at both beads of liquid from the side. 7. Diagram what you observe in the space provided. 8. Take the dropper containing the alcohol and place one or two drops on top of the water bead. 9. Observe what happens and record the result. Discard the wax paper when done.Station 2: Data CollectionObservation statement: What do you observe when you put a few drops of alcohol on the water bead?_____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page 5 of 11
  • 6. Lesson 2Station 3: A Study of Surface Tension 1. You will need a bubble wand, bubble solution, a small plastic cup, and salt. 2. Fill the cup about one-third with bubble solution. 3. Using the bubble wand and solution, blow a bubble. 4. Observe the shape and texture of the bubble and record the data below. 5. Add salt (about one tablespoon) to the bubble solution, blow a bubble, observe the shape and texture of the bubble, and record the data below. 6. Write down your observations about differences in blowing a bubble after adding the salt. Discard the cups and solu- tions and return other materials to their proper places when done.Station 3: Data CollectionObservation statement: What did you observe when you tried to blow a bubble after adding salt to the bubble solution?______________________________________________________________________________________________________Station 4: A Study of Adhesion 1. You will need a 100 ml graduated cylinder and water. 2. Fill the 100 ml graduated cylinder to the 100 ml mark with water. 3. Look at the surface of the water (known as the meniscus) from the side. 4. Diagram the meniscus below. Examine the water level on the sides of the cylinder compared to the center and record your observations. 5. Empty the cylinder and return it to its proper place when done. Page 6 of 11
  • 7. Lesson 2Station 4: Data CollectionObservation statement: What do you notice about the water level on the sides of the cylinder compared to the center?____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Station 5: A Study of Cohesion and Surface Tension 1. You will need one small plastic cup, water, alcohol, forceps, and a dry clean paper clip. 2. Fill half of the drinking cup with fresh water. 3. Using the forceps, carefully place a small paper clip on the water surface without letting it sink down to the bottom. 4. If you miss on the first attempt try it again with a clean paper clip. 5. Note that the water surface tension is strong enough to hold up the paper clip. Sketch the paper clip held up by the surface tension of the water below. 6. Add drops of alcohol to the water with the paper clip still resting on the surface. 7. Count the number of drops until something happens. (You will know it when it occurs.) 8. Record your observations below. Include the number of drops of alcohol required to make the change you ob- served. Discard the water and return the other materials to their proper places when done.Station 5: Data CollectionObservation statement: What happened when you placed 4-7 drops of alcohol in the water supporting the small paperclip? Page 7 of 11
  • 8. Lesson 2______________________________________________________________________________________________________Station 6: A Study of Adhesion 1. You will need two pieces of cut filter paper (4 in. strips), two toothpicks, two small plastic cups, food-colored water, and food-colored alcohol. 2. Put about an inch of water in one cup and an inch of alcohol in the other cup. 3. Punch a toothpick through one end of the filter paper strip. You will use the toothpick to hold the paper up in the drinking cup. 4. Repeat with the other strip. 5. Place a hanging filter paper strip in each container so the end is just under the liquid surface. 6. Note the movement of the two fluids up the filter paper. Diagram this in the Data Collection area. 7. After five minutes, compare the heights the two fluids reached as they moved up the paper. Record this below. Dis- card the cups, toothpicks and solutions when done.Station 6: Data CollectionObservation statement: What were the relative heights of the two fluids on the filter paper after five minutes?____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Station 7: A Study of Adhesion 1. You will need a piece of wax paper and four flat wooden toothpicks. (This won’t work with plastic toothpicks.) 2. Break each toothpick by folding it over itself, but do not separate the sections. 3. Arrange the four toothpicks in a star-shaped pattern on a piece of wax paper with the breaks in the center. 4. At the center, where all the toothpicks meet, leave a small open space. Sketch this arrangement below. 5. Take a water dropper and place two drops carefully in the middle of the space. 6. Watch what happens. Draw your observations below. 7. After three minutes, discard the toothpicks.Station 7: Data Collection Page 8 of 11
  • 9. Lesson 2Observation statement: What did the water seem to do when you added it to your wooden starfish? Did you notice anyof the water actually penetrating the wood?____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Station 8: A Study of Viscosity 1. You will need two pennies, some aluminum foil, water at 5°C and 50°C, a stopwatch (or watch with second hand), and two 1000 ml graduated cylinders. Note: Two 10-gallon fish tanks can replace the 1000 ml graduated cylinder. 2. You will need to make a “penny diver.” Wrap a penny in aluminum foil. The aluminum foil provides some lift. You will need to use the same “penny diver” in all trials. Be sure to complete all the 5°C water trials before putting the “penny diver” in the 50°C water. 3. You will need to use a retriever. A kitchen utensil works well or you may construct your own made from a wire coat hanger and some aluminum foil. Place the retriever into the cylinder before you begin. The “penny diver” will land on it, allowing you to pull it back to the surface for the next trial. 4. Fill one cylinder with 50°C water and the second with 5°C water to the 1000 ml mark (store in a refrigerator or cooler). 5. Start with the 5°C water and hold the “penny diver” at the surface. Have someone ready to start and stop the stop- watch. 6. Record the time to the nearest 1/10th of a second that it takes for the “penny diver” to sink. 7. Retrieve the “penny diver” and repeat the run at least 10 times. Record each trial time as you complete a dive on the data table below. 8. Repeat the 10 trials with the 50°C water. Record the descent times of each trial to the nearest 1/10th of a second. 9. Determine the average descent times for the 5°C water and the 50°C water. Record the difference, if any, on the data table. Empty the cylinders and return the cylinders and the other materials to their proper places when done. Page 9 of 11
  • 10. Lesson 2Station 8: Data CollectionObservation statement: What difference, if any, did you find between the average times for the “penny diver” to descendthrough the 5ºC and 50ºC water?______________________________________________________________________________________________________Analysis Questions:1. You should have found that the “penny diver” sinks through warm water faster than cold water. All plankton have adaptations to prevent them from sinking. How does the tendency for water to cool with depth assist plankton in stay- ing near the top of the water column?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Describe three adaptations that planktonic organisms could have to prevent or slow sinking in the water column.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Predict the swimming efficiency of a fish as it moves through warm and cold-water layers in the ocean. Explain on what basis you make this prediction.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Is your original hypothesis/prediction(s) supported by your data? Why or why not?______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Page 10 of 11
  • 11. Lesson 2______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. The value and importance of this activity: What are water’s unique properties and how might these properties affect marine life?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Conclusion:2-3 sentence summary of lab. Sources of possible error in your results, and was this lab successful for you? Why or WHY not? Page 11 of 11