Protitts chap 8 notes

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Protitts chap 8 notes

  1. 1. Animal Like ProtistsPhylum Sarcomastigophora Phylum Apicompleza Phylum Ciliophora
  2. 2. Protists• Over 38,000 species of protists!• Members of the original life forms on earth! About 1.5 billion years ago!• Some protists are plant like, some are animal like – Protozoa: animal like protists• Many have symbiotic relationships: – Parasitism• Scientists who study only protists: protozoologists
  3. 3. Protozoa• Protozoa – Unicellular, plasmic organization – BUT THAT DOES NOT MEAN THEY ARE SIMPLE – Individuals or colonies
  4. 4. Phylum Sarcomastigophors• Largest protozoan phylum.• All protozoa in this phylum: – Unicellular or colonial – Locomotion by flagella, pseudopodia, or both – Autotrophic, saprozoic, heterotrophic – Single type of nucleus – Sexual or asexual reproduction
  5. 5. Ever wonder about that green gunk?• Its Euglena! – Possess chlorophyll, 1 or 2 flagella
  6. 6. Euglena• Salt or fresh water• Digestion- perform photosynthesis or absorb nutrients – stigma at base of flagella allows euglena to orient themselves towards a light source• Reproduce using binary fission – Split into two new organisms
  7. 7. Euglena Structure
  8. 8. Euglena: Ecological Role• Photosynthesizer• Acts as food for other protists and fish
  9. 9. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4MlR 3dKfXmc&feature=related&safety_mod e=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=a ctive•
  10. 10. Dinoflagellates
  11. 11. Dinoflagellates• Gobular, Single celled organisms• Some – platonic – others are benthic• Some – mutalistic – others parasitic
  12. 12. Dinoflagellate: Structure• Two groves: two flagellums – Horizontal: cingulum • Spinning flagellum – Vertical: suclus • Whipping flagellum: forward motion
  13. 13. Dinoflagellates: food/digestion• Many are mixotrophic• They have Chloroplasts: – Photosynthesis• But also absorb food – Osmotrophy – Eat other plankton: copepods, diatoms, other dinoflagellates
  14. 14. Dinoflagellates: reproduction• Binary Fission: one division per day• Can depend on conditions: – nutrients, light, temp erature
  15. 15. Dinoflagellates: ecological Role• Red Tides – Release toxins – Digestion of toxins can cause: numbness, slurred speech, nausea, par alysis, death – Paralytic shellfish poisoning
  16. 16. Foraminiferans
  17. 17. Foraminiferans• Amoeboid protozoans – Branch like psuedopods – Form elaborate net like structures: Tests • Help catch prey• Most are benthic – Use psuedopod to crawl around
  18. 18. Forams: digestion/energy• Consume a lot of diatoms and dinoflagellates• Some host green/red algae – Symbiotic relationship • Forams get nutrients • Coral reefs get calcium carbonate
  19. 19. Forams: Structure• Produce Elaborate Tests – Multichamber – Grow as the foram grows• Geometric – Resembles microscopic snail shell
  20. 20. Forams’ ecological role• Help form beaches and sediment – Chalk
  21. 21. Phylum Apicomplexa
  22. 22. Phylum Apicomplexa• All Parasites!• Apical complex for penetrating host cells• Single type of nucleus• No cilia and flagella, except in certain reproductive states• Life cycle includes asexual and sexual phases
  23. 23. Phylum Apicomplexa• Feed off nutrients from the host• Cause serious diseases: Malaria – 5th largest cause of death world wide – 2008: 708,000 and 1,300,00 people died
  24. 24. Reproduction• 3 stages – Schizogony: asexual fission in host cell – Gametogony: begins sexual phase : produces zygote – Sporogony: zygote divides by mitosis creating sporozoites. Sporozoites go on to infect other hosts
  25. 25. Phylum Ciliophora
  26. 26. Phylum Ciliophora• Have cilia for locomotion• Rigid pellicle and more or less fixed shape• Distinct (cytostome) mouth structure• Dimorphic nuclei: macronucleus and micronucleus
  27. 27. Cilia• Similar to flagella – Much shorter – More of them – Move in coordinated waves – Many ciliates can reverse• Some cilia are specialized – Sweep food into mouth
  28. 28. Digestion and Food• Heterotrophic• Prey on other protists or small animals• Example: Suctorians – Attach to a prey – Secrete mucus to paralyze prey – Cut opening in cell wall and suck out cytoplasm 1. Attack and 2. Maneuver and 3. Gulp ! secure line up
  29. 29. Reproduction• Two Nuclei – Macronucleus: regulates daily metabolic activities – Micronuclei: holds genetic information• Asexual reproduction – Binary fission – Budding
  30. 30. Reproduction• Sexual reproduction – Conjunction: hook together and exchange micronuclei
  31. 31. Often have symbiotic relationships• Digestion• Parasitic: Live in digestive system of humans – Secretes enzyme that causes ulcers• Mutualistic: live in the digestive system and help digest food – Hoofed animals

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