Factors that influence all ecosystems• Abiotic Factors • Biotic Factors – pH – Organisms – Salinity • Predators/prey/ parasites – Dissolved Oxygen – Turbidity – Lat/Long. – Observation of weather – Temperature – Light – Waves/Tides
Coral Reefs• Most biodiverse marine ecosystem – Biodiversity =health of ecosystem
Abiotic Factors• Abiotic factors – Temperature: Tropical – Shallow waters: Availability of light – Wave action – Nutrient poor: why water is pretty blue in color= lacks nutrients• So why is it the most biodiverse ecosystem when there are so few nutrients available? – Symbiosis!!!! What is definition?
Biotic Factors• Mutualistic relationship – Corals = animals – Zooxanthellae: zooplankton • Can’t live without another. Coral give zooxanthellae N, P, and CO2 and zoo give corals carbohydrates
• Forms basis of community that provides food and shelter to all other organisms
Location of World’s Coral Reefs
Types of Reefs• Fringing Reefs- directly borders landmass: – Ex. Cayman Islands• Barriers Reefs: separated from landmass by a lagoon – Ex: Australia and Florida• Atolls: arise from deep water and have lagoon in center – Most in pacific islands
Threats to Reefs1. Coral Bleaching : (take notes) http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=7EGvE5mTxRI&safety_mode=tr ue&persist_safety_mode=1&safe =active2. Disease 1. Black band disease-caused by bacteria 2. White pox- killed 85% of Elkhorn corals in Keys 3. Others3. Human Impact 1. Coastal development = increased runoff (leads to algae blooms like red tides) 2. Activities: snorkeling/diving disturbing corals
What is an estuary?• Partially enclosed body of water that is open to the sea/ocean(salt h2o) and has rivers and streams(freshwater) running into it.
Has characteristics of BOTH marine and Freshwater environments• Marine characteristics • Freshwater characteristics – Salinity – Flow of freshwater – Tides – Flow of sediments – waves (sand, silt, gravel)
What is a salt marsh?• Type of estuary – Located in the intertidal zone between land and salt/brackish water – Dominated by salt tolerant plants – Important for environment • to the food web and export nutrients to water • Provide habitats for birds and other land animals • Serve as nurseries for juvenile fish • Protect coast from erosion from hurricanes
Genus Species-Spartina Alterniflora-Common Name-”SmoothCordgrass”
Genus Species- Spartina patensCommon Name- saltmeadow cordgrass
Genus species- Salicornia virginica Common name-Pickleweed
Genus species- Batis maritima Common Name- turtleweed
Genus- JuncusCommon Name- Rush
Terrestrial Animals- Birds
Intertidal animals-Fiddler Crab
Mangroves• Found in south of St. Augustine to Key West – More stable salinity than salt marsh• 3 genra local to Florida – Rhizophora mangle –red mangle-----prop roots – Avicennia germinans – black mangle--- pneumatophores – Laguncularia racemosa- white mangle• Distinctive by their root system and pods
Ecologically Important• Mangrove leaf little (detritus) forms the basis of the food web.• Supports many commercially important species of fish – Blue crab – Shrimp – Lobster – Sea trout
• Habitats – Prop root and pneumatophores provide shelter – West Coast of Fl. roots become incrusted with coon oyster – East Coast of Fl. Mussels and barnacles are dominant mollusk species. – Other species can find • King Conch • Periwinkle snails • Sea stars brittlestars • Sea squirts
Red MangroveBlack MangroveRed, White, and Black mangrove White Mangroveleaves
Deep Sea• Get Blue Marine Biology Book from shelf – Read pgs. 407-419 and answer SHORT ANSWER questions on pg. 423 # 1-7 • Be sure to restate the question in your answer or write the question since you don’t have these questions to refer back to in your text books.
Other Marine EcosystemsEcosyste What it’s like there Biotic factors Abiotic factors Where you canm find itOpen Receives light Whales, sharks, Sunlight, various Middle ofOcean (photosynthesis can schools of tuna, temps., wide ocean like occur) phytoplankton open spaces, not Atlantic No land nearby many places to between U.S Schools of fish hide and EuropePolar Seas Cold, dominated by ice, Polar bears beluga, Ice, snow, lots of North pole, high variation in seasons orcas, krill, seals, light in summer, south pole (b/c of Earth’s tilt) penguins, little in winter phytoplanktonKelp Dense forest of kelp Kelp, sea otters, sea Rocky coastlines, WashingtonForest growing from seafloor to urchins, mussels, sunlight, cool State (west surface crabs, snails temps. coast above Cali)Rocky Intertidal, harsh habitat Inverts: crabs, Rocks, sand, Maine, Mass.,Shore b/c of wave action, wet barnacles, chitons, waves, sunlight, California, and dry times bet. tides mussels, seaweeds tides Oregon, Washington.
Warm-up- as scientist study and track marine animals, why is it important to understand that the ocean is comprised of many ecosystems?• Case Study 1- Whale Falls – View Video- Answer 3 questions on pgs. 9 – Read pg 10- answer question 12.
Read pgs. 14-16 Marine Sanctuaries and Florida’s Marine Sanctuary• Answer Following: #17 on pg. 15 And Why will it never be possible for a President to “okay” drilling for Oil in the Florida Key’s. Give 2 reasons or examples of why.