Animal Like ProtistsPhylum Sarcomastigophora Phylum Apicompleza Phylum Ciliophora
Protists• Over 38,000 species of protists!• Members of the original life forms on earth! About 1.5 billion years ago!• Some protists are plant like, some are animal like – Protozoa: animal like protists• Many have symbiotic relationships: – Parasitism• Scientists who study only protists: protozoologists
Protozoa• Protozoa – Unicellular, plasmic organization – BUT THAT DOES NOT MEAN THEY ARE SIMPLE – Individuals or colonies
Phylum Sarcomastigophors• Largest protozoan phylum.• All protozoa in this phylum: – Unicellular or colonial – Locomotion by flagella, pseudopodia, or both – Autotrophic, saprozoic, heterotrophic – Single type of nucleus – Sexual or asexual reproduction
Ever wonder about that green gunk?• Its Euglena! – Possess chlorophyll, 1 or 2 flagella
Euglena• Salt or fresh water• Digestion- perform photosynthesis or absorb nutrients – stigma at base of flagella allows euglena to orient themselves towards a light source• Reproduce using binary fission – Split into two new organisms
Phylum Apicomplexa• All Parasites!• Apical complex for penetrating host cells• Single type of nucleus• No cilia and flagella, except in certain reproductive states• Life cycle includes asexual and sexual phases
Phylum Apicomplexa• Feed off nutrients from the host• Cause serious diseases: Malaria – 5th largest cause of death world wide – 2008: 708,000 and 1,300,00 people died
Reproduction• 3 stages – Schizogony: asexual fission in host cell – Gametogony: begins sexual phase : produces zygote – Sporogony: zygote divides by mitosis creating sporozoites. Sporozoites go on to infect other hosts
Phylum Ciliophora• Have cilia for locomotion• Rigid pellicle and more or less fixed shape• Distinct (cytostome) mouth structure• Dimorphic nuclei: macronucleus and micronucleus
Cilia• Similar to flagella – Much shorter – More of them – Move in coordinated waves – Many ciliates can reverse• Some cilia are specialized – Sweep food into mouth
Digestion and Food• Heterotrophic• Prey on other protists or small animals• Example: Suctorians – Attach to a prey – Secrete mucus to paralyze prey – Cut opening in cell wall and suck out cytoplasm 1. Attack and 2. Maneuver and 3. Gulp ! secure line up
Reproduction• Sexual reproduction – Conjunction: hook together and exchange micronuclei
Often have symbiotic relationships• Digestion• Parasitic: Live in digestive system of humans – Secretes enzyme that causes ulcers• Mutualistic: live in the digestive system and help digest food – Hoofed animals
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