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Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
Protitts chap 8 notes
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Protitts chap 8 notes

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  • 1. Animal Like ProtistsPhylum Sarcomastigophora Phylum Apicompleza Phylum Ciliophora
  • 2. Protists• Over 38,000 species of protists!• Members of the original life forms on earth! About 1.5 billion years ago!• Some protists are plant like, some are animal like – Protozoa: animal like protists• Many have symbiotic relationships: – Parasitism• Scientists who study only protists: protozoologists
  • 3. Protozoa• Protozoa – Unicellular, plasmic organization – BUT THAT DOES NOT MEAN THEY ARE SIMPLE – Individuals or colonies
  • 4. Phylum Sarcomastigophors• Largest protozoan phylum.• All protozoa in this phylum: – Unicellular or colonial – Locomotion by flagella, pseudopodia, or both – Autotrophic, saprozoic, heterotrophic – Single type of nucleus – Sexual or asexual reproduction
  • 5. Ever wonder about that green gunk?• Its Euglena! – Possess chlorophyll, 1 or 2 flagella
  • 6. Euglena• Salt or fresh water• Digestion- perform photosynthesis or absorb nutrients – stigma at base of flagella allows euglena to orient themselves towards a light source• Reproduce using binary fission – Split into two new organisms
  • 7. Euglena Structure
  • 8. Euglena: Ecological Role• Photosynthesizer• Acts as food for other protists and fish
  • 9. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4MlR 3dKfXmc&feature=related&safety_mod e=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=a ctive•
  • 10. Dinoflagellates
  • 11. Dinoflagellates• Gobular, Single celled organisms• Some – platonic – others are benthic• Some – mutalistic – others parasitic
  • 12. Dinoflagellate: Structure• Two groves: two flagellums – Horizontal: cingulum • Spinning flagellum – Vertical: suclus • Whipping flagellum: forward motion
  • 13. Dinoflagellates: food/digestion• Many are mixotrophic• They have Chloroplasts: – Photosynthesis• But also absorb food – Osmotrophy – Eat other plankton: copepods, diatoms, other dinoflagellates
  • 14. Dinoflagellates: reproduction• Binary Fission: one division per day• Can depend on conditions: – nutrients, light, temp erature
  • 15. Dinoflagellates: ecological Role• Red Tides – Release toxins – Digestion of toxins can cause: numbness, slurred speech, nausea, par alysis, death – Paralytic shellfish poisoning
  • 16. Foraminiferans
  • 17. Foraminiferans• Amoeboid protozoans – Branch like psuedopods – Form elaborate net like structures: Tests • Help catch prey• Most are benthic – Use psuedopod to crawl around
  • 18. Forams: digestion/energy• Consume a lot of diatoms and dinoflagellates• Some host green/red algae – Symbiotic relationship • Forams get nutrients • Coral reefs get calcium carbonate
  • 19. Forams: Structure• Produce Elaborate Tests – Multichamber – Grow as the foram grows• Geometric – Resembles microscopic snail shell
  • 20. Forams’ ecological role• Help form beaches and sediment – Chalk
  • 21. Phylum Apicomplexa
  • 22. Phylum Apicomplexa• All Parasites!• Apical complex for penetrating host cells• Single type of nucleus• No cilia and flagella, except in certain reproductive states• Life cycle includes asexual and sexual phases
  • 23. Phylum Apicomplexa• Feed off nutrients from the host• Cause serious diseases: Malaria – 5th largest cause of death world wide – 2008: 708,000 and 1,300,00 people died
  • 24. Reproduction• 3 stages – Schizogony: asexual fission in host cell – Gametogony: begins sexual phase : produces zygote – Sporogony: zygote divides by mitosis creating sporozoites. Sporozoites go on to infect other hosts
  • 25. Phylum Ciliophora
  • 26. Phylum Ciliophora• Have cilia for locomotion• Rigid pellicle and more or less fixed shape• Distinct (cytostome) mouth structure• Dimorphic nuclei: macronucleus and micronucleus
  • 27. Cilia• Similar to flagella – Much shorter – More of them – Move in coordinated waves – Many ciliates can reverse• Some cilia are specialized – Sweep food into mouth
  • 28. Digestion and Food• Heterotrophic• Prey on other protists or small animals• Example: Suctorians – Attach to a prey – Secrete mucus to paralyze prey – Cut opening in cell wall and suck out cytoplasm 1. Attack and 2. Maneuver and 3. Gulp ! secure line up
  • 29. Reproduction• Two Nuclei – Macronucleus: regulates daily metabolic activities – Micronuclei: holds genetic information• Asexual reproduction – Binary fission – Budding
  • 30. Reproduction• Sexual reproduction – Conjunction: hook together and exchange micronuclei
  • 31. Often have symbiotic relationships• Digestion• Parasitic: Live in digestive system of humans – Secretes enzyme that causes ulcers• Mutualistic: live in the digestive system and help digest food – Hoofed animals

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